Top PDF Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. f. rubra) Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using

Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. f. rubra) Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using

Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. f. rubra) Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using

water was approximately 34.6% and, in dehydrated products, it decreased to a level between 14 and 22.5%. According to Jiménez- Aguilar et al. (2011), this decrease was a consequence of high air temperatures in the atomizer exit, which provoked a degradation of the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. Tanongkankit et al. (2015) found that the total antioxidant activity, as measured by the DPPH radical scavenging, continuously decreased during the drying. Xu et al. (2014) also reported that the DPPH radical-scavenging activity was affected by the cooking methods in red cabbage. Figure 1 also showed that the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) with 10% of the encapsulant than with 15%. This could be explained by the increase of dry matter caused by the increment in the encapsulating agent quantity. With the rise in temperature, there was no significant difference (p>0.01) in the antioxidant activity, indicating that the encapsulating agents were efficient in protecting the anthocyanin, the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity, keeping them stable with the rise in temperature in the level studied.
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Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

When the methods of drying were compared, freeze drying produced lower degradation constants for all evaluated pHs, as compared to spray drying. The microcapsules obtained by spray drying and freeze drying have different structures, due to the drying mechanisms. While the spray drying the homogenization of solution before drying has an important role in encapsulation efficiency, ensuring that the material is completely entrapped in the matrix, and not permitting a significant amount of this component in the particle surface, in the freeze drying homogenization has little influence on microcapsule structure (Cano-Higuita et al., 2015). In our study, spray drying produced higher degradation constants compared with freeze drying, probably because there were large quantities of betanin on the microcapsules surface produced by this technique.
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Quím. Nova  vol.32 número5

Quím. Nova vol.32 número5

gastro-resistance and controlled release to the sodium alendronate- loaded microparticles. Additionally, high encapsulation efficiencies were achieved using spray-drying technique. Considering the release experiment, in spite of the high sodium alendronate water solubility, both formulations were able to retard and sustained the drug release. Furthermore, the microparticles released the drug by Fickian diffusion in simulated intestinal fluid validating our hypothesis. However, even though the microparticles were prepared with two types of HPMC (Methocel ® F4M and Methocel ® K100), the difference in the HPMC
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From optimization of synbiotic microparticles prepared by spray-drying to development of new functional carrot juice

From optimization of synbiotic microparticles prepared by spray-drying to development of new functional carrot juice

Because of already perceived health effects of the probiotics, they have been incorporated alone or as synbiotics into a range of food and pharmaceutical products. However, the benefit from the probiotics strongly depends on their ability to survive and multi- ply in the host. There are certain factors that decrease their viability during processing, storage and adminis- tration ( e.g ., temperature, moisture, oxygen, pressure, gastric acid, bile salts, etc.). In order to enhance the viability in these conditions and provide targeted and controlled delivery of the probiotics in the GIT, micro- encapsulation of probiotics using various techniques ( e.g ., extrusion, emulsion, spray-drying, spray-coating) may be utilized [7]. There are evidences that spray- -drying method for microencapsulation of the probiotic bacteria results in production of stable microparticles, with low diameters and homogenous size distribution [8-10]. In addition, different biopolymers as coating materials ( e.g ., alginate, chitosan, gelatin, pectin, car- rageenan) are successfully utilized to provide safe transit of active probiotic cells through the upper GIT [11]. From the functionality point of view, encapsul- ating materials have to provide mild conditions for encapsulation, be biocompatible, non-toxic to the cells and host, impermeable for antibody-sized mole- cules, have sufficient membrane permeability and abi- lity to overcome the acidic and enzymatic environ- ment of the stomach and to increase adherence cap- acity and residence time of the probiotics in certain segments of the GIT as are the terminal ileum and colon. Because one material could not possess all these properties, usually, combinations of biocom- patible materials with different properties are used. Combination of chitosan and alginate for microencap- sulation of probiotics is frequently used due to the possibility for forming semi-permeable membrane between the positively charged chitosan and nega- tively charged alginate, which could not be dissolved in the presence of Ca 2+ chelators or antigelling agents [12,13]. Although the coating of alginate beads with polycations and their functionality have been exten- sively studied, the search for optimal composition model for the encapsulating materials and method for microencapsulation continues in order ability of the microparticulate systems to control and target the delivery of the probiotics to be improved and probiotic viability enhanced. Further, microparticulate systems that contain live probiotic cells are convenient for
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Study of membrane emulsification process as a pre-step for the microencapsulation of lipid compounds by spray drying

Study of membrane emulsification process as a pre-step for the microencapsulation of lipid compounds by spray drying

Food emulsions play an important role in product development and formulation, as well as to encapsulation of food additives. Conventional methods for emulsion production may present some drawbacks, such as the use of high shear stress, high energy demanding and polydisperse droplet size distribution. In this sense, membrane emulsification emerges as an alternative method to overcome all this issues and to produce fine and stable emulsions. Linseed oil has been widely studied in the last years, due to its nutritional composition, being the richest ω-3 vegetable source and for that reason it was used as the raw material for emulsion production. Premix and direct (cross flow) membrane emulsification were carried out using three different membrane materials: polissulphone, cellulose ester and α-alumina membrane. For premix membrane emulsification (PME) the variables transmembrane pressure, membrane material, surfactant type and membrane mean pore size were evaluated. The membrane mean pore size was the crucial factor to achieve emulsions by PME, once it was not possible to achieve stable emulsion with mean pore sizes lower than 0.8 μm. For direct membrane emulsification, transmembrane pressure, surfactant concentration and cross flow velocity were evaluated by means of a experimental design. The evaluated responses were stability, droplet size and distribution and dispersed phase flux. For all the variables studied, only dispersed phase flux showed to have significant influence of pressure. Comparing both methods of membrane emulsification, premix showed to be more suitable in terms of emulsion production throughput and droplet size correlation with membrane pore size, however, in terms of stability, direct membrane emulsification showed much better results. Encapsulation of linseed oil by spray drying was promoted using the optimum point of the performed experimental design and the droplets size distribution has considerably changed with the addition of the wall material to the emulsion.
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Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 7, p. 8082-8095 jul. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 microspheres presented a continuous surface and no cracking, which hinders the diffusion of air and reduces the probability of triglycerides oxidation in the nucleus. The heat loss curves were plotted considering the principles of mass and energy conservation applied to both input and output currents. Further, the thermodynamic parameters were continuously monitored during the spray dryer. So, the selected operational conditions (T = 130 °C, AF = 20 kg.h 1 ) allowed to achieve high encapsulation efficiency (95%) and saving energy compared to conventional processes using inlet air temperatures above 180 °C, a significant improvement to thermo-sensitive compounds.
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BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- β -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of β -CD, were observed after freeze- drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with β -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.
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Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esther (DHAEE) microcapsule production by spray-drying: optimization by experimental design

Docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esther (DHAEE) microcapsule production by spray-drying: optimization by experimental design

The choice of the polymer depends on the physical and chemical properties of the material to be encapsulated, the process used to form the microcapsules, and the pharmacodynamic goals (NORI, 1996). Factors that can alter content retention during entrapment include molecular mass, structural conformation, chemical function, physical state, and the thickness and surface area of the microcapsule (GOUBET; QUERE; VOILLEY, 1998). Gums, carbohydrates, cellulose and its derivates, lipids, and proteins can be used as entrapment agents (SHAHIDI; HAN, 1993). The high demand from the international market greatly encourages the use of gums from exudates and plant extracts (BOTELHO, 1999). Acacia gum, also known as gum arabic, is the best known exudate gum. Eighty percent of gum arabic originates from Acacia senegal (Fabaceae), and 10 to 15% from A. seyal, found in Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Chad, and Sudan (BUFFO; REINECCIUS; OEHLERT, 2001; ROBBERS; SPEEDIE; TYLER, 1997; WAREING, 1997). This exudate is a polysaccharide mainly composed of galactose (61%) and other sugars, including arabinose, rhamnose, glucose and glucuronic acid. It is odorless, tasteless, water soluble, slightly acidic, nontoxic, and contains little color (CHATTOPADHYAYA; SINGHAL; KULKARN, 1998; WAREING, 1997; ZAKARIA; RAHMAN, 1996). Acacia gum is considered one of the food industry’s best materials for manufacturing microcapsules due to its capacity for promoting emulsification, stabilization,and antioxidation, as well as its very low viscosity compared with other gums. Its viscosity tends to increase at concentrations above 30%; however, its viscosity is still sufficiently low to permit solutions at concentrations of 55%, a concentration ten times higher than other gums’ limit of approximately 5% (BUFFO; REINECCIUS; OEHLERT, 2001; WAREING, 1997; DE PAULA; RODRIGUES, 1995; DZIEZAK, 1991).
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Composição e propriedades físico-químicas de duas frações do soro de sangue bovino.

Composição e propriedades físico-químicas de duas frações do soro de sangue bovino.

indústria animal é uma fonte importante de poluição dos recursos hídricos e do solo. A concentração de proteína albumina (BSA) e globulina (BSG) bovinas secas em spray ou liofilizadas foi, aproximadamente, 85,0%. O score de aminoácidos (EAAS) foi 72,7%, para BSA liofilizada, e 89,3%, para BSG. As propriedades emulsificantes e espumantes de ambas as frações protéicas foram altas, principalmente a pH 5,5. A capacidade emulsificante e espumante foi maior para BSA, no entanto, tanto a estabilidade da emulsão quanto a da espuma formada foram melhores para a BSG. A adição de NaCl apresentou uma tendência de reduzir as duas propriedades surfactantes, independentemente do pH. Considerando a solubilidade, a estabilidade ao calor, propriedades emulsificante e espumante, tanto a BSA quanto a BSG deveriam ser consideradas bons ingredientes funcionais para a manufatura de produtos alimentícios. O estudo não apenas confirmou dados já reportados na literatura, como também explorou novas propriedades, o que amplifica o potencial de aplicações do soro de sangue bovino.
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Determinação das especifícações do processo 'spray drying' na obtenção de micropartículas...

Determinação das especifícações do processo 'spray drying' na obtenção de micropartículas...

A liberação local de fármacos na cavidade oral apresenta muitas aplicações, incluindo o controle da dor pós-cirúrgica, tratamento de doenças periodontais e anestesia local. Micropartículas carregadas com anti-inflamatórios não-esteroidais (AINEs) produzidas para a liberação sustentada é útil em Odontologia, uma vez que mantém o fármaco em níveis terapêuticos, promove o controle da dor e maior adesão do paciente ao tratamento.Uma vez que o sistema é biodegradável, o paciente não precisa ir ao consultório do dentista para removê-lo. Spray drying, é um dos vários métodos de microencapsulação, é rápido, de fácil operação, ampliação de escala e apresenta condições moderadas de operação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é determinar as especificações do processo de spray- drying na obtenção de micropartículas biodegradáveis para a liberação sustentada de fármacos com aplicação odontológica. Quitosana foi utilizada como polímero de revestimento, uma vez que é biodegradável, biocompatível e mucoadesivo. Cetoprofeno foi utilizado como AINE modelo.Testes de qualificação de operação do spray-dryer foram conduzidos em conformidades com os requisitos da ANVISA e FDA. O método de análise de teor de cetoprofeno também foi validado, apresentando precisão, exatidão, linearidade e especificidade adequados ao seu propósito. Com relação ao processo de microencapsulação, a melhor condição operacional no spray-dryer apresenta 100 ºC de temperatura de entrada, 5,7 g/min de vazão da bomba peristáltica, 49,2 m 3 /h de vazão do ar de secagem, 1 mm de diâmetro do bico atomizador e 1,3 de pressão do ar comprimido. As micropartículas obtidas apresentam boa esfericidade e uma superfície lisa. A distribuição granulométrica é estreita, variando de 2,11 a 3,27µm. Os estudos de liberação in vitro mostram um comportamento linear de dissolução do cetoprofeno encapsulado nas micropartículas, sugerindo que a cinética de liberação do fármaco é governada pela dissolução do fármaco e difusão através da matriz polimérica. Quitosana apresentou influência sobre a liberação do cetoprofeno, uma vez que foi encontrado um T 50 de 36,0 h para o fármaco microencapsulado,
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Encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying and evaluation of its resistance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, thermal treatments and storage conditions

Encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium Bb-12 by spray drying and evaluation of its resistance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, thermal treatments and storage conditions

moisture contents are obtained. Results obtained in the present research are in accordance with those reported by other authors who recommend that the moisture content should be around 4-5% to guarantee better storage stability (CHAVEZ & LEDEBOER, 2007). In this sense, studies have shown that a lower inlet temperature and, consequently output, results in increased post-encapsulation viability; however, this condition may imply greater moisture and water activity, which adversely affects the prolonged storage of powders (PEIGHAMBARDOUST et al., 2011; VESTERLUND et al., 2012). Thus, the relevance of the study of different drying temperatures, not only on the viability of the microorganisms, but also their influence on the physical characteristics of the microparticles is emphasized. MORGAN et al. (2006) reported that spray-drying temperatures are of great importance for the viability of bacteria and need to be optimized individually for every new application. In this context, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (ML) and Bifidobacterium Bb-12 (MB) microparticles produced at 130°C were chosen to be evaluated in this study.
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Microencapsulation of spirulina platensis by spray drying method as a promising alternative for the development of new products / Microencapsulação da spirulina platensis pelo método spray drying como alternativa promissora para desenvolvimento de novos p

Microencapsulation of spirulina platensis by spray drying method as a promising alternative for the development of new products / Microencapsulação da spirulina platensis pelo método spray drying como alternativa promissora para desenvolvimento de novos produtos

In addition, one of the most important factors that determines the stability of the powders is the presence of moisture (Baik et al., 2004). The prepared samples had a low moisture content, ranging from 4.300 to 5.196%, not differing significantly between themselves (Table 2). Among the objectives in the use of Spray Drying in food, the highlight is to obtain a product with specific properties, such as instant solubility (Gharsallouli et al., 2007). It is also worth mentioning that this technique is the most common and cheapest to produce microencapsulated food materials, the equipment is easily available and the production costs are low (Gharsallouli et al., 2007).
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Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

Food industry has focused on discovering and evaluating new wall materials for flavor encapsulation by spray drying considering their functionality as encapsulating agents, cost, authorized grade, and accessibility. Carbohydrates, mainly sugars such as glucose and sucrose, along with polysaccharides such as starch, maltodextrins, pectin, alginate, and chitosan are successfully used as wall materials for encapsulation of flavor ingredients (KENYON, 1995). However, carbohydrates cannot be used in wall systems without the presence of a surface- active constituent because they usually have no emulsifying properties (BANGS; REINECCIUS, 1988). Hydrolyzed starch products are hydrophilic compounds, which have little affinity for hydrophobic flavors (SHAIKH; BHOSALE; SINGHAL, 2006). Their hydrophilic nature can be modified by linking hydrophobic side chains (DRUSCH; SCHWARZ, 2006). Extrusion processes have unique characteristics compared to other thermal processes. Extrusion processes break covalent bonds in polymers, create intense structural disruption, mix and facilitate reactions in the absence of effluents that in other processes are limited or are made available to a lesser extent (ASP; BJÖRK, 1989). Extrusion may use reduced amounts of reagents; moreover, further hydrolysis of desirable starch for microencapsulation purposes can occur. Native rice starches consist of tiny granules (5 mm) with narrow size distribution (PUCHONGKAVARIN; VARAVINIT; BERGTHALLER, 2005). Taro starch granules have irregular and polygonal shapes with an average size of 3.0 µm (JANE et al., 1992); these granules exhibit the capability to form spherical aggregates. Small starch granules used as wall materials can be combined into porous spheres when dried by aspersion, and they have a wide range of useful applications. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the potential of taro and rice starch derivatives to be used as wall material of orange oil by spray drying.
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Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen et al., 2014). Dyster, called “sea milk” in Western countries (Wang et al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero et al., 2007). Ots proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je et al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero et al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer et al., 2013; Liu  et  al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian  et  al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi  et  al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang  et  al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian et al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
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Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass

Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass

Drying of food and feed ingredients may be performed in diferent dryers, according to the initial properties and inal desired characteristics of the product and economic factors (BARUFFALDI; OLIVEIRA, 1998). Freeze drying, a technique based on water removal by sublimation, is used to obtain several industrial products (ROSA; TSUKADA; FREITAS, 2006). During freeze drying, substances are not exposed to high temperatures; therefore the freeze-dried products preserve their initial nutritious characteristics, and return to their original shape and texture instantaneously achieving long shelf life (BARUFFALDI; OLIVEIRA, 1998; PEREDA et al., 2005). his technique was used by Ponsano et al. (2002); Ponsano, Paulino and Pinto (2008); Lima, Ponsano and Pinto (2011) and Santo (2011) to dry R. gelatinosus biomass produced in industrial wastewater. On the other hand, spray drying technique consists of maximizing heat transfer, and it can be used for any product with a liquid-like behavior (BARUFFALDI; OLIVEIRA, 1998). Due to its versatility and speed, spray drying became the most used drying technique for heat sensible substances such as foods and biological materials (LABMAQ…, 2010; ROSA; TSUKADA; FREITAS, 2006). During this process, water removal is very fast, the inal quality of the products is excellent, texture is maintained, and rehydration is quick (BARUFFALDI; OLIVEIRA, 1998; FELLOWS, 2006). Since the bacterial culture for biomass production in industrial eluents has a liquid-like behavior, it is feasible that spray drying technique works well for removing water from this product; hence we decided to investigate that possibility.
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Efeitos de modificações físicas sobre as propriedades de amido de tuberosas

Efeitos de modificações físicas sobre as propriedades de amido de tuberosas

molecular e raio médio de giro, assim como na distribuição dos comprimentos das cadeias ramificadas de amilopectina, mostrando que não houve degradação das ligações glicosídicas. Houve redução dos picos do padrão de difração de Raios X dos amidos, refletindo na diminuição na cristalinidade relativa. A morfologia dos grânulos apresentou aglomerados para os amidos de mandioca e mandioquinha-salsa, indicando gelatinização parcial dos grânulos. O amido de mandioquinha-salsa modificado por spray drying apresentou aumento na viscosidade a frio e diminuição da viscosidade de pico e final. Para todos os amidos, houve aumento no setback (tendência a retrogradação). As temperaturas de gelatinização não sofreram alterações significativas, porém a variação da temperatura diminuiu, assim como a variação da entalpia. Os amidos modificados por extrusão não apresentaram alteração no teor de amilose e na distribuição dos comprimentos das cadeias ramificadas da amilopectina, no entanto, houve alteração na massa molecular e no raio médio de giro, indicando provável rompimento das ligações glicosídicas. Os amidos modificados por extrusão apresentaram redução total dos picos do padrão de difração dos amidos, indicando total gelatinização. Nas imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura não foram observados grânulos para todos os tratamentos, confirmando a gelatinização total do amido com perda da estrutura granular durante o processo de extrusão, o que também foi observado pela ausência de curva de gelatinização na análise de propriedade térmica. Tais alterações levaram a um aumento na viscosidade a frio. As modificações por spray drying e extrusão resultam em amidos com diferentes propriedades, sendo que o amido modificado por spray drying seria indicado para produtos que necessitem de consistência mais firme, enquanto o amido modificado por extrusão seria indicado para produtos com viscosidade a frio e com consistência mais fluída. Em relação aos amidos estudados, o amido de mandioquinha-salsa apresentou maior sensibilidade ao processo, devido sua temperatura de gelatinização ser próxima às temperaturas utilizadas, e também, pelo defeito na área cristalina. Os resultados obtidos no segundo experimento evidenciaram que as melhores condições de modificação dos amidos de mandioca e de batata-doce por spray drying são: alta temperatura (60 °C) e baixa concentração (5 %). Nas condições citadas, podem ser obtidos amidos modificados por spray drying com boas características de pasta e térmica, como leve viscosidade a frio, consistência no produto final e temperatura de gelatinização uniforme, refletindo em melhor utilização de energia no processo.
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Immobilization of laccase in microparticles of chitosan obtained by spray drying and used in the biosensors construction.

Immobilization of laccase in microparticles of chitosan obtained by spray drying and used in the biosensors construction.

IMMOBILIZATION OF LACCASE IN MICROPARTICLES OF CHITOSAN OBTAINED BY SPRAY DRYING AND USED IN THE BIOSENSORS CONSTRUCTION. Biosensors based on laccase immobilized on microparticles of chitosan crosslinked with tripolyphosphate (biosensor I) and glyoxal (biosensor II) obtained by spray drying for the determinations of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations were developed. Under optimized operational conditions (pH 4.0, frequency of 30 Hz, pulse amplitude of 40 mV and scan increment of 2.0 mV) two analytical curves were obtained for both biosensors showing a detection limit of 6.2x10 -8 mol L -1 for
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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO CEARÁ CENTRO DE CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOTECNOLOGIA DA REDE NORSDESTE DE BIOTECNOLOGIA (RENORBIO) MARILIA DE FREITAS CABRAL ARAGÃO

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO CEARÁ CENTRO DE CIÊNCIAS AGRÁRIAS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOTECNOLOGIA DA REDE NORSDESTE DE BIOTECNOLOGIA (RENORBIO) MARILIA DE FREITAS CABRAL ARAGÃO

Os revestimentos comestíveis são uma opção interessante para a preservação de frutos minimamente processado podendo ser utilizados vários materiais como os polissacarídeos que são utilizados devido a sua capacidade de formar gel em meio aquoso. Assim, os galactomananos são empregados em indústrias devidos controlar a atividade de água, estabilizar soluções e dispersões aquosas, ou seja, atuam como espessante. A Libidibia ferrea é uma leguminosa no qual o galactomanano está presente no endosperma. O melão (Cucumis melo L.) é uma fruta muito apreciada por causa de suas características sensoriais atraentes, mas o melão minimamente processado é altamente susceptível ao amaciamento durante o armazenamento, mesmo que seja refrigerado. O ácido ascórbico é estável na forma de pó, entretanto esta característica diminui quando dissolvido em água. A fim de ultrapassar esta deficiência, a técnica de encapsulação pode ser o método mais adequado sendo o spray drying o método mais utilizado. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo preparar micropartículas de ácido L-ascórbico em galactomanano obtida de sementes de L. ferrea pela técnica spray drying, como também, avaliar o revestimento comestível de galactomanano adicionado das micropartículas de ácido ascórbico sobre a qualidade, potencial antioxidante e estrutura em melão minimamente processado. As micropartículas foram obtidas nas proporções 5:1 e 10:1 (galactomanano: ácido ascórbico) sendo analisadas quanto à eficiência de encapsulação e atividade antioxidante total. As micropartículas apresentaram menor atividade antioxidante total quando comparadas com as não encapsuladas. E a proporção 10:1 obteve uma maior eficiência de encapsulação com 59,6%, assim, foi selecionada para aplicação nos melões, como também, foi realizada a caracterização dessas micropartículas. Os melões revestidos foram analisados quanto a perda de massa, cor, sólidos solúveis, pH, acidez, vitamina C, carotenóides, flavonóides, polifenóis, atividade antioxidante total, firmeza, peroxidação lipídica, atividade das enzimas poligalacturonase e pectinametilesterase e sua microestrutura durante 12 dias a 10 °C. As amostras controle e revestidas apenas com galactomanano estavam aptas ao consumo apenas por 9 dias devido ao crescimento de fungos enquanto o revestimento adicionado das micropartículas resultou na extensão da vida útil dos melões processados até 12 dias.
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Micromedronho: design of microencapsulated arbutus unedo leaves and fruits by spray drying for supplements and functional foods

Micromedronho: design of microencapsulated arbutus unedo leaves and fruits by spray drying for supplements and functional foods

186 higher inhibitory activity detected on extracts obtained using flowers collected from the tree. The importance of flavonoids is further supported when considering the higher inhibition caused by leaves when compared to fruits, whose extract possesses no flavonoids according to an earlier work. Additionally, in a previous work leaf extracts obtained using ethanol, a better solvent to extract flavonoids than water, also showed a higher inhibitory activity towards α- glucosidase when compared to aqueous extracts. This observation regarding the importance of flavonoids is in agreement with published works regarding their antidiabetic activity. Li et al. (2015) tested the effect of a concentrated flavonoid extract obtained from Ipomea batatas on the glycaemia and lipid level of diabetic rats and found the extract caused a great reduction on both levels at a concentration of 100 mg/kg of body weight, when compared to untreated diabetic rats and similar levels compared to rats treated with glibenclamide, a drug used in type 2 diabetes treatment. Vinayagam and Xu (2015) conducted a review on the antidiabetic potential of dietary flavonoids. In that work they classified diosmin, fisetin, morin, eriodictyol, hesperidin, naringenin, apigenin, baicalein, chrysin, luteolin, tangeretin, wogonin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, rutin, quercetin, genistein and daidzein as having positive effects on diabetes control, by either decreasing glucose formation, increasing its absorption or protecting cells responsible for insulin production. Of these flavonoids, quercetin was previously detected on the leaves used in this work, which explains in part the results obtained with this plant part. This flavonoid not only shows inhibitory activity towards the enzymes responsible for the carbohydrates digestion, it also acts on the intestinal cells, decreasing the absorption of glucose via the inhibition of GLUT2 (Kwon et al., 2007). In an assay conducted in diabetic mice, a daily quercetin dose of 15 mg/kg injected in rats protected β-cells from oxidative stress caused by streptomycin injected at 50 mg/kg, caused a lower serum glucose level when compared with untreated diabetic rats and increased insulin sensitivity (Coskun et al., 2005). These properties displayed by quercetin support that extracts rich in flavonoids and specifically quercetin, as is the case of A. unedo leaf extract, may help in diabetes control not only via the inhibition of the enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion, but also via the direct control of blood glycaemia and insulin producing cells protection.
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Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

The microparticles that are produced by this process can present a number of disadvantages, which include a low encapsulation capacity and the expulsion of core material during storage due to the crystalline structure and polymor- phic arrangement characteristic of many lipid materials during the solidification and crystallization process (Wes- tesen et al., 1997; Sato and Ueno, 2005). However, spray chilling is considered to be the cheapest encapsulation tech- nology that can be used in industrial-scale manufacture (Westesen et al., 1997; Gouin, 2004; Sato and Ueno, 2005). According to Champagne and Fustier (2007), spray chilling deserves greater consideration as a means of microen- capsulation of probiotics because it may expand the range of matrices that are used. Moreover, this technology could be used to generate smaller beads, which may be desirable in food processing.
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