This paper presents an empirical investigation to study theeffectsofmultimedia advertisement onbuildingbrandequity. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for multimedia advertisement, which consists of 17 questions and the other one for measuring brandequity. The survey is applied among 384 randomly selected customers who do their daily businesses with banks located in province of Kordestan, Iran. Using Pearson correlation as well as linear regression techniques, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between these two variables. In our survey, word of mouth advertisement seems to have the highest impact onbrandequity followed by having seminars.
initiatives (Ellen et al., 2006; Marin et al., 2016; Barone et al., 2007). The rationale behind these effects is that when thebrand fit is perceived as high, consumers can easily elaborate onthe motives and find the logic for the fit. In these situations, consumers tend to accept that firms’ motivations are driven by more positive aspects, related to their strategy and values (Ellen et. al., 2006; Bigné et al., 2012). By contrast, when consumers perceive low fit they find it difficult to make sense ofthe combined associations ofthe cause with thebrand. In these situations, cognitive dissonance takes place (Marin et al., 2015), in response to which consumers tend to elaborate more suspicious thoughts regarding the motives justifying thebrand-cause agreement (Bigné et al., 2012; Bigné-Alcañiz, 2012; Simmons and Becker- Olsen, 2006). In sum, when consumers are not able to understand the firm’s motivations for establishing thebrand-cause agreement, they tend to raise negative attributions associated with egoistic motives, driven by stakeholders’ interests (Bigné-Alcañiz, 2012; Ellen et al., 2006).
Why would companies undergo such a complex task as building BE, modelling their CBBE and using CE for personalising and improving their brand’s imagery? The response lies in the maturing market which is undergoing new technological improvements every few months. It is vital to state that the new improvements in nanotechnology, as well as 3D printing and breakthroughs in other decisive areas of industry have brought down the costs of creating products and have caused a problem for companies: it has become virtually impossible to differentiate yourself from the competition just through main characteristics and features of a product. It is especially visible in the consumer technology market where daily it becomes harder to distinguish yourself, especially with the breakthrough of budget-high-end productive smartphones such as Moto G and OnePlus 3 are lowering down prices while maintaining high-end specs (The Economist, 2014). This causes companies to come up with promotional strategies, these organisations try to emphasize onthe inventiveness of marcom (marketing communications). The importance ofbuilding strong BE is sensible as never before (Hollensen & Schimmelpfennig, 2013).
Brandequity can be considered to be the difference between overall brand preference and multi-attributed preference based on objectively measured attribute levels 43 and as an overall quality and choice intention 44 . Yoo, Donthu, and Lee 45 demonstrated that the level ofbrandequity is positively related to the extent to which brand quality, brand loyalty, brand associations and awareness are evident in the product (e.g., athlete’s shoes, camera film, and color television sets). High perceived quality would drive a consumer to choose thebrand rather than other competing brands. Therefore, the more brand quality is perceived by consumers, the more brandequity will increase. Brand loyalty makes consumers purchase a brand routinely and resist switching to another brand. Hence, the more consumers are loyal to thebrand, the more brandequity will increase. Brand associations, which result in high brand awareness, are positively related to brandequity because they can be a signal of quality and commitment and help a buyer to consider thebrand at the point of purchase, which leads to a favorable behavior towards thebrand. Yoo and Donthu 46 developed a multidimensional consumer-based brandequity scale. They also suggested that a potential causal order among the dimensions ofbrandequity might exist. Thus, their hierarchy ofeffects model suggests that brand awareness and associations precede perceived quality and that perceived quality precedes brand loyalty 46 (p.12).
Axe’s main target group is constituted by young men, between 14 and 25 years old. For this demographic group, the seduction ofthe opposite sex is almost an obsession, a reality that demonstrates who the individual is, especially among his group of reference. This peer group approval is determinant in the way consumers tend to perceive themselves as men and consequent importance and influence amongst the group. Therefore it is implicit that the intention ofthebrand is to target young consumers who have limited experience with the opposite sex. Thebrand assists in the definition ofthe personality and thebuildingof self-confidence of its customers, based on an idea of sensuality and desire from young women.
According to Dawar and Pillutla (2000) employed the expectations-evidence framework to learn more about the effect of firms' responses to crises on customer-based brandequity. They reported that consumers interpreted firm response based on their past expectations about the firm. Bigne and Blesa (2003) studied the relationships between the manufacturer's market orientation behaviors and the distributor's trust in the association with it. They also analyzed the impact ofthe distributor's trust on his/her satisfaction and presented the results of a study ofthe Spanish ceramic industry. They explained that trust could improve the distributor's satisfaction with the relationship. Siguaw et al. (1998) developed a model of likely influences and empirically studied the consequences of a supplier's market orientation onthe distributor's market orientation and other channel relationship factors. Their results stated that a supplier's market-oriented behaviors directly or indirectly influenced all the channel relationship factors investigated from the distributor's perspective, specifically the distributor's market orientation, trust, cooperative norms, commitment, and satisfaction with financial performance. Farrelly and Quester (2003) investigated the impacts of marketing orientation onthe two most important marketing concepts, namely trust and commitment. Sanzo et al. (2003) tried to verify a model in which a firm's cultural market orientation served as an antecedent for its degree of satisfaction with its main supplier. They confirmed the indirect effect that the buyer firm's cultural market orientation exerts onthe level of satisfaction with its main supplier. Blesa and Bigné (2005) investigated the impact of market orientation on dependence and satisfaction in dyadic relationships. In other words, they examined the impact of manufacturer market orientation on distributor dependence and satisfaction with the relationship with specific reference to the Spanish ceramic tile industry. Their findings suggested that all characteristics of manufacturers’ market orientation had a positive impact on distributors’ satisfaction, except response implementation and the effect of distributor dependence.
Several studies indicate that marketing mix elements are key variables in buildingbrandequity (e.g., Yoo, Donthu and Lee , 2000; Buil, de Chernatony and Martínez, 2013; Çifci et al., 2016). Other studies consider that brand origin (BO), meaning the “region or country where a brand is perceived to belong by its target customers” (Thakor and Kohli, 1996, p. 26), and country of manufacture (COM) (the country where the product is produced) are perceived by consumers as cues of quality (e.g., Hamzaoui-Essoussi, Merunka and Bartikowski, 2011) and are, therefore, sources ofbrandequity. In this vein, the literature renders evidence for the individual influence ofadvertisingonbrandequity and also for the individual effect of images onbrandequity. Yet, the dual influence ofadvertising and images that consumers associate with the country-of-origin (BO and COM are the two dimensions of country-of- origin) as sources ofbrandequity have not previously been analysed. In this context, an interesting research question arises: can the way brands communicate and relate with their consumers be more effective in leveraging their brandequity?
While previous studies discussed the motivations for consumer-brand interactions on social media (e.g. Rohm et al, 2013), or effectsof engagement for brand performance in terms of satisfaction (e.g. Gummerus et al, 2012; Jahn & Kunz, 2012), our study focuses onthe factors that enable engagement with consumers. This paper contributes to the literature by shedding light onthe relationship between masculine and feminine brand personality traits and two specific types of consumer-engagement with brands on Facebook, namely consuming and contributing. Brands with levels of femininity or masculinity will encourage consumer brand- engagement, particularly the most visible and exposing type of engagement (i.e. contributing). Ultimately, this study shows that only this most visible type of engagement, has a significant and positive impact on overall brandequity. Hence, it is critical for brands to stimulate “lurkers” to become active users ofthebrand fan page on Facebook.
We will now make recommendations for both PL and brand managers in order to address those challenges. First, PL’s main disadvantage in the market consists in their absence of identity. As we have identified in our results, the consumers are looking for brands and more specifically, they are looking for values they can connect with. Therefore, building an identity is key in the soft drinks industry. In most cases, PL brands have not been able to create such identity because retailers have made little investments in marketing and in advertising for their PL brands. In contrast, we suggest that PL brands should invest more in advertising in order to communicate onthe quality of their products. Without advertising, the quality improvements that PL have made are simply invisible. Moreover, advertising is key to create the story around thebrand. Advertising would enable PL to build an identity and communicate their values to the consumers, thus ensuring the creation of an emotional link. Lastly, PL are increasingly innovating in the market and as a result, they need to increase the visibility of their products. Several levers can be used. PL brands can use traditional advertising campaigns but they could also use digital marketing, CRM programs or social medias in order to reach their consumers at different moments and increase the number of interactions. In other categories, some PL brands have particularly been successful at creating an identity. As one of our respondents suggest, Lidl has been able to create a true identity around its cream brand Cien. The retail store chose a brand ambassador to give a face and an identity to thebrand and consistently communicated onthe superior value proposition. Such moves could be considered by PL brands, especially through their offer of ecological and natural products. Also, we strongly believe that building an identity also depends on innovation. Indeed, until now, most PL brands merely copied NB products. We believe that PL brands have to speak for themselves and they should launch their own ideas in the market. We consider that PL should launch their products in new developing markets. Indeed, such markets are interesting for their potential but also because few players have entered. The agility of PL brands is especially interesting because it enables them to move faster than big multinational brands and therefore, to sustain their first mover advantage longer. As one respondent suggests, PL brands could target markets such as the ecological, craft or local beverages which are growing extensively in the soft drinks industry. Lastly, PL brands can communicate their identity through a distinctive packaging in order to further differentiate from NB products.
As we can observe from Fig. 1, the proposed study investigates theeffectsof bank advertisement on how customers are encouraged to accept banking services. In other word, the survey looks to find whether advertisement has any meaningful effect onbrandequity, whether brandequity influences on customers’ willingness to accept banking services and whether advertisement impacts on customers’
the product and drive sales (Chevalier and Mayzlin 2006; Chintagunta, Gopinath, and Venkataraman 2010) (as cited by de Vries, Gensler, & Leeflan, 2012). Thus, interactive marketing can nurture relationships between thebrand and the consumer in ways one-way advertising cannot (Blattberg & Deighton, 1991). For interactive marketing through digital channels content creation is key, challenging marketers to produce creative content at the time it is most likely wanted by the customer. Moment marketing (MM) or real-time marketing is a marketing technique that “is done as a reaction to a particular situation, or to what your competitors are doing” (Cambridge Dictionary, 2016) and therefore offers a new approach in attracting and engaging consumers to digital brand content. It can be thought of as a communication strategy for content creation in interactive marketing. Companies like Coca Cola are starting to form teams of employees that are monitoring conversations in social networks. These teams called ‘The Hub’ were transformed into a team of specialists for the global sports event UEFA EURO Cup 2016 called ‘War Room’ where members gathered to follow the matches and respond to relevant moments in real-time on social media. If a fitting moment is spotted the central marketing team of Coca Cola creates content within a short time, which is sent to legal departments and corresponding countries in order to decide for its time-relevance and worthiness of a post. The efficiency in content creation due to the team of employees from different areas of business is just one among many advantages of moment marketing strategies (The Coca-Cola Company, 2016). Little is yet known about what opportunities there are for brands to link offline moments to their online communication onthebrand pages in social networks as well as theeffectsonbrandequity that derive from this communication strategy. Thus, the paper strives to test whether moment marketing has an impact onbrandequity and to what extent thebrand-moment relationship influences existing brand associations or drives differentiated brand associations. This research is specifically interesting for marketers, who thrive to experiment with content creation online as well as intent to gain impacts onbrandequity and online engagement via their content published on Facebook.
The influence ofthe remaining four least relevant features which conceal 32% ofthe model’s knowledge is displayed in Figure 6 for the “Category”, Figure 7 for “Hour”, Figure 8 for “Weekday”, and finally Figure 9 for “Paid”. Regarding “Category”, it is notorious the influence that “Action” has when compared to the remaining two. This “Actions” category stands for special offers and contests, clearly gathering more attention than “Products” and non explicit brand related contents (“Inspiration”). The “Hour” influence graph appears to show that it does not exist any trend associated with the hour that the post is published, although some peaks can be observed. The “Weekday” shows that “Monday” has a local maximum of impact, decreasing along the week until “Friday”, when the global maximum of impact occurs. The study of Cvijikj et al. (2011) also resulted in a global maximum on “Friday”, although they do not report a trend for the “Monday” local maximum and then decrease observed in Figure 8. The result shown for “Paid” is expected: a post for which the company paid for advertising has a larger impact that a post not paid. Nevertheless, this is one ofthe least relevant input features for the model defined, with just 7% of relevance.
To answer this question, we should study the Chi-Squared test and other criteria for the goodness ofthe model fitness. The less is the value of Chi-Square test, the better will be the results because this test shows the difference between the data and the model. The Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) must be over 90%. The less is the value of ARMSE test, the better will be the result, since this reflects the Root Mean Square Error ofthe model. The output ofthe program indicates the goodness-of-fit for structural equation model (the ratio of χ to df is less than 3). Therefore, the value of χ is low and good. The results obtained from confirmatory factor analysis ofbrandequity show that ARMSE was 0.08 and it is less than the critical limit and is equal to 0.046 and the confirmatory factor analysis of Iranian cultural factors showed that ARMSE was 0.08, which is less than the critical limit and equal to 0.056. The above-mentioned indexes indicate the goodness-of-fit for structural equation model ofthe research. According to the results gained from confirmatory factor analysis, the resultant coefficients are significant because their statistical significance test values are bigger than 1.96 and lower than -1.96. Thus, we can conclude that the 0 hypothesis is rejected, and in other terms, the observed data are to a great deal consistent with the conceptual model ofthe study.
Experts predict a significant growth of mobile advertising market in the coming years in Algeria that remains largely under-exploited. In fact, it is a perfect tool to establish a closer relationship between thebrand and the consumer. Nevertheless, the understanding ofthe effectiveness of this specific form of communication is still in its infancy. After a short review ofthe literature on mobile advertising and its effectson consumer attitudes, we tested the influence of attitude towards mobile advertisingonthe attitudes ofthe Algerian consumer. The results obtained among a sample of 150 students using a regression analysis, showed firstly, the existence of a direct positive link between Ab and PI, and secondly, confirm our conclusions about the direct role of Ab on IP and support the existing literature. Thus, a consumer who has a positive attitude towards a brand is more likely, for example, first to buy the products offered by this brand, second, to consume again the product and third, recommend it to his friends. Furthermore, the results show that attitude towards mobile advertising has no influence onthe attitude toward thebrand and purchase intention. One explanation for this may be sought in the work onthe intrusiveness of mobile advertising. Researchers agree onthe fact that individuals are increasingly anxious to preserve their privacy. Mobile advertising therefore can present several risks of rejection. Hence, the need for a precise segmentation by firms. Brands must also build a relationship with their customers based on loyal clients in order to have permissions to send messages or applica- tions through their mobile.
Studies have proved that structure ofthe chromium cast iron greatly depends onthe additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect onthe mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
Nickel based superalloys castings are produced by investment casting methods which are constantly improved . Nickel superalloys are used for critical elements ofthe aircraft engines (so called „Flight safety parts” - FSP). They are subject of exceptional requirements in the production and control respects. These elements have to fulfil a lot of requirements ofthe consumer standards dealing with the chemical composition and microstructure – and first of all the grain size, the microstructure of matrix, the type and relative volume of carbides, porosity and the surface roughness [2-5]. Properties of casted blades made of
The presented results from a series of analyses indicate lack of dependence of certain sensitivity analysis parameters. In case of increasing the parameter r (the number the matrix B* is generated) obtaining identical results despite increasing r, may be explained as converging ofthe results to a certain fixed value. It should be noticed that increase ofthe number r causes increase ofthe number of required computer simulations. Therefore it is significant to obtain credible results for the smallest r number possible.
The above mentioned alloys were fabricated from the following starting materials (Table 1): aluminium in grade AR1 (99,96% Al), silicon of 98,5% purity (rest Fe and other elements), copper (99, 98% Cu), nickel (99, 98% Ni) and cast AG10 alloy (about 10 wt.% Mg). Melts were conducted in a Leybold-Heraeus IS5/III induction furnace with crucible of 0,7kg capacity made from magnesite refractory material. A protective coating of 2NaF and KCl was used. When the furnace temperature of ~ 820 o C had been reached, the melt was subjected to refining treatment with Rafglin-3 in an amount of 0,3 wt.%, followed by modification with Cu-P (~9,95%P). The temperature of pouring was controlled by a NiCr-NiAl TP-202K-800-1 thermocouple immersed in the bath of molten metal.
Both Scopus and WoK produce a ranking list per subject onthe journals indexed by each of them, namely, the SCImago and the Journal Citation Report, with the ranks being defined by criteria and objective metrics based on citation counting, the SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) and the Impact Factor (IF), respectively (Kianifar et al., 2014). Although citation- based ratings are widely used, several studies criticize the growing importance attributed to them in scholarly literature, such as the short timeframe accountable and the fact that it excludes several non-indexed but relevant sources such as books (Alberts, 2013; Paulus et al., 2015; Simons, 2008). Mckercher et al. (2006) accounted for such limitations and devoted their study to the definition of two comprehensive journal rankings, one for tourism and another for hospitality. Their study is considered a reference concerning tourism and hospitality, as it has been cited 233 times according to GS and has been used as a baseline for posterior literature analyses (e.g., Hung and Law, 2011). Recent studies suggest taking into account expert judgment for complementing citation-based ratings (e.g., Hall and Page, 2015). For the present analysis, this latter approach was adopted. Table 2 displays a list of ten top rated journals according to: WoK, SCImago, and Mckercher et al. (2006) ranking.