The aricle considers exising approaches to classiicaion of the enterprise potenial as an economic noion. It ofers own vision of classiicaion of enter- prise potenial, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classiicaion ensures a possibility of a wider descripion and assessment of enterprise potenial and also allows ideniicaion of its most signiicant char- acterisics. Classiicaion of the enterprise potenial is developed by diferent criteria: by funcions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detecion, by the spectrum of taking into account possibiliies, by the period of coverage of possibiliies and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potenial allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assess- ment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptaion potenial of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibiliies of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic condiions. Key words: enterprise potenial, adaptaion enterprise potenial, classiica- ion, funcional enterprise potenial, resource enterprise potenial. Pic.: 2. Tabl.: 1. Bibl.: 10.
Abstract. The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by the Bavarian Environment Agency. The procedure included calculation of the ‘ecological quality ratio’ (EQR) for each of 78 water bodies, based on transect monitoring data. For 31 of these lakes, a macrophyte assessment system was applied, for the remaining 47 lakes macrophyte quantity was insufficient or depopulation was assessed. Ecological status classification of lakes is based on the calculation of a Reference Index value. The Reference Index quantifies the deviation of species composition and abundance from reference conditions and classifies sites as one of the five possible ecological quality classes specified in the Directive. The EQR indicating Good and High (Maximum) Ecological Status/Potential for macrophytes was achieved in 12 of the 31 lakes which fulfilled the criteria for assessment. The water quality parameters in lake types were discussed.
Enterprise upon its Economic Potential in the Zone of Unprofitability Presentaion of enterprise potenials in the form of potenial funcions that express dependence of the size of potenials on parameters of the state of an enterpriseand external environment of its funcioning requires development of a qualitaively new methodologies and methodical approaches to the measured potenials. The aricle con- siders methodical aspects of building and analysis of potenial funcions and also results of approbaion of the proposed approach using the example of the study of dependence of economic potenial of a model industrial enterprise on the state of the enterprise un- der condiions of proitable funcioning in the zone of unproitability. It shows that the task of measurement of economic potenial is, actually, equal to the task of parametric programming of a certain structure, and an efecive instrument of analysis of relevant potenial funcions could be a method of staisical tests of the mathemaical model of an enterprise of the opimised type, the level of potenial and balanced behaviour of which are funcions of parameters of the state of the enterpriseand external environment. Us- ing the ofered method the aricle conducts, for speciic numeric models of the enterprise, a parial tabulaion of the potenial funcion that corresponds with the economic poten- ial of the enterprise, which funcions under favourable condiions and under condiions of unproitability. Using the methods of correlaion and regression analysis the aricle reveals at the quanitaive level a signiicantly diferent character of inluence of param- eters of the state of the enterprise upon the value of economic potenial of regularity in the zones of proitability and unproitability and also ideniies criical factors of the state of the enterprise, impact on which could facilitate increase of the enterprise potenial. Key words: enterprise, economic potenial, zone of unproitability, mathemaical model.
The aim of the article is to form and develop theoretical and methodological foundations for diagnostics of the enterprise export potential, which should be understood as a process of identification, analysis and assessment of the level of potential possibility and readiness of the enterprise to implement export activities taking into account the impact of interrelated internal variables (goals, technology, structure, tasks, educational and professional potential of the staff) and factors of the enterprise external environment (customers, competitors, suppliers, intermediaries, contact audience, etc.) in order to ensure a qualitatively new level of its development and formation of its prospects. It is determined that the key business indicators of the system for diagnostics of enterprise export potential are: the level of enterprises competitiveness in the international (global) market; the level of competitiveness of enterprise products; the level of competitiveness of enterprise export products; the level of enterprise resource opportunities; the level of enterprise export performance. Prospects for further research in this direction are to develop a classification (specifically detailed list) of objectives of the enterprise diagnostics by the level of detail (element, partial, complex), taking into account diagnostics of export potential of the enterprise as part of diagnostic objective.
The goal of this study is identification of essenceand justification of the struc- ture of financial behaviour of households and also classification of existing models of financial behaviour with consideration of offered features, which would allow clear application of certain strategies and tools with consider- ation of the state of the market. The article defines the “financial behaviour of households” category, which takes into consideration operational and strate- gic financial components and also forms the structure of financial behaviour of households with consideration of their interaction with various financial institutions and financial potential. The article offers to differentiate the fol- lowing economic categories: “financial market”, which is an aggregate of autonomous segments of the financial system, and “market of financial ser- vices”, as a unification of specific segments of the financial market. A prospec- tive direction of further studies is analysis of change of financial behaviour of households during the period of transformation of the whole economic system and, in particular, markets of financial services, which would allow future modelling of financial behaviour of households.
Information and intellectual capital stocks are some of the most important resources that flow through research communities; in this context SNA is often applied to identify both information flows and bottlenecks. In theory, it should help to identify strategies that encourage participating actors to share knowledge through the improvement of information flows in the existing social system rather then seeking to create new ones. Social network studies usually take one of two approaches (Clark 2006).: The first approach uses a closed group, for example, to look at the relationships among people working in an institution, whereas the other approach focuses on one person and seeks to understand their egonet (self-centered) social relationships surrounding them.
Results and discussions. Formulation of the method of assessment of the resource potential of the enterprise development should be based on the definition of the specific features, the structure and fixed principles that could allow the assessment procedure to become an universal method of the enterprise management. The main specific feature of the assessment of the resource potential of development is provided integral presentation of the cause-and effect links between the level of the resource use. Their potential is a tool of the resource transformation into the economic goods aimed at satisfaction of needs and possibility of further development upon condition of the consumption of the goods, that can be found as new achieved financial and economic sates of the enterprise. Thus, the defined specific features of the assessment procedure allow formulation of a set of the assessment principles. First of all, any resource can be characterized with respect to the potential value. This fact means that the resources acquire the status of the resources themselves when they are directly used in the course of the business activity of the enterprise . So, the resources should be treated as conditions of the formation of the enterprisepotential. The content of the next principle of the assessment is that the enterprise can affect the level of the intensity and the volume of the resources consumption by the selection of the combination of the mission- essential resources and the providers of the resources. The consequences of the choice determine the direction of the enterprise development, because the financial and economical results can be both positive and negative .
or the composite urine. In the absence of significant differences in gender pH changes, phosphorus yield might have been influenced by storage time and/or temperature . It appears that at equilibrium, pH has little or no influence on the urine phosphorus level. All the parameters appeared to have peaked in month 4, indicating higher activity period. There were no significant differences in all the decreased levels of the parameters studied in the urine from all the sources in month 6. This may signal the end of active decomposition or hydrolysis but not the end of the process itself. This is assumed, as observed by Aragundy (2005) that the process went on after even eight months storage in one of his set-ups. The pooled relative percentage of NPK level was higher in female urine (34.4(6.5*)-1-62.8), followed by the composite (34.8(4.5*)-1-54.4) and then in male urine (30.4(3.4*)-1- 43.7) suggesting possible influence by gender physiology. These NPK levels were comparable to some chemical fertilisers, especially 21% N ammonia nitrogen in Kejetia market, Kumasi in 2010; and GHC 128.00 could be accrued from this ECOSAN urinal every month as revenue from its use. It is concluded that the female urine has higher NPK levels than the male urine, though the differences were not significant. Generally, both pH and temperature influenced the yield of NPK in human urine. The maturation time for urine was four months with associated colours of orange and greenish brown for female and male urine, respectively.
UDC 330.1: 338.2 Holikov I. V. Essenceand evoluion of the economic security noion The aricle shows the essenceand evoluion of the economic security noion. It shows that the «economic security» noion is based on a number of deini- ions and principles of «security». It establishes that in the result of develop- ment of the post-industrial society and complicaion of social and state rela- ions, this noion was used with economic orientaion. It shows that nowa- days economic security is understood as the state, in which such components as inancial, informaion, socio-economic, insituional and legal, technical and technological, intellectual and personnel, power and ecological acivity are in the states of «absence of threat», «safety», «protecion from threats», «protecion», «reliability», «stability», «rest», «independence» and «within acceptable bounds». Moreover, there is a system of prevenion or reducion of impact of threats under controlled condiions. The aricle shows that eco- nomic security is a dynamic component of the economy, which adapts to the needs of the ime. The current stage of the state development requires taking into account speciic and address speciic features of the object of study (for example, branch) for ensuring economic security under condiions of appear- ance of negaive phenomena of uncertainty and risk. The prospect of further studies is developing new systems of economic security with consideraion of historical grounds and modern tendencies of development of economic rela- ions.
3. Mashko A. I., Tymchuk O. J. Theoretical and practical problems of budget deficit [TeoretykoLpraktychni problemy upravlinnya byudzhetnym defitsytom]. Naukovyy visnyk Uzhhorods'koho universytetu. Seriya „Ekonomika” L Scientific Bulletin of the Uzhgorod University. Series "Economy", 2007, Special edition 22, Part 1, pp. 155 – 158. 4. Pushkarev V. M. History of financial thought and tax policy [Istoriya finansovoy mysli i politiki nalogov], Moscow,
As known from optical imagery, lower reflectance values for the 532 and 1,550 nm wavelength are expected for vegetation cover, while higher reflectance values are expected for the wavelength of 1,064 nm (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1999). This is the case for the class ‘green grass’ showing good agreement with this assumption. However, as a ground class, it shows a high planarity and homogeneity. With increasing roughness of the surfaces and decreasing size of single targets (getting smaller than the laser beam cross-section), the geometrical effect is intensified. For ‘high vegetation’ and ‘mid vegetation’ the classical spectral pattern of vegetation is altered by splitting the emitted signal into multiple echoes and the convolution of the original signal at rough surfaces. Thereby the signal intensity becomes distributed over a varying number of returns, leading to lowered intensities for each single point of a multi return shot. In high vegetation, the single points represent only small targets such as leaf clumps and thus are supporting the effect of lowered intensities. In combination, the spectral and geometrical properties decrease the intensity values of high vegetation in all channels, making the separation from e.g. buildings difficult. However, as all channels are affected by return modification effects, the normalized ratio of the NDVI shows a good potential for the discrimination of vegetation and sealed surfaces.
in conjunction with the Institute of Information and Communication Technology (Iran Telecommunication Research Center) cautious should be observed about generalizing it to other research organization. Since the five factors identified show only 59.63 % of the variation in the dependent variable. Therefore, other factors are not identified in this study. We believe, the organization should involve the staff in implementation for the further reduction in the staff strength of ERP. In addition, a reliable planning and should be carried out in the organization to deploy ERP. Certainly, the use of consultants and specialists in the educational process will be more effective system deployment. A planned program should be carried out in order to achieve the desired status and this process should be based on scientific methods, project management institute will be supervised by senior managers. In addition, in the design of ERP system, its multilingual adherence to international protocols and national security principles - emphasizing the preservation of information in the process of change are particularly emphasized. The organization should cover the entire research process, helping in the design and management software n the shortest possible time. Finally, It is recommended to make the produced ERP more consistent with the research and there should be the possibility to customize the modules.
The results of our simulations, as presented later in this work, illustrate the role randomness plays in creating some different or even unexpected patterns of performance (by search strategy) for the firms operating under the same settings. We can easily devise idiosyncratic and path dependent situations where past behavior and choices influence subsequent firm decisions. However, we didn´t intend to emulate in this work the learning of new organizational routines as the firms interact with the environment. In this sense, what we see is really the unfolding of what is already there – it is a formative rather than a transformative teleology according to the previous arguments. It is worth clarifying that we also made use of Kauffman´s landscape model as an analogy of the competitive landscape, but the logic of learning was not included either.
Also, a ranking of production types according to the economic size exclusively from Poland in the year 2005 according to probability of being included in the class of types with higher output ‟s profitability was prepared (Table 6) 5 . The Polish types take places between 142 and 538 in the European ranking. The best results are obtained by very small and small types (their area not exceeds 12 hectares) with the economic size be- tween 3.1 ESU and 5.4 ESU. They mostly deal with the livestock production. These types are characterized by low labour input (1.32-1.57 AWU) and low degree of debt (about 2%). Their total output achieve value about 5800-9100 euro, and family farm income contains between 1700-4ńŃŃ euro. So their output‟s profitability amounts to about 30-56%. Their odds for having a higher output‟s profitability are medium among 615 production types according to the economic size in the EU and equal to 8.2-9.3 (Table 6). The lowest results among the Polish types are obtained by types with crops production, in majority very big (with the economic size to 353 ESU and agricultural area to about 844 hectares), with high labour input (to 15.3 AWU). These types are burden with the considerable debt (24-36%) and they have a high assets turnover ratio (43-58%). These types have a value of total output between about 69 000 euro to about 655 000 euro and achieves the family farm income between 15 800 euro and 111 000 euro. Also they are characterized by output‟s profitability below 23%. Their odds for having a higher output‟s profitability are low among 6ń5 types in the źU and are equal to below 1 (Table 6).
Harder et al. (2008) reported that annatto is used in Brazil for various purposes, 70% of the production was used in the processing of the pigments, 20% in the extraction of the pigments, and 10% was exported as seeds. Urucum dyes are used for colouring remedies and other pharmaceutical products and in food, sunscreen, and insect repellent. Restrictions on the use of artificial colours in food by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (WHO) have increased the interest in natural dyes, such as those from the urucum plant. Bastos et al. (1999) reported that the pigments extracted from annatto were among the few allowed by the WHO that were non- toxic and did not alter the taste of food but still added value to the products.
The study of the human microbiome—and, more recently, that of the respiratory system—by means of sophisticated molecular biology techniques, has revealed the immense diversity of microbial colonization in humans, in human health, and in various diseases. Apparently, contrary to what has been believed, there can be nonpathogenic colonization of the lungs by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Although this physiological lung microbiome presents low colony density, it presents high diversity. However, some pathological conditions lead to a loss of that diversity, with increasing concentrations of some bacterial genera, to the detriment of others. Although we possess qualitative knowledge of the bacteria present in the lungs in different states of health or disease, that knowledge has advanced to an understanding of the interaction of this microbiota with the local and systemic immune systems, through which it modulates the immune response. Given this intrinsic relationship between the microbiota and the lungs, studies have put forth new concepts about the pathophysiological mechanisms of homeostasis in the respiratory system and the potential dysbiosis in some diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma, and interstitial lung disease. This departure from the paradigm regarding knowledge of the lung microbiota has made it imperative to improve understanding of the role of the microbiome, in order to identify possible therapeutic targets and to develop innovative clinical approaches. Through this new leap of knowledge, the results of preliminary studies could translate to benefits for our patients.
of infrastructures but also human capabilities in crafting customer experience, operations, and business models. The second type of capabilities is related to leadership capabilities. As the authors stress throughout the book, to succeed in the digital era the requirements are “time, tenacity and leadership” (Westerman, et al., 2014) because its these features that allow a company to ceaseless integrate technology in the organization. Leadership, vision, and strategy are elements that are deemed to be essential to successfully take advantage of Digital Transformation also by other scholars and practitioners (see for instance Kane, et al., 2015). To conclude, Digital Transformation goes beyond traditional IT strategy because it’s not just a mean to improve business processes. It is not limited to the digitalisation and re-engineering of operations to achieve costs savings. Digital Transformation consists in the use of IT as a tool to gain an advantage over the competition and create value. To achieve a successful transformation, organizations are required to master capabilities not only in the management of IT but also in customer experience, operational processes, business models and leadership.
Generalizations and improvements have been recently proposed by many others. For instance, in (Cao, Keerthi, Ong & all, 2006) a parallel version of SMO is proposed for fast training SVM. Unlike the sequential SMO algorithms, which handle all the training data points using one CPU processor, the parallel SMO first partitions the entire training data set into smaller subsets and then simultaneously runs multiple CPU processors to deal with each of the partitions data sets. Also, in order to improve the generalization capacities, several approaches have been communicated. For instance, in (Sanchez, 2003) it is proposed a method to improve the generalization capabilities of SVM classifiers based on the enhancement of the special resolution on the boundary surface by introducing a conformal mapping into the Riemannian geometry induced by the classifier kernel function. Several experimental results pointed out the validity of these information-geometrical considerations as an approach to optimal, data-dependent SVM kernel choice and generalization improvement.
Previous reports have expressed concern about numerous bacterial virulence genes which were significantly associated with invasive strains. Herein, we show that rmpA gene was associated only to K2, K20 and K57, and not to K1, K5 and K54 as found in previous reports [51, 77]. In the same reports wcaG, encoding capsular fucose production, was associated with capsular types K1 and K54 [51, 77], which was further corroborated by our present results. Although the presence of the wcaG gene has not been well studied, there is data to suggest that strains harbouring this gene are more often observed in severe disease . Interestingly, two fatal strains harboring the wcaG gene were recorded in our study (Table S1); ST616 (K54, wcaG, KpIII) and ST604 (wcaG/allS, KpII). Conversely, the six isolates harboring the allS gene did not belong to any of the investigated capsular types. Noteworthy, this gene was not universally associated to K1 serotype, but considered as a specific marker for the hypervirulent clone (CC23 K1) isolated from patients with pyogenic liver abscesses detected in several countries [21, 34, 47, 51, 76, 78–80]. In a recent report from France, five cases of fatal BSI were attributed to K. pneumoniae serotype K2, possessing the rmpA gene . The isolates belonged to two clones; ST86 (two isolates) and ST380 (3 isolates). The same genotype (ST380, K2, rmpA) was encountered in our study but was not associated with a fatal outcome. In the 30-day mortality group (24/139 patients) only three isolates featured one or more virulence factors. In this study, where both community- and hospital-acquired BSIs were included, no indication for an existing correlation between above mentioned virulence factors and increased risk of mortality in BSI caused by K. pneumoniae could be found.
Isabel Cardigos Lithuanian scholar of folkloristics Bronislava Kerbelyte appeared in the very first issue of E.L.O., in 1995, with a paper expounding, in an inevitably condensed form, her new concept of classification of folktales, stemming from a specific system of analysis and description of narrative texts. 1 Professor