Top PDF Effects of trees and nitrogen supply on the soil microbiological attributes on integrated crop-livestock systems

Effects of trees and nitrogen supply on the soil microbiological attributes on integrated crop-livestock systems

Effects of trees and nitrogen supply on the soil microbiological attributes on integrated crop-livestock systems

abundance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to a greater degree than did the conventional farming systems. However, the same authors emphasized that such a response could vary, principally because of climate variations, management techniques and a variety of possible combinations in such associations (e.g., tree arrangements and tree species, tree density and age, etc.). The association of trees with pastures in general appears to induce a positive change in the soil quality through higher chances for nutrient cycling (Batista et al., 2018). However, microclimate alterations within the system and therefore water availability, together with the competition between trees and intercropping for light and nutrients may influence the quantity and quality of the organic residues deposited on the soil, besides their spatial distribution and hence, the resultant microbiological attributes. Thus, data on the manner in which the tree systems and such types of more sustainable production practices affect the microbial community and populations like AMF continue to be required (Ferreira et al., 2012).
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Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO 2 ), metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.
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Dynamics of soil microbiological attributes under integrated production systems, continuous pasture, and native cerrado

Dynamics of soil microbiological attributes under integrated production systems, continuous pasture, and native cerrado

Muniz et al. (2011) reported that the recovery of degraded pastures by implementing ICLS on Oxisols increased microbial biomass carbon (MBC), even when compared with native cerrado (Brazilian savanna vegetation). Similarly, Frazão et al. (2010) showed that MBC and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) values may be higher or equivalent to those of native cerrado, in a Typic Quartzipsamment both under cultivated pasture [Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D.Webster] and ICLS. Moreover, the practice of annual crops and pasture grasses in the same area (ICLS) can promote root development and soil organic carbon, providing favorable conditions for SMB (Loss et al., 2012). In this context, the ICLFS may further increase soil organic carbon and microbial biomass, improving soil quality. However, due to the interactions of animal husbandry with annual crops and forest species, this system is dynamic and complex, requiring more study.
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EDAPHIC ATTRIBUTES OF A CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM IN THE CERRADO BIOME

EDAPHIC ATTRIBUTES OF A CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM IN THE CERRADO BIOME

ABSTRACT - A significant increase in the use of integrated farming systems have been observed in the Brazilian Cerrado, such as crop-livestock integration (CLI), which combined with the no-tillage system (NTS) have shown significant influence on soil properties. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of a CLI system on the chemical, physical and microbiological soil characteristics, in an area in the Cerrado biome, Montividiu, State of Goias, Brazil. The soil fertility, remaining phosphorus (Prem), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), aggregate stability (geometric mean diameter – GMD), microbial respiration (C-CO 2 ) and easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) were evaluated. Soil
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EFFECTS OF NICKEL AND NITROGEN SOIL FERTILIZATION ON LETTUCE GROWTH AND UREASE ACTIVITY

EFFECTS OF NICKEL AND NITROGEN SOIL FERTILIZATION ON LETTUCE GROWTH AND UREASE ACTIVITY

from the soil. Here, the Ni concentrations extracted with Mehlich-3 and DTPA increased linearly as a function of the Ni applied to soil (Table 3). The Mehlich-3 approach recovered more Ni than DTPA (Table 3) because DTPA (calcium chloride and triethanolamine) removes Ni only by forming complexes, whereas Mehlich-3 (acetic acid, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, ammonium fluoride and EDTA) additionally removes Ni by exchange reactions. The efficiency of Ni-extraction methods for the analysis of soil Ni availability to plants on a routine basis is still a matter of study. The efficiency of Mehlich-3 for the determination of soil Ni availability for tobacco (Mulchi et al., 1991), common bean (Abreu et al., 1995), sorghum (Revoredo & Mello, 2006), and lettuce and common bean (Fontes et al., 2008) has been reported. For DTPA soil extraction, the Ni recovered from soil correlated with Ni in corn leaves (Oliveira, 1995) and with Ni in the leaves and grains of common bean (Berton et al., 2006). Here, the Ni concentrations recovered by DTPA and M-3 were correlated with the Ni concentrations and contents in lettuce shoots (Table 5), indicating the efficiency of these extractors for Ni analysis in the Red-Yellow Latosol studied.
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Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

Soil physical and microbiological attributes cultivated with the common bean under two management systems

A similar trend was observed for the metabolic quotient, with higher values in soil under conventional tillage at depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m for the 2006/07 season, and at all depths for 2007/08. These results are in agreement with Silva et al. (2007) and Cunha et al. (2011). High values for the metabolic quotient demonstrate the imbalance of agricultural areas (MOURA; LACERDA; RAMOS, 2013), as in the case of plots subjected to conventional tillage. This type of management promotes disruption of the soil aggregates, increasing the mineralisation of the organic matter content and increasing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (CARNEIRO et al., 2009). Similar results were found by Franchini et al. (2007), who, in long-term trials in Paraná, observed the lower metabolic rate in soil under direct seeding contribute to a greater accumulation of carbon in the soil.
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Cover plants with potential use for crop‑livestock integrated systems in the Cerrado region

Cover plants with potential use for crop‑livestock integrated systems in the Cerrado region

Abstract – The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose concentrations in the decomposition process of cover plant residues with potential use in no-tillage with corn, for crop-livestock integrated system, in the Cerrado region. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cerrados, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil in a split plot experimental design. The plots were represented by the plant species and the subplots by harvesting times, with three replicates. The cover plants Urochloa ruziziensis, Canavalia brasiliensis, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus, Sorghum bicolor were evaluated together with spontaneous plants in the fallow. Cover plants with lower lignin concentrations and, consequently, higher residue decomposition such as C. brasiliensis and U. ruziziensis promoted higher corn yield. High concentrations of lignin inhibit plant residue decomposition and this is favorable for the soil cover. Lower concentrations of lignin result in accelerated plant decomposition, more efficient nutrient cycling, and higher corn yield.
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INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST SYSTEM FOR SHEEPS AND GOATS

INTEGRATED CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST SYSTEM FOR SHEEPS AND GOATS

4. In order to determine the water infiltration rate in the soil, in each soil management system, 3 samples were taken, before and after the iLPF installation. The ring infiltrator method was used, consisting of two concentric rings, with a diameter of 30 cm and 50 cm, and a height of 35 cm (both are fixed to the ground up to approximately 5 cm deep). The reading interval was two minutes during two hours of evaluation.

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Soil physical and biological properties in an integrated crop-livestock system in the Brazilian Cerrado

Soil physical and biological properties in an integrated crop-livestock system in the Brazilian Cerrado

The soil management systems consisted of: ICLS with 0.25 m grazing height; ICLS with 0.35 m grazing height, predefined as the adequate grazing height for soil physical properties (Bonetti et al., 2015); ICLS with 0.45 m grazing height; and nongrazed area (NG), with brachiaria as cover crop. Each experimental plot had a 2.0 ha area, in a randomized block design in a split- plot arrangement, considering the treatments as the main plot, and the seasons as the split plots, with three replicates. The winter grazing height was controlled by the entry and exit of animals, and it was monitored every 14 days with a sward stick (Jenquip, model SS400M, Auckland, New Zealand), based on the methodology of Barthram (1985), with the determination of 50 points per plot. Grazing was performed by female cattle with an average of 450 kg live weight, beginning in July of each year, when forage reached 4,000 kg ha -1 mean
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Implicações do sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob os atributos físicos do solo / Implications of integrated crop-livestock system under physical soil attributes

Implicações do sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob os atributos físicos do solo / Implications of integrated crop-livestock system under physical soil attributes

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n. 7, p.47638-47651 jul. 2020 . ISSN 2525-8761 The adoption of integrated agricultural production systems has ability to improve physical, chemical, and biological soil conditions, increase cycling and efficiency of use of nutrients, reduce production costs, increase income for producer and enable recovery of areas with degraded pastures (Bortolini et al. 2013, Diel et al. 2014, Kunrath et al. 2015). There are countless benefits provided by integrated crop-livestock system (SILP) as an alternative to replace unsustainable systems and its adoption in agricultural areas in Brazil has been increasing (Quintino et al. 2016).
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Aggregation, carbon, and total soil nitrogen in crop-livestock-forest integration in the Eastern Amazon

Aggregation, carbon, and total soil nitrogen in crop-livestock-forest integration in the Eastern Amazon

Sustainable agricultural production systems can improve physical attributes of soil as well as increase carbon and nitrogen stocks in soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the stability of soil aggregates and contents and stocks of carbon and nitrogen after the conversion of native forest to crop-livestock-forest integration systems in the region of Western Pará. Soil samples from five management systems (including a control) were collected at three depths in a randomized block design, with five replications. The stability of the aggregates, soil density, particle density, and total soil porosity, as well as total carbon and nitrogen and their respective stocks were evaluated. The native forest had the highest percentages of macroaggregates, followed by the integration system with African mahogany. At a depth of 0-0.10 m, the contents and stocks of carbon were higher in the agricultural area and in the integration system with cumaru, whereas nitrogen contents and stocks were higher in the native forest, followed by the integration systems with mahogany and cumaru. Compared to the other systems, the pasture area stored more carbon at depths of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m.
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Soil moisture and soybean physiology affected by drought in an integrated crop‑livestock system

Soil moisture and soybean physiology affected by drought in an integrated crop‑livestock system

In areas where livestock needs to be integrated with crops, that is, where traditional grain cropping is adopted without livestock exploration (Anghinoni et al., 2013), the impacts of winter grazing on summer crop performance are not clearly established, especially for soybean. According to Martins et al. (2014a), the yield differences between areas with and without grazing occur mainly in summer seasons affected by drought, with rainfall above the climatological normal, when grazed areas result in lower yields. A plausible explanation for this behavior might be found in soil and plant water-related properties and in soybean physiology, since a poor crop establishment and a higher weed pressure were observed in areas where intensive grazing was performed before soybean sowing (Kunrath et al., 2015). However, due to the difficulty in measuring plant water status in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (Whitmore & Whalley, 2009), this kind of approach is still scarce, particularly regarding ICL systems.
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Variability of physical properties of soil and rice grown under cover crops in crop-livestock integrated system

Variability of physical properties of soil and rice grown under cover crops in crop-livestock integrated system

PC1 shows that the highest GYs were observed in the most compacted areas while the incidence of grain stain was higher in less compacted areas. The presence of macropores is important for soil aeration, but it also contributes to the reduced volume of micropores and, thus, of retained water. The lower micropore volume accentuated the problem caused by water stress, which may explain the negative correlation between GY and MA, and positive with MI. Areas with higher MI held higher water volume in the soil, allowing higher productivity due to the occurrence of the Indian summer during the rice flowering stage (Figure 2).
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Modeling the individual height and volume of two integrated crop-livestock-forest systems of Eucalyptus spp. in the Brazilian Savannah

Modeling the individual height and volume of two integrated crop-livestock-forest systems of Eucalyptus spp. in the Brazilian Savannah

According to Oliveira, Macedo, Venturin, and Higashikawa (2009), the production capacity of a small farm is achieved at first by planting with denser spacing compared with broader plantings. However, the initial differences of production tend to decrease over the years, although they become similar when the plants with more space completely use the available natural resources, which results in equivalent production per area for all spacings of the planting (Berger, Schneider, Finger, & Haselein, 2002). Therefore, because of the huge spacings between eucalyptus rows in the present study, the production capacity of small farms has not yet been reached, which is highlighted by the similarity of wood productivity per tree between treatments.
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Binary programming for the simulation of crop rotation and animal transit in an integrated crop-livestock system

Binary programming for the simulation of crop rotation and animal transit in an integrated crop-livestock system

It should be noted that the symbol * indicates that the animal reached the necessary weight for slaughter. In relation to the ‘weights’, and as mentioned above, it is possible to establish a physiological criterion based on the adaptation and development of each crop in a given area and a particular period, from which values between zero and one can be allocated to each crop, indicating the percentage advantage of that crop in relation to the other crops when it is grown in that plot and during that period. Table 2 shows which animals have a live weight below that for slaughter; a value of one (1) indicates that the live weight of the animal is below that for slaughter, and a value of zero (0) indicates that the animal has reached the weight for slaughter.
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Production and nutritive value of pastures in integrated livestock production systems: shading and management effects

Production and nutritive value of pastures in integrated livestock production systems: shading and management effects

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the production characteristics of pastures in inte- grated livestock production systems. For that, an experiment was carried out in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from 2013 to 2015. Forage development, production and nutritive value were evaluated in five beef cattle production systems: extensive continuous stocking (Urochloa decumbens) = EXT; intensive = INT; crop-livestock = iCL; livestock-forest = iLF and crop-livestock-forest = iCLF. Rotational stocking pastures in INT, iCL, iLF and iCLF systems were established with Urochloa brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. In iCL and iCLF, pastures were renovated by resowing the grass simulta- neously with corn. In iLF and iCLF, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis clone GG100) was planted in Apr 2011 in single rows with 15 × 2 m spacing. In the 2013/2014 crop season, INT, iCL, and iCLF pastures were more productive than in iLF and EXT. Shading increase in the 2014/2015 season reduced pasture production in iLF and iCLF, compared with INT and iCL, but increased crude protein content and digestibility. In the shaded systems, pasture production was affected by proximity to trees, mainly due to reductions in solar radiation transmission. The principal component analyses showed that forage accumulation and leaf area index were associated with the position in the middle of the inter-row, and nutritive value was associated with the position at 1.5 m from the trees. In iCLF, solar radiation transmission greater than 60 % maintained forage accumulation similar to iCL, while in iLF, it reduced forage accumulation, evidencing that pasture renovation minimized shading effects in these systems.
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Organic and Nitrogen Fertilization of Soil under ‘Syrah’ Grapevine: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Nitrate Concentration

Organic and Nitrogen Fertilization of Soil under ‘Syrah’ Grapevine: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Nitrate Concentration

ABSTRACT: Viticulture is an activity of great social and economic importance in the lower-middle region of the São Francisco River valley in northeastern Brazil. In this region, the fertility of soils under vineyards is generally poor. To assess the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilization on chemical properties and nitrate concentrations in an Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Typic Plinthustalf), a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco, on Syrah grapevines. Treatments consisted of two rates of organic fertilizer (0 and 30 m 3 ha -1 ) and five N rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg ha -1 ), in a randomized block design arranged in split plots, with five replications. The organic fertilizer levels represented the main plots and the N levels, the subplots. The source of N was urea and the source of organic fertilizer was goat manure. Irrigation was applied through a drip system and N by fertigation. At the end of the third growing season, soil chemical properties were determined and nitrate concentration in the soil solution (extracted by porous cups) was determined. Organic fertilization increased organic matter, pH, EC, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, sum of bases, base saturation, and CEC, but decreased exchangeable Cu concentration in the soil by complexation of Cu in the organic matter. Organic fertilization raised the nitrate concentration in the 0.20-0.40 m soil layer, making it leachable. Nitrate concentration in the soil increased as N rates increased, up to more than 300 mg kg -1 in
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Effects of glyphosate-resistant crop cultivation on soil and water quality - Portal Embrapa

Effects of glyphosate-resistant crop cultivation on soil and water quality - Portal Embrapa

We have provided an abbreviated survey of the potential impacts (risks and benefits) of GRCs on soil and water quality. Clearly, we and many of the authors who have written on this topic empha- size that risks and benefits of any GRC are very geography and time dependent. For example, increasing GR weeds in GRCs are changing how farmers use these crops, and in most cases reduc- ing the environmental benefits of GRC systems. Glyphosate is more environmentally and toxicologically benign than many of the herbicides that it replaces. Its effects on soil and water are relatively small. Soil erosion caused by tillage results in long-term environmental damage. Being a broad-spectrum, foliarly applied herbicide, with little or no activity in soil, glyphosate is highly com- patible with reduced- or no-tillage agriculture and has contributed to the adoption of these practices in the Western Hemisphere. This contribution to environmental quality by GRCs is perhaps the most significant one. Numerous regulatory tests of glyphosate and glyphosate products, using rigorous protocols meeting inter- national standards, as well as product post-marketing surveillance, have failed to reveal any effects that could help substantiate any claims of adverse health and environmental outcomes. 102
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The effects of warming and nitrogen addition on soil nitrogen cycling in a temperate grassland, northeastern China.

The effects of warming and nitrogen addition on soil nitrogen cycling in a temperate grassland, northeastern China.

Seasonal mean values used in this study were calculated from the monthly mean values, which were first averaged from all measurements in the same month. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the temporal (inter- or intra-annual) variations and the effects of warming and N addition on soil N mineralization, soil temperature, soil water content, soil total PLFAs, fungal PLFAs, B: F, MBN, AN, C: N, and above- and belowground plant N content. Between-subject effects were evaluated as warming, N addition, and their interactions, and within-subject effects were year (or measuring times within season) and its interactions with warming or N addition. Stepwise multiple linear analyses were used to determine the relationships of soil NMR (or soil NNR) with control factors. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS (SPSS 11.0 for windows, USA).
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Phosphorus Fractions in Soil with Organic and Mineral Fertilization in Integrated Crop-Livestock System

Phosphorus Fractions in Soil with Organic and Mineral Fertilization in Integrated Crop-Livestock System

four replicates. The treatments consisted of three organic fertilizers (poultry litter, pig slurry, and compost) and two mineral fertilizers (M1, equivalent to pig slurry; and M2, equivalent to poultry litter) in interaction with three application rates, corresponding to 75, 100, and 150 % of the fertilizer recommendation for the crop of interest and a control (with no fertilizer). Soil sampling was performed in the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m layers for determination of the phosphorus fractions. Successive use of organic or mineral fertilizers for six years in the iCL system considerably raises the labile and moderately labile P fractions up to the 0.20 m depth and, with less intensity, raises the non-labile fractions up to the 0.10 m depth. The soil P increase associated with fertilizer input raises soybean and corn yields, and it does not exceed the critical P limit according to local environmental legislation.
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