Savchenko M.I., Novyzkiy V.Y. Eficien- cy analysisofthespeedturnsinthecrawlstrokeswimming. Contemporary approaches to improving technique ofthespeedinthecrawlstrokeswimming, namely roll-forward turn were considered inthe paper. The performance eficiency is deined by the time covering 15 meter distance. The students ofthe sports mas- tering group aged 16–20 took part inthe experiment. The video recordings ofthe Ukrainian, European and World Champi- onships and Delympic Games, and also chronometration during the department trainings served as the experimental data. The research showed that white improving the technical level ofturns per- formance, the attention should be paid to the exact performance of all the elements oftheturns.
and bioenergetic (energy cost) characteristics of different swimming techniques have been published, only a few approaches combine these two domains. Alves et al. (1996) made an attempt to explore the links between the intra-cycle variation ofthe horizontal velocity of displacement (dV) and the energy cost (EC) ofswimmingin front crawl and in backstroke. In backstroke, the correlation between dV ofthe hip and the EC presented significant values at low velocities (r=0.78 at 1.1 m.s-1 and r=0.66 at 1.2 m.s-1). In front crawlthe relationship was non-existent at all studied velocities (Alves et al. 1996).
A comprehensive search ofthe literature was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL for complete studies with titles in English, Portuguese or Spanish, between the database inception and October 31, 2017. The keywords used were “disabled persons” OR “disabled sport” OR “physical disability” AND swim- ming OR aquatic OR crawl OR freestyle AND perfor- mance OR biomechanics OR “swimmingspeed” OR “swim speed” OR velocity. Inclusion criteria were stud- ies focused on oﬃcial swim races with male swimmers. Exclusion criteria were: (i) only oﬃcial swim races, (ii) absence of data and / or incomplete data inthe papers and (iii) multiple publications in which results were recycled (i.e. reported more than once), with only one of these studies included. Clean swimmingspeed is understood without start, turn and finish times (Daly et al., 1999).
Increases of V promoted decreases of dV, allowing a much more continuous butterfly stroke. Therefore, the expeculations of Nigg (1983), Vilas-Boas (1996) and Barbosa et al. (2005a), as well as, the observations of Togashi and Nomura (1992) or Manley and Atha (1992) were confirmed. Higher swimming velocities revealed to be more stable in what concerns to dV. On the other hand, lower swimming velocities can promote high negative impulses, due to increasing time decelerating the swimmer’s body. This might also promote a percentual increase ofthe kinematical energy transferred to the water, instead of its use for propulsion. Consequently, it will induce a lower propulsive efficiency. Toussaint (1990) comparing competitive and triathlon swimmers, at front crawl, verified that propulsive efficiency was significantly lower inthe triathletes. Probably, as it was observed with present data, triathlon swimmers could present a higher dV. Takagi et al. (2004) compared the dV ofthe hip of a group of breaststrokers eliminated inthe preliminaries ofthe 9 th FINA World Swimming Championships with another who advanced to the semi-finals. The authors verified that the dV was significantly higher inthe group of eliminated breaststrokers. Apparently, these results justified the assumptions that lower dV is an important biomechanical characteristic to achieve high swimming velocities and, therefore, high performances. The higher dV observed in slow swimming velocities are not related to maximal values ofthe intra-cyclic velocity obtained, but to a lower minimal intra-cyclic velocity adopted (Takagi et al., 2004). So, swimmers should give a major attention to actions leading to strong body decelerations.
The comparison of cohort groups is done comparing mean values or analyzing the variation of some selected biomechanical variables between different competitive level sub-sample groups. For instance, compare expert versus non-expert swimmers, national level versus international/elite level swimmers or, world championships and Olympic Games finalists versus non-finalists. It is obvious that better competitive level is related to a higher swim velocity. On the other hand, higher swim velocity, from better swimmers, is achieved by an increasing stroke length than remain swimmers (Craig et al., 1985; Vilas-Boas, 1996; Leblanc et al., 2007; Seifert et al., 2007). Higher level swimmers also present a higher efficiency, which is expressed by a higher stroke index (Sánchez et al., 2002; Jesus et al., 2011). During high-standard competitions, world-ranked swimmers already maintain a high stroke length. Therefore their biomechanical strategy to increase the swim velocity is to increase as well thestroke rate (Jesus et al., 2011). At least one study attempted to compare thestroke cycle kinematics between World championships medalists versus remaining finalists. There were no significant differences inthestroke kinematics between medallists and non-medallists. As both cohort groups have a very small gap performance, differences between them might be explained by other variables (Jesus et al., 2011). There are also some limb’s kinematics differences according to competitive level. The elite swimmers posses a great strength and power to accelerate through the water. They present a limb’s kinematics making them able to apply it effectively. Plus, the same limb’s kinematics also aims to maintain a better body streamlining position to reduce drag force (Cappaert et al., 1996). For instance, comparing elite versus non-elite swimmers, participating in world championships and Olympic Games (Cappaert et al., 1996;): (i) the trunk angle is lower and there is a higher elbow extension during the finish phase ofthe pulling pattern for elite than for non-elite swimmers swimming Butterfly stroke; (ii) there is a higher body roll and a higher emphasis inthe kicking for elite backstrokes than non-elite ones; (iii) in Breaststroke, timing between arm’s and leg’s actions is a key factor as non-elite swimmers sometimes achieve a null body velocity within a stroke cycle; (iv) a higher elbow position is required to achieve higher propulsion and a higher body roll in Front Crawl, as done by elite swimmers in comparison to non-elite. Few studies suggest that better competitive level swimmers also present a lower intra-cyclic variation ofthe body’s swimming velocity (Manley and Atha, 1996; Takagi et al., 2004). This seems consistent in Breaststroke but less obvious in remaining swim strokes and should be clear out in near future.
Another challenge is multiple classii cations when the customer belongs to more than one category. h ere is the case of web mining.h e Internet is get- ting the primate as a new channel for the goods dis- tribution, product promotion, transaction manage- ment and coordination of business processes and it becomes a valuable and suitable source of data about customers. More information on management can be seen in (Draker, 2003). However, multiple formats of data and distributive nature of knowledge on the Web are the challenge for collecting, revealing, organizing and knowledge management inthe way that is suitable for providing support to business decision making. More information on decision support system can be seen in (Kotsiantis, 2011).
In Malmö, Sweden, we have examined elderly individuals (mean age: 71 years) and this has revealed that markers of glucose metabolism and dyslipidaemia (elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol levels) as well as waist circumference (a marker of active abdominal fat tissue with inlammatory action) are signiicantly associated with arterial stifness (c–f PWV), but not LDL cholesterol, smoking, or cystatin C (a marker of impaired renal function) after adjustment for MAP and HR. 19 The indings therefore point to two
of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one ofthe targets ofthe Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs inthe fight against poverty . Inthe implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT inthe health sector play a key role in enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown inthe introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions ofthe world. This is primarily as a result ofthe high cost of services . Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald  argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities .
Introduction of aluminium inthe quantity of either about 0.6% (the alloy from melt No. 1) or about 1.1% (the alloy from melt No. 2) leads to the arising ofthe ferrite-pearlite matrix containing the precipitates of free cementite despite the significant silicon content inthe cast iron (see data in Table 4 and Figs 2 and 4). The cast iron from these two melts did not contain the regular nodular graphite precipitates. In both cases the shape of graphite precipitates, according to the Standard , can be classified as II, its distribution as B, magnitude as 6 (see Figs 1 and 3).
The fi rst test included several exercise bouts. During this test theswimmingspeedofthe subjects was kept constant by an elec- tronic pacer, with successive fl ashing lights, placed at the bot- tom ofthe pool (TAR. 1.1, GBK-electronics, Aveiro, Portugal). The subjects were instructed to follow the pacer light signal. Dis- tance ofthe two fi rst bouts was 350 m, and 400 m from the third bout on. Initial velocity was established according to the swim- mers ’ individual performance inthe 400 m freestyle minus 5 increments of velocity. The increments were 10 % ofthe 400 m best performance velocity per each 400 m stage until exhaus- tion. No warm-up was performed before the start ofthe test and recovery between successive bouts was individualized. The sub- jects started each bout when their VO 2 presented two consecu- tive values within 2 ml · kg − 1 · min − 1 from that recorded before
Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors ofthe studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.
Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used on the tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface ofthe steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting ofthe surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties ofthe materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting ofthe surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second inthe late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration ofthe broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia inthe Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists inthe Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m inthe Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because ofthe abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
is the customer who gives the technical specification ofthe prod- uct and it is the customer who has to decide whether he can or cannot accept the price dictated by the manufacturer. Based on these restrictions, it is now the manufacturer who must decide whether he is able to execute the order (within the deadline ap- pointed and using the available facilities) and what will be the price ofthe product as dictated by the cost of production. Improv- ing the procedure of production costs estimation should improve the contract negotiations and make them more efficient. On the other hand, estimating the cost of production involves, among others, also the need to determine the type of material and treat- ment. The manufacturer can choose what materials he will use for the product and at what price, providing he can check which
where is a set of linear restrictions that transforms the unrestricted model (1) on restricted model (2). 8 In our case, the restriction implies that the age, trend and (orthogonal) time dummies are sufficient to explain the behavior of each estimated statistic order across cells and over time. Imposing the restrictions means estimating weighted least squares regressions on the grouped data, for each quantile and education group separately. This procedure will give us consistent estimates of . Under the null that the restrictions are valid, the minimized value follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of restrictions. In order to construct the test statistics, we only have to sum up the weighted squared residuals, that is, the estimated percentiles minus the predicted values minus the orthogonal time dummies.
Warm-up procedures before competition or training are intended to assure benefits to athlete’s performance (Atkinson et al., 2005; Burnley et al., 2002) Although there are few data available on physiological responses to the warm- up, these routines are well accepted and commonly used by athletes and their coaches (Bishop, 2003). For example, the mechanisms related to the raise of core and muscle temperature seem to be of great importance for the proposed effects of warming-up before physical activity (Asmussen and Boje, 1945). Temperature might improve performance by decreasing the viscous resistance of muscles and joints (Wright and Johns, 1961; Cavagna, 1993), increasing of nerve conduction rate and speeding of metabolic reactions, such as the muscle
The detailed questionnaire ofthe Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation inthe main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included inthe latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown inthe appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most oftheanalysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
The nil strength temperature (NST) for the alloy was determined by testing cylindrical Ø 6 x 90 mm specimens on the Gleeble 3800 simulator. S-type thermocouples were pressure welded to the specimens, and then the specimens were fixed inthe chamber by means of copper holders. Constant distance of 52.4 mm was kept between the holders. After evacuation of air, the chamber was filled with argon (to 0.14 hPa). Then, the 0.6 – 0.7 kN minimum pre-load was applied and was maintained until the end of experiment. The specimens were heated at the 20 o C/s rate to 400 o C, and then at the 1 o C/s rate. The NST was determined as the temperature at which the specimen lost its cohesion. The NST for the ZRE1 alloy in as-delivered state is 535 o C.
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government inthe function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government inthe context ofthe ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration ofthe completion of work, the licensing ofthe city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because ofthe support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results ofthe review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the