Undoubtedly e-banking is a strong catalyst for the economic development and in order to enhance the propensity to use e-banking as a primary channel, it must be tailored suiting to the need of the customers. The present paper analyzed level ofsatisfactionofrural customers from 17 variables related to the qualitative aspects of e-banking. The study found that rural customers are quite satisfied with the provisions of updating, accuracy of transactions and convenience. However, they were not found to be much satisfied with the regulatory mechanism and compensation given in case of fraudulent attack by unauthorized person or error by bank. Further they expect better services should be provided for differently able persons. The study found that more than 60% of surveyed population comprises of non-graduates and approximately 72% feel uncomfortable in transacting with e-banking because of language problem. Most of them were also not aware of multi-language provision in e-banking.
The bank has considerable amount of receivable accounts and it seems that the bank cannot settle a significant portion of this item of current assets. In other word, bank has no choice but to write down a big portion of this item and this would hurt profitability of the organization. The other important factor influencing the profitability of this bank is the change in prime rate and domestic economy. The other BSC aspect is learning and growth with 72.37%, which means the bank was relatively successful. The main reason was because of the sufficient access to necessary software and hardware equipments. Learning and growth identify the necessary substructure for organization survival and long-term growth. Customer has been the weakest aspects of this bank with 34.44% points, which is well below the desirable limit. The bank should be blamed for shortcoming on customer loyalty and satisfaction. The bank needs for better plans for customer retention and having better communication with its customers. The internal processes was another poor sector in terms of BSC perspectives gaining only 45.37% leading the whole organization to an unacceptable rate of 41.87%. Note that there were only seven units remained efficient compared with other 21 units based on DEA implementation and 21 units mostly were operating less than 50% of the efficiency.
Moreover, satisfaction plays an important role in predicting customer behavioural intentions, both to repurchase and to recommend. According to Hart et al. (1990), satisfied customers inform six people about their good exp eriences, while dissatisfied inform eleven. In Oliver’s (1980) study, dissatisfaction is presented in three stages: initial irritation, unpleasantness and relief in the after- effect stage and WOM effect arises between the second and the third. Only a positive link between satisfaction and loyalty appears to be dominant however the way in which it is done is not consensual (La Barbera and Mazursky, 1983; Zins, 2001 and Pham and Simpson, 2006). Jones and Sasser (1995) classify the relationship as simple and linear however, according to Fisk et al. (1990) and Oliva, Oliver and MacMillen (1992), customer involvement plays an essential role upon the linearity of the relation and the turning point satisfaction/ dissatisfaction is changeable (see also Bitner, 1990; Bolton and Drew, 1991b; and Oliver, 1980).
of interest in a matter or activity without being told, interest is basically the acceptance of a relationship between yourself to something things outside himself. The stronger or close relationship the greater the interest. Interest According Stiggins (1994: 171) in Iqbal (2011), states that interest is one dimension of the affective aspects of a role in one's life. Affective aspect is the aspect that Identifies the dimensions feelings of emotional awareness, disposition, and will that Affect a person's thoughts and actions. The affective dimension covers three important things: (1) relates to the feelings of the different objects; (2) has a sense of direction starting from the neutral point into opposing camps, not positive and not negative; (3) the various feelings that have a different intensity, from strong to moderate to weak. According Semiawan interest, (1997: 19) in Iqbal (2011), states that interest is a mental state that generates the response directed to a particular situation or object that is fun and Gives satisfaction to him (satisfiers). This definition makes clear that interest serves as the driving force that directs a person performing Certain specific activities. According Sandjaja, (2006: 126) in Iqbal (2011), states that interest is a tendency that causes a person trying to look for or try activities in a particular field. Interest IS ALSO interpreted as a positive attitude towards environmental aspects. In addition, interest is Also a permanent tendency to notice and enjoy an activity accompanied by pleasure. According Meichati, (1998: 117) in Iqbal (2011), means that interest as a strong attention, intensive and in-depth individual Diligently master to perform an activity. According Widyastuti in Ellya Benny and Yuskar, (2005: 15) states that interest is driven by the desire of a desire after seeing, observing and Comparing and considering the needs of wants. Interest is high liver tendency toward something
Internet banking has the potential to provide fast and reliable services to customers for which they are relatively happy. Due to the technological changes taking place all over the world, many institutions, including the banking sector have taken giant steps to move in tandem with these changes. In this light most banks, with GCB Bank, Ghana, not being an exception have introduced electronic bankingin order to decongest the banking halls of customers who spend time unending in order to transact business. The purpose of this research was to assess the Contribution of Electronic Banking to CustomerSatisfaction at GCB Bank-Koforidua, to this end some objectives were set for the study. These were: To assess the availability of electronic banking facilities at GCB Bank, Koforidua. To assess the knowledge and patronage of internet banking services by customers, to examine the effectiveness of the usage of electronic banking facilities, to examine the problem facing an internet bankingin GCB Bank, Koforidua. This is a quantitative study that employed the use of questionnaires as the main tools for data collection. Data was collected from management, staff and customers of GCB Bank, Koforidua Branch. Findings from analysis of data revealed that though there was the existence of internet banking facilities of the bank, respondents of the study were not fully aware of the existence of such facilities. It was also found that the use of internet banking was quite expensive and that though the bank was utilizing the facility, customers were not fully patronizing them. It was concluded that internet banking brings efficiency in the operations of the bank. Finally, the study recommended that all branches of GCB Bank adopt internet banking facilities to help in effective banking operations and transactional purposes. To maximize the operations and potential of the bank management must endeavor to educate the customers about the existence of internet banking facilities since a few customers were aware of the existence of such facilities.
leadership. A meta-analysis on the relationship between team member satisfaction and leadership style revealed that teams prefer democratic leadership instead of autocratic leadership (Foels, Driskell, Mullen, & Salas, 2000). Yet the effect on member satisfaction is moderated by team dimension and team composition (Foels et al., 2000). Learning teams tend to profit from shared leadership for effective learning (Johnson et al., 2002), given that inequality in participation levels does not get locked-in as a result of dominant members’ proposals/contributions (Kapur, Voiklis, & Kinzer, 2008). Teams that depend too much on directive leadership usually learn less due to limited discussion (Durham et al., 1997). Learning teams regularly have a brief lifecycle and are frequently supposed to promote equal participation, which implies that team leadership may be less prominent for a learning team’s effectiveness, except when crucial moments arise (Johnson et al., 2002). Hogg, Abrams, Otten, and Hinkle (2004), for example, found that in a stressful situation, a team assesses its performance at that point in time and adapts its strategies to deliver a timely result. This adaptation may include redistribution of subtasks and roles, regularly resulting in the emergence of a type of centralised leadership (Hogg et al., 2004).
Based on the literature review and previous works, A survey questionnaire was made by the researchers consisting of (24) questions about the respondents and their perception of the level of trust, satisfaction and commitment with e-Banking services offered by Jordanian and foreign banks. The survey questionnaire utilized constructs measure using multiple items, and all of the scale items represented in the survey instrument utilized a seven-point categorical rating scale. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part included customers’ demographic characteristics, including gender, age, type of work, educational level. A convenient sample of 350 customers from four Jordanian banks and four foreign banks at the Amman city was selected as a unit of analysis (Table 1 and Table 2). The questionnaire was administered face-to-face to the customers. The total number of returned questionnaires was 318 in a response rate of 91%. Among the collected questionnaires, 32 have missed responses resulted in 286 usable questionnaires. The second part aimed to investigate customers’ opinions about dimensions of relationship quality between customers and banks.
remuneration package and the job risks are extremely mismatched, coupled with acts of violence against doctors that have seen annual increase. Senior doctors have lived through the times when doctors were respected, and believe that the harsh medical environment is only temporary. Compared with younger doctors, it was found in this research that they have a stronger identity with doctors’ pursuit of self-value and fulfillment. The harsh medical environment has drained their confidence to achieve desired objectives. Unmarried doctors are mostly young with a shorter working life and they share the same reasons for high level of burnout. Given that they have no spouse to talk to, they are more easily emotionally exhausted. In addition, the one-child policy in China has led to higher expectations from parents on the treatment of sick children, which poses a tremendous pressure on pediatricians who are called to shoulder greater responsibilities than other disciplines and are often subject to medical disputes. Oppositely, as having children in China is indeed bliss, among all specialties, obstetricians are those who usually receive utmost respect and affection from mothers and families alike.
Customer is the only source of future growth, CRM can be assumed as a method of marketing by using customer information. The relationship between organization and customers consist of a bilateral and ongoing connection. The relationship can be long-term or short-term, continuous or discontinuous, repetitive or sudden. Even if customers have positive attitudes with organization and its products, it is important to treat them with respect in purchasing occasions. CRM is not an activity in marketing division and it is clearly a permanent organizational evolution in cultures. Customer information changes to organizational knowledge thus it enables acting in a way using market opportunities (urgu.com, 2002). CRM is importance inbanking and most banks, collecting liquidity from customer’s deposits, must place customer-orientation as primary element of its activity (Meyer & Schwager, 2007). Nowadays, regarding competitive environment and aggressive strategies, CRM plays essential role on customer retention (Salami, 2005). It is essential for banks to know customers well and to hold a strong and trusted relationship in financial services sector (Diacon et al., 1996). CRM cause commitment, loyalty and cooperation between organization and customers (Tyler et al., 1999). Studies show that banks with appropriate CRM can maintain big competitions in the market (Bennett et al. 2002). For instance, studies in US banking industry showed, banks that developed customer-orientation strategies have gained more profit (Diacon et al., 1996). CRM comprises six main stimuli including targeting, continuous contact with customer, forecasting effective customer for future, absorbing customer, using master or subsidiary sales techniques, creating loyalty with appropriate services and maintaining and reserving customers (Lamparello, 2000). CRM classifies customers based on importance and profitability, for examples banks classify their customers into 4 categories :
The empiricalstudy was carried out based on answers obtained from two online questionnaires applied to Portuguese bank customers, the first in 2014, with primary data of 498 valid responses considered (the same issues were referred to 2007 as the time before the financial crisis and to 2013 as a time of crisis) and the second questionnaire in 2019, with 387 valid responses, also used as primary data. We also used secondary data from European Customer Service Index (ECSI) 2017, Marktest BASEF, Annual macro-economic database of the European Commission's Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs (AMECO), Bank of Portugal, Portuguese National Statistics Institute (INE) and PORDATA from Francisco Manuel dos Santos Foundation. Regarding the data obtained from the questionnaires, we verified the inter-item consistency of the items used by performing the Cronbach Alpha test in SPSS, which consists of analysing the correlation between the responses provided by the respondents.
For a long time customer value has been considered as a trade off between quality and price but the later studies indicate that there are other factors affecting the customer value. Sweeney and Soutar (2001) stated that if an organization wants to determine its customer value, it should review the reasons that cause customers to stay with or abandon the organization. According to Sheth et al. (1991) customer value is composed of five elements which are functional, social, emotional, epistemic and conditional values. However, all these elements are not always apparent. Sweeney and Soutar (2001) developed PERVAL (perceived value) model. In this model, they divided functional aspect ofcustomer value into quality and price. They also believed that we do not have to consider epistemic value and conditional value whenever we deal with durable goods. While quality is one of the most significant gains from customer’s perspective, what he or she gives, is not limited to the charged prices. Heskett et al. (1994) and Zeithaml (1998) all emphasized that we must consider time, energy and effort in addition to price.
some 7 percent of respondents said they had spoken to bank staff in the period before exiting. Furrer et al. (2000) argued that perceptions of service quality vary across cultural groups, as described by each culture’s position on Hofstede’s dimensions. They implemented the correlation coefficients to compute a Cultural Service Quality Index, which could be implemented to segment international service markets. Garland (2002) examined a sample of 881 customers’ self-reported to estimate the likelihood of defection from some main bank based on Juster probability scale.
Abstract: Problem statement: A comparison ofcustomersatisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on time performance of flights; in flight experience; baggage handling and value for money. Approach: A questionnaire was designed with above set of variables and responses of 150 fliers of six domestic airlines viz., GoAir, Kingfisher, Jet Airways, Indigo, SpiceJet and Air India (Domestic) was recorded on a five point Likert scale. About 150 respondents were interviewed from different places in NCR: Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida and Faridabad. A convenient sampling method was followed. Perceptions of only those travelers were captured who had actually undergone the experience of travelling by an airline. The range for the number of respondents was between 103 (for GoAir) and 133 (for Jet Air). Results: Using one way ANOVA, it was checked whether travelers perceive any significant difference between six airlines for each of the above six identified variables. With Tukey- Kramer test the airlines which are significantly different from the rest were identified. Perceptual maps with combination of up to two variables (attributes) were drawn to infer about the positioning of six different airlines. Conclusion: This study will help marketers of domestic airlines and designers of flight service offerings to enhance the satisfaction level of air travelers.
completely agree. All questions were selected based on a survey accomplished on relevant literature (He et al., 2011; Tong & Hawley, 2009; Washburn et al., 2004; Allen & Meyer, 1990; He et al., 2011; Tam, 2004). The reliability of all test components has been examined using both convergent and discriminate validity. Standardized factor loading as well as Average variance extracted were measured and they were well above 0.5, which is the minimum desirable level (Fornell & Larker, 1981). Cronbach Alpha was calculated for all questions and they were well above 0.7, which is the minimum acceptable level (Nunnally, 1978). Table 2 shows correlation ratios among different components of our proposed study.
Depression is likely to increase in number due to increase in life expectancy, rapidly changing social and physical environment that gives rise to psychological stress, breaking of traditional protective measures, increase in morbidity due to chronic non-communicable disease and increase in medicaments and alcohol. Depression is not a normal part of ageing. Depression causes needless suffering for the individual & for the family. Elderly people with untreated depression are more likely to have worse outcomes from conditions like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Depression may accompany a chronic illness or a condition that causes pain & suffering. 6
hand and to obtain, use the drugs appropriately and take full treatment by the consumers as per prescrip- tion of treating physician on the other hand 13 . This thing would be only possible when people take deci- sion timely for the diagnosis and treatment. Health facilities need to be accessible to all but in the desert part of Rajasthan it was reported difficult to access health facilities to desert population because of Thar Desert is thinly populated, distances are more be- tween health facilities and remote places where popu- lation live. Mostly, these villages/dhanies are not con- nected with pucca roads and there is either no or less facility of transport. Health facilities establish- ment in the area are found similar based on the popu- lation criterion throughout India, though there is need to establish one specific desert-based criteria. It is very essential for the parents to recognize and classify the disease among the children <5 yr of age who suffered from malaria. It is very interesting to learn from this study that fever and malaria were understood correctly by the majority of the mothers and malaria was identified as a main cause of fever. These findings have been shown to be the key to intervention inrural desert part of Rajasthan. The results of this study depicted the level of knowledge about malaria, responsible vectors, its transmission and prevention. Furthermore, in investigations they stated that high fever, giddiness, repeated vomiting, severe diarrhoea, inability to get up from bed to sit and stand up or walk even up to bath room, loss of appetite and refusal to feed, loss of consciousness and yellowish sclera were the recognized signs and symptoms of the disease. If malaria episode evolved into a more serious situation (severe malaria) that requires urgent treatment at health facilities. The re- sults of this study were consistent with similar stud- ies carried out in other parts of the world such as Sri Lanka 14 , Africa 8, 15, 16 and Sudan 17 . The study re- veals that four types of treatment of malaria were used by people to treat febrile children in desert vil- lages of Rajasthan. Both the options of treatment such as self-treatment at home and utilization of govern- ment health facilities were being used to treat ma- laria in the children < 5 yr of age in the study area.
As a result, managers need to restructure their differentiation and positioning in a competitive way, focusing on innovation and creativity in terms of customer’s customersatisfaction. They must invest more in RandD to improve the customersatisfaction by doing marketing research to discover the determining factors ofcustomersatisfaction. They must invest heavily incustomer service starting by hiring competent staff and training them and also creating customer service programs. Mobile companies in Saudi Arabia can benefit from ideas from other sectors to better retain customers. A good example of this is to adopt the loyalty programs provided by reputable leaders in the hotel industry by benchmarking because benchmarking does not necessarily have to be from the same industry (Heizer and Render, 2008). Furthermore, mobile service providers need to understand and fulfill customers’ needs. With the current substantial advancement in technology and globalization, customers’ expectations and demands grew fast, new and different. That is why these days mobile phones are not only to make phone calls but also for many other uses and these uses have to be supported by good networks and attractive prices.
have employess like caretakers, guards and porters. Besides, all households were invited to participate in the research. The interviews were registered in writing, and took about one hour each. The enterprise studied is a one block building, 12 floors, 2 units/floor, high quality finishing with a private area of 120 m 2 . Each apartment has 4 bedrooms (one bathroom en suite), a bedroom and toilet for servants. It is located at a very good location place in downtown Florianópolis. About 50% of households belong to the age-group above 45, 30% belong to the 36-45 age-group, and 20% belong to the 26-35 age-group.
confer the power of expert knowledge on even the smallest individual farmer, thus enhancing his competitiveness in the global market ITC eChoupal e-choupal is now being regarded as a reliable delivery mechanism for resource development initiatives. Its potential is being tested through pilot projects in healthcare, educational services, water management and cattle health management with the help of several service providers including non-governmental organizations. As of July 2010, services through 6500 Echoupal across 10 states, reach more than 4 million farmers in about 40,000 villages. (www.echoupal.com). ITC is also trying to position itself with farmers as the much-needed alternative to the network of local dealers or wholesalers, peddling over-priced products of suspect quality. E- choupal network today serves as a rural marketing platform together with other channels established by ITC inrural markets. Over 70 companies today use this channel to offer their goods and services to ruralIndia,” (Srinivas, 2010). The “Philips Mahasangram” is aimed at taking Philips' new products to the semi-urban and rural customers and increasing their awareness where product knowledge, information and availability are concerned." An indication of the size of this initiative can be obtained from the fact that Philips will be spending about 4.5 per cent of its turnover from the rural/semi-urban areas on the Mahasangram alone.
About 21% of the children showed signs of malnutrition and the proportion was significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. There was progressive improvement in nutritional status as the age increased. There was no significant association between clinical signs of malnutrition and stunting.