Top PDF Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

Genetic variation and environmental effects on beta‑conglycinin and glycinin content in Brazilian soybean cultivars

Genetic variation and environmental effects on beta‑conglycinin and glycinin content in Brazilian soybean cultivars

Abstract – The objective of this work was to determine genetic and environmental effects on beta-conglycinin and glycinin content in Brazilian soybean cultivars. The concentrations of these protein fractions were analyzed by scanning densitometry after electrophoresis, in 90 Brazilian soybean cultivars sown in Ponta Grossa, PR, in 2001. The effects of the sowing location were determined in the cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista), sown in 16 locations of Goiás and Minas Gerais states (Central Brazil), and in the cultivar IAS 5, sown in 12 locations of Paraná and São Paulo states (Southern Brazil), in 2002 soybean season. A significant variability for beta‑conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S) protein fractions ratio was observed among the 90 Brazilian soybean cultivars. 'MS/BRS 169' (Bacuri) and 'BR-8' (Pelotas) presented the highest and the lowest 11S/7S ratios (2.76 and 1.17, respectively). Beta-conglycinin protein fractions presented more variability than glycinin protein fractions. Grouping test classified 7S proteins in seven groups, 11S proteins in four groups, and protein fraction ratios (11S/7S) in nine groups. Significant effect of sowing locations was also observed on protein fractions contents. There is a good possibility of breeding for individual protein fractions, and their subunits, without affecting protein content.
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Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality

Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality

study indicating the vitamin E content of soybean acid oil (SAO). Certain types of oil by-products, such as acid oils, are of interest for the livestock industry due to their potential use as alternative energetic sources for feed manufacturing. Soybean acid oil is dark brown colored and a product of soybean oil refinement, a process which removes free fatty acids, phosphatides and gums, and other substances (Mounts 1981), which may account for 75 to 95% of the fatty acids present in the native oils (Freitas et al. 2005). It is also rich in yellow pigments (910 mg kg -1 of xanthophyll) and can therefore improve skin pigmentation of broilers on a sorghum-based diet, equivalent to 48% of the value obtained with synthetic pigments when included at a level of 3.9% in the feed formulation (Pardio et al. 2001).
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Effects of fertiliser practices on the growth and quality of two table grape cultivars: 'Cardinal' and 'D. Maria'.

Effects of fertiliser practices on the growth and quality of two table grape cultivars: 'Cardinal' and 'D. Maria'.

There are about 10 million hectares of vineyards in the world, most of which (80 %) producing grapes for wine. They are located on various types of soils in zones with Mediterranean, temperate or sub-tropical climates. Table grapes make an important contribution to the agriculture in southern Portugal, representing 30% of the total vineyard production (G.P.P.A.A., 2001), but there is little information on the relationships between nutrients, yield and quality in these cultivars. The climatic conditions of this region - mild winters together with high temperatures and radiation in the growing season - encourage the production of table grapes. In recent years, farmers began to implement fertigation programmes, because the application of nutrients through irrigation water allows for flexible fertiliser programmes with correct amounts of nutrients applied at appropriate times. Excessive fertilisation may increase ground water pollution and labour costs, and particularly for N results in soft weedy growth and bad colouration of the grapes. Though recommendations for the fertilisation of vineyards are available (INIA, 2000), there is a wide range of fertiliser programmes in use among farmers.
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Ruixue MA1 , Tian GAD1 , Lei SDNG1 , Lin ZHANG1 , Yun JIANG

Ruixue MA1 , Tian GAD1 , Lei SDNG1 , Lin ZHANG1 , Yun JIANG

The effects of oil-water mixed frying (DWF) and pure-oil frying (PDF) on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of PDF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by DWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05) values were observed in the last three days in the case of DWF than PDF. Meanwhile, DWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that DWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by PDF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of DWF. In conclusion, DWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.
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Epistatic effects on grain yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]

Epistatic effects on grain yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill]

In soybean breeding programs [Glycine max (L.) Mer- rill], inbred lines are developed in a continuous process to release new cultivars, which is one of the strategies that has contributed most to increase yield and sustainability in modern agriculture. Most of the traits with an economic impact on the different species are quantitative. Genetic studies are usually based on a simplified model that defines the phenotypic value as a result of the genotypic plus the environmental effect. Johannsen was the first to demon- strate that the observed phenotypic variation results from the combined effect of genetic variation and environmental variation (Allard 1971), so that the environmental effect always represents an uncertainty factor in the estimation of genetic parameters (Ramalho et al. 2000).
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EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC AND EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM IN CROATIA

EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC AND EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM IN CROATIA

Production of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in The Republic of Croatia has had increased both in planted area and yields, particularly in recent years. The production area expansion of soybean as a crop and increased yield were a result of genetic improvements in modern cultivars as well as advances in cultural practices and crop management. Genetically improved cultivars are a result of long-term, continual and intensive breeding work on soybean. The Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia) has established a soybean breeding program, which has played a fundamental role in this expansion and made very significant contributions to the introduction, development and improvement of soybean production in Croatia. Through its activities, the program has continued to develop high- yielding and high-quality cultivars with high tolerance of the principal diseases, resistance to lodging and pod shattering as well as adaptability to different agroecological conditions of the local soybean production regions (Vratarić and Sudarić, 2000). The genetic improvements of cultivars in recent years have been accomplished mainly through the use of conventional breeding methods in a series of breeding cycles. Each cycle begins with the selection of parents to be used to create segregating populations. Orf et al. (2004) suggested that the parental selection depends on many factors, including the trait(s) of interest, the purpose of the cross, the relative importance of characters other than yield, the ancestry of the lines, and the resources and time available. Parents can be selected on the basis of comparative evaluation per se, by test cross evaluation, or experience of the breeders. In many cases, _______________________________________
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Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species. Keys words: Echinochloa crus-galli, lowlands, replacement series,
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Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

Analysis of combining ability in soybean cultivars

According to Cruz et al. (1987), the best hybrid combinations are those with the most favorable estimates for the SCA effects that have at least one parent with the most favorable GCA effect for the target trait. According to Cruz and Vencovsky (1989), the best hybrid is result of a cross between parent (a) selected based on GCA and parent (b), whose frequency of favorable alleles is superior to the mean population frequency and considerably divergent from parent (a). Crosses of two parents with high general ability do however not necessarily generate the best hybrid.
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Agronomic performance of soybean cultivars in an agroforestry system

Agronomic performance of soybean cultivars in an agroforestry system

system may enhance its sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate the yield components, yield and grain quality of soybean cultivars, in an agroforestry system containing Eucalyptus grandis. A complete randomized block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with three replications, was used. Four soybean cultivars were allocated into the plots (BRS 359 RR, BRS 360 RR, BMX Potência RR and NA 5909 RR). The subplots consisted of five positions between the rows of E. grandis (spaced in 28 m - close to the trees on the east and west sides, intermediate position on the east and west sides and at the center of the row). The yield components and soybean grain yield reduce significantly the closer the plants are seeded to the rows of E. grandis. However, the oil and protein contents in soybean grains are not influenced by the position between rows, regardless of the cultivar. Among all evaluated cultivars, NA 5909 RR presents the best agronomic performance in the agroforestry system containing eucalyptus.
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Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants

Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants

ABSTRACT - Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA). The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.
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EFFECTS OF DRYING AIR TEMPERATURE AND GRAIN INITIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON SOYBEAN QUALITY (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL)

EFFECTS OF DRYING AIR TEMPERATURE AND GRAIN INITIAL MOISTURE CONTENT ON SOYBEAN QUALITY (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL)

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature and initial moisture content on volume shrinkage, physical quality and oil extraction yield of soybean grains. The grains used in this experiment were harvested at two distinct moisture levels of 19 and 25%. Then, these grains were taken to dryness at three different air temperatures of 75 °C, 90 °C and 105 °C, in a forced circulation convection oven of the air. The results showed a drying time reduction with increasing air temperatures. Regarding volume shrinkage, moisture content reductions influenced grain volume and the Rahman's model was the one that best fit the data. Moreover, the higher the air temperature, the greater the effects on soybean grain shrinkage and physical quality. By grain volume reduction effected on oil yield, major impacts were observed when assessing grain initial moisture content were higher. Furthermore, the temperature of 105°C and an initial moisture content of 25% were the factors that most affected soybean grain quality, however not affecting oil extraction yield.
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EFFECTS OF ISOFLAVONES ON BEANY FLAVOR AND ASTRINGENCY OF SOYMILK AND COOKED WHOLE SOYBEAN GRAINS1

EFFECTS OF ISOFLAVONES ON BEANY FLAVOR AND ASTRINGENCY OF SOYMILK AND COOKED WHOLE SOYBEAN GRAINS1

Processing techniques affect the type and level of isoflavones remaining in the final product. Traditional fermented products (miso, tempeh) contain high levels of daidzein and genistein (aglucones), while non fermented products, like dry grains, soymilk, soyflour, and tofu retain high con- centrations of the unhydrolysed daidzin and genistin (Coward et al., 1993; Wang & Murphy, 1994). Bitterness and astringency of soybean are caused by saponins and isoflavones, respectively (Huang et al., 1981; Okubo et al., 1992). The intensity of off-flavor in soymilk increases as the concentration of genistein and daidzein increases due to hydro- lytic action of β-glucosidase on glucosidic isoflavone precursors (Matsuura et al.,1989). Boiling whole soybeans in a 0.25% NaHCO 3 solution effectively
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Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

Potato cultivars with purple flesh represent an efficient and natural source of antioxidants, this vegetable having high content in polyphenols (especially anthocyanin pigments). The research goal of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin and polyphenols content of several Romanian potato varieties (Albastru- Violet de Gălănești and Christian) and the effects of these potatoes (add to dough in different proportions) on several bread quality indicators. The bread quality depends on physical and chemical properties and on several signs like: flavor and taste, ext ernal appearance, crumb porosity and texture, bread’s volume. In this research experiment, beside the total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, the analysis performed on bread (prepared using different potatoes addition 5%, 15% and 30%) were sensorial and physic chemical analysis (product volume, crumb porosity, height/diameter ratio, moist and acidity). Experimental results indicated that 15% purple potato cultivar added on the dough was the most indicate proportion to be used in bread processing.
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Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

seeds weight, samples were taken randomly from harvested seeds of each subplot, the samples were weighed and the mean weight was obtained. On the other hand, weed population and percent ground cover were measured four weeks after emergence using 0.1 m 2 quadrant at six random positions per plot, two days before the scheduled weeding. 2.5 Performance of Chisel Plow and Disc Harrow Technical performance was conducted to compare chisel plow, the newly introduced implement in the irrigated schemes, and the disc harrow the widely used in the Gezira scheme, the comparison included measurement of draft, travel reduction (slippage), drawbar power determination, measurements of actual field capacities and efficiencies, and measurement of fuel consumption rates. For draft measurement, two tractors with the same horse-power were used as a test and auxiliary to estimate draft requirement for the chisel and the tandem disc harrow using hydraulic dynamometer at the assigned depths (10 cm and 20 cm), the measurements were performed according to Bukhari et al.
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Integrated method for adaptability and phenotypic stability analysis

Integrated method for adaptability and phenotypic stability analysis

Figure 1 shows that ideotype IV (low stability and low adaptability) is at the beginning of the arrow from left to right and from bottom to top, in the same direction, and ideotype I (maximal adaptability and stability) is at the end point of the arrow, with the intermediary ideotype V (high phenotypic stability). The ideotypes II (maximal adaptability to environments favorable to unfavorable environments and minimal) and VI (maximal adaptability to environments favorable and unfavorable environments the mean) represent the upper side of the arrow. The ideotypes VII (maximal adaptability to unfavorable environments and mean in favorable environments) and III (maximal adaptability to unfavorable environments and minimal to favorable environments) are on the lower side of the arrow. Nascimento et al. (2009) obtained a different arrangement, this is possible because the arrangement can vary according to the data, since the ideotypes are established in agreement with the group of genotypes assessed and the environments of evaluation.
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Quality control of cast brake discs

Quality control of cast brake discs

Permanent and high quality products are essential for modern automotive industry. Investigations for improvement quality of vehicles elements are right materials selection and analysis of abrasive wear. Therefore, we can increase wear resistance materials and eliminate factors accelerating wear resistance. Brake disc operates in especially hard condition work. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction) as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1].

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Influence of different cultivars on oil quality and chemical characteristics of avocado fruit

Influence of different cultivars on oil quality and chemical characteristics of avocado fruit

The avocado oil, which is similar in composition to olive oil, is highly digestible and consists mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, predominantly oleic acid (Gómez-López, 1998, 1999), which contributes to the consistency and the special taste of the fruit (Sinyinda & Gramshaw, 1998). The avocado oil content is used as a parameter to evaluate the maturation stage of the fruit for harvest purposes (Donadio, 1995). For this reason, the lipid fraction of the avocado fruit has been studied by several authors, focusing on the composition of its fatty acids (Bora et al., 2001; Frega et al., 1990; Freitas et al., 1993; Martinez Nieto et al., 1988; Ratovohery  et  al., 1988; Soares  et  al., 1991; Southwell  et  al., 1990). Gómez-López (2002) characterized the Collinson and Barker cultivars in terms of their high oil content (112.3 to 188.0 g/kg of pulp). Although several authors (Bora et al., 2001; Brasil, 1971; Gómez-López, 2002; Lozano et al., 1993; Martinez Nieto et al., 1988; Medina, 1980; Morton, 1987; Turatti & Canto, 1985) have studied the chemical composition of avocado pulp, only a few of them reported the oil and moisture content of the avocado pulp of the Fortuna (Brasil, 1971; Medina, 1980), Collinson (Brasil, 1971; Medina, 1980; Morton, 1987; Gómez- López, 2002) and Barker (Medina, 1980; Turatti & Canto, 1985; Gómez-López, 2002) cultivars. Moreover, all of these researchers studied the same compositional characteristics, such as proteins, fibers, ash, and carbohydrates of the avocado pulp of the Fortuna, Collinson, and Barker cultivars, and in their evaluation of lipid quality, only a very few fatty acids were reported. These studies focused on the pulp, while the seeds, which account for 100 to 300 g/kg of the fruit (Bora et al., 2001) and the peel, 50 to 220 g/kg (Freitas et al., 1993), have not been studied in detail in terms of their fatty acid profile.
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Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

In conditions where there is competition for nutrients between culture and weeds, higher soil exploration by roots is essential, when some resources may be scarce and, consequently, stimulate colonization and sporulation of mycorrhizal fungi. In the case of soybean and other leguminous plants that have short or scarce root hairs, the association with mycorrhizal fungi is of extreme importance, resulting in better plant nutrition, as for example, phosphorous supply to the roots (Syibli, Muhibuddin, & Djauhari, 2014). The benefits of arbuscular mycorrhiza for plant growth are directly correlated with the degree of root colonization, and in the case of soy, it has an important role in favoring nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (Moreira & Siqueira, 2006). Therefore, arbuscular mycorrhiza can minimize the effects of competition, being responsible for 80% of the soybean growth (Brito, Carvalho, & Goss, 2013). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread in nature, and most plants are benefited from this association. In studies conducted by Santos et al. (2013) all 36 weed species, from 14 families presented mycorrhizal fungi colonization and, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae occurred in most species. The competitive advantage of weeds over cultures can be in part, result of the interaction of these plants with several groups of soil microorganisms (Reinhart & Callaway, 2006).
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 	 Quality Management in Project Management Consulting. A Case Study in an International Consulting Company

Quality Management in Project Management Consulting. A Case Study in an International Consulting Company

The success of consulting services for an infrastructure project can be indicated by project performance. The performance of it will be dependent on various factors including its complexity, contractual arrangements, competency of project manager and consultant etc. Most project objectives, however, include multiple criteria, including time, cost, quality and safety. Consulting in project management usually must compromise between these criteria, adding an additional one, total cost of service for beneficiary. Additionally, the consultant must consider if compromises are agreed by the project manager and client, the project could still be accepted as a success, even if some of the objectives have not been fully met. Shenhar, et al. (2002) analyzed 127 different projects, arguing that the critical success factors are not common to all projects, for various reasons. A seemingly obvious reason is that not all projects are alike. Each project is different and every project operates in its own environment. As an example, they suggest that projects of considerable uncertainty must be managed by consultants differently from projects with a lower degree of uncertainty. The first systematic classification of critical success factors is done by Schultz, et al. (1987), identifying two groups of factors – strategic and tactical – which determine performance of the project in different phases of the project life cycle. For example, the strategic factors include support from top management and good planning of the project. Tactical factors include customer consulting, selection and training of human resources. Moreover, Pinto and Slevin (1988) increased the range of success factors by considering the specifics of the various stages of the project life cycle.
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