which is expected to double by 2011. 8 Each zone is further divided into 9-11 wards. Sample was stratified proportionately in each zone depending on the population ofthe respective zone. After the stratification, one ward was randomly selected from each zone for the survey.There were 157 people from South, 166 from North, 116 from Central, 170 from East, 135 from West and 156 fromNew west zone, selected.Study was carried out during May 2007 to July 2008. Initially, a pilot study was carried out to reformulate the questionnaires and to prepare the final proforma. All people above 20 years of age and who had given written informed consent were included in thestudy. Information was collected in a pre-designed and pre-tested proforma from each respondent in detail regarding socio-demographic para-meters, history of diabetes and hypertension, and the frequency and pattern ofphysical activities which they were practicing.
Rural-urban migrants, their rural siblings, and urban non- migrants and their urban siblings were included in analyses. Distributions of macronutrient intake were checked for outliers. Median values and lower and upper quartiles were calculated (because ofthe skewed distribution of some variables) for energy intake, macronutrient intake (protein, fat, saturated fat, and carbohydrate, and percent energy from each of these), and energy-density, by sex and migration status. Nutrients were transformed to the natural log scale and statistical tests for the significance ofthe trend in mean values across rural, migrant, and urban groups were calculated using linear regression models and Wald test statistics, adjusted for age and factory site. Analyses were carried out separately in men and women, as we anticipated that there may be gender differences in the effect of migration, and also because ofthe statistical dependency between husbands and wives produced by thestudy design. Robust standard errors were used to account for clustering in sibling pairs. Similar analyses were conducted to examine variation in food groups by migration status. Vegetarianism was assessed by whether the participant reported consumption of any meat or fish in the FFQ. Differences in the proportion of vegetarians in rural, migrant and urban groups were assessed via Wald test statistics from a logistic regression model, adjusting for age, factory, and again accounting for clustering in sibling pairs by calculating robust standard errors. For meat and fish, differences in intake were considered for participants who were non-vegetarians only.
Methodology: A community based cross-sectionalstudy was carried out to assess prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight and epidemiologicaldeterminants associated with malnutrition among under-fives in the field practice area ofUrban health training centre (UHTC), dept. ofCommunity Medicine, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur. Data was collected by predesigned, pre-tested questionnaires. Data analysis was done by using Epi Info software.
Background: From a public health perspective, thestudyof socio-demographic factors related to physicalactivity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Purpose: This study also aimed to identify the prevalence and the socio- demographic correlates related with the achievement of recommended physicalactivity levels. Methods: Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physicalactivity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from 39278 European adults (18271 men, 21006 women), aged 18-64 years, from 28 countries in 2012. Meeting physicalactivity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results: 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physicalactivity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physicalactivity recommendations was higher in age group of 55-64 years (men: OR=1.22, p<0.05; women: OR=1.66, p<0.001), among those who had completed high school (men: OR=1.28, p<0.01; women: OR=1.26, p<0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR=1.20, p<0.001; women: OR=1.10, p<0.05), and among those who had 3 or more people living at home (men: OR=1.40, p<0.001; women: OR=1.43, p<0.001). On the other hand, attaining physicalactivity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR=0.70, p<0.001; women: OR=0.87, p<0.05), being a student (men: OR=0.56, p<0.001; women: OR=0.64, p<0.01), being a retired person (men: OR=0.86, p<0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR=0.80, p<0.001; women: OR=0.81, p<0.01). Conclusion: This research helped clarify that, as the promotion ofphysicalactivity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase ofphysicalactivity.
The object of examination has been the ferritic-austenitic cast steel GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3. Both grades have been taken from industrial heats performed in the medium frequency induction furnace of about 150 kg capacity. A series of test castings has been produced of both cast steel grades in order to assess their technological and working properties. The used specimens have served as a charge for cast steel melting in order to perform derivative differential thermal analysis (DDTA). Melting of small quantities of cast steel (about 400 g) have been done at Cz Ċstochowa University of Technology. Small ceramic crucibles placed inside the induction coil powered with the medium frequency current have been used. The process have been held under argon atmosphere. The constant temperature of pouring metal into the DDTA probe has been provided by measuring the temperature ofthe molten cast steel with PtRh10-Pt thermocouple.
The present study aimed to identify factors associated with the Stages of Change (SoC) for physicalactivityamong adolescents who participated in a school-based health promotion intervention. A cross-sectionalstudy was conducted with a sample of 8,071 students whose average age was 13.9 (SD ± 2.4) years. To evaluate the SoC, an adaptation ofthe question- naire proposed by Dumith, Domingues and Gigante (2009) was used, considering physical activities performed at least three times per week during 20 minutes. Data collection was car- ried out from October to November 2013 through self-administered questionnaires in the classroom. The prevalence of students in each stage was: 12.1% in the Pre-contemplation stage, 7.7% Contemplation, 16.8% Preparation, 21.8% Action and 41.6% in the Maintenan- ce stage. Males were more associated with the stages of Action (RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54; p = 0.006) and Maintenance (RR 3.57, 95% CI 3.02-4.23; p <0.001) compared to females. Economic level and knowledge about health showed a direct relationship to the Action and Maintenance stages. A large portion ofthe sample was located in active stages. Being male, being in lower school grades and having a higher index of assets were associated with higher SoC. Knowledge about physicalactivity and health was directly related to the Preparation, Action and Maintenance stages, pointing to a positive effect on intention or active behavior. Keywords
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
Recent studies show that about 61% of Malaysians are physically inactive . This combined with many unhealthy eating habits has created a society where rates of obesity and non-com- municable diseases are increasing at alarming rates. Our findings point to at least one contribu- tor to this problem, which is that Malaysians, in general, seem to devalue the importance or desirability ofphysicalactivity as a leisure-time pursuit. Moving into the future it will be important eliminate perceived barriers to participation  by ensuring access to safe and appealing locations. Just as importantly, however, at the cultural level, there needs to be more work done to understand the prevailing negative attitudes towards physicalactivity and to find ways of making physicalactivity more desirable and interesting for those who have the time and resources to participate.
Thestudy showed a dismal picture of HIV awareness amongurban, educated adolescents, indirectly pointing to the likelihood of a much worse level of awareness amongthe rural, illiterate counterparts. The matter is serious and needs to be addressed appropriately through intensive HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns. There was hardly any scientific knowledge in circulation amongthe adolescents studied. The situation is alarming, as there exists widespread ignorance among adolescents about the ‘risk groups’.
This study has some limitations. Thecross-sectional design does not allow to check the time relations between the main exhibition (PA levels) and the outcomes analyzed, and the phenomenon of reverse causality may occur. In this study, the reverse causality could explain, in part, the underestimation of observed associations between PA and the outcomes analyzed. Some individuals in this study may have started the practice of PA for having found themselves obese at some point, however, until the completion ofthe survey, there wouldn’t have been enough time for the PA takes effect in reducing obesity. Thus, it is likely that amongthe individuals classified as practitioners of PA on a regular basis, are included obese individuals that actually practice PA relatively recently, and thus the association between PA and obesity may have its magnitude underestimated. In addition, some ofthe associations found may not have shown significance due to the fact that the size ofthe sample was not sufficient to detect PRs smaller than 1.76.
he data were subjected to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to ver- ify normality. If the distribution was found to be normal, the vari- ables ofthe sample were characterized in terms ofthe mean and standard deviation. he Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship between PA and BMD values amongthe ado- lescents. Regression models were used to evaluate the relation- ship between BMD and PA (treated in this statistical analysis in the continuous form) either with each PA domain or with the total PA, using independent variables. In the irst multivariate analysis, the variables of sex and age were inserted in order to eliminate possible confounding factors when analyzing the rela- tionships between the diferent PA domains and trunk BMD, leg BMD and WB BMD. In the second multivariate model, %BF assessed by means of DXA and maturation was inserted to ver- ify whether the relationships between the PA domains and trunk BMD, leg BMD and WB BMD remained. Firstly, the relation- ship between the diferent domains ofphysicalactivity and bone mineral density was evaluated separately; and secondly, these domains were inserted simultaneously in order to verify whether any ofthe domains overlapped on the others (e.g. situations in which physicalactivity in school and sports practice were cor- related with higher bone mineral density ofthe legs, both when analyzed separately and when inserted simultaneously). he sta- tistical signiicance level adopted was 5%.
Simple and multiple linear regressions for the whole sample and stratified by sex were run to test the association between sub-components ofphysicalactivity (accelerometers total cpm; time spent in MPA and time spent in VPA) and body composition variables (outcomes). Three multivariable models were built for the whole sample analysis. The first model included only socioeconomic status as a covariate, while the second model included sex. The third model included socio- economic status, sex, age, Tanner stage of sexual maturation, diet pattern (i.e. fat and fibers scores), height, and birth weight. In the sex-stratified analyses, the mul- tivariable model included all variables ofthe third model (except sex). Diagnostics ofthe final models were verified by the examination ofthe residuals, homoscedas- ticity and collinearity (by checking the Variance Inflation Factor, which must be around 1 for the full model and below 10 for each variable in the model). The re- gression coefficients shall be interpreted as the mean change in the outcome (in its unit of measurement) according to every change in the unit of measurement ofthe exposure. For example, considering vigorous-intensity activity (min/day) as the ex- posure variable and waist circumference (cm) as the outcome, a regression coeffi- cient of -0,15 means that for each extra minute/day spent with vigorous-intensity physical activities, the waist circumference is decreased, on average, by 0,15cm.
Surface of C120 steel after arc plasma treatment showed tracks have multizone microstructure composed ofthe remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate, which can have diversified microhardness. Structure (particularly precipitation of martensite, bainite retained austenite and secondary cementite) in the remelted zone is dependent on the arc plasma treatment parameters. The cooling rate obtained during the treatment by arc plasma ofthe steels is compared to the cooling rate ofthe steels during conventional heat treatment. This cooling rate can be estimated on the basis ofthe standard CCT diagram for C120 steel. Increased ofthe current intensity of arc plasma lead to of grater areas of materials remelting and it decreases ofthe cooling
Taking the above into consideration, for investigations the following alloys were selected: a hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin which was “enriched” with additions of ~3%Cu, ~1,5%Ni and ~1,5%Mg (added separately or jointly). A compilation ofthe examined silumins is given in Table 1.
The detailed questionnaire ofthe Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields ofstudy. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields ofstudy are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most ofthe analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields ofstudy refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
hese results can be a tool to support manager to fundament their ac- tions based in the modiication ofthecommunity environment for promo- tion ofphysicalactivity. It is necessary to improve the quality of parks in low income neighborhoods to attract the population to those places. he improvement in the quality of parks is a promising initiative to increase weekly frequency of use of parks for physicalactivity in costless and acces- sible locations for the entire community. Other studies could evaluate the perception ofthe people concerning the parks and the factors related to use for physicalactivity. his is important to know how sociodemographic and cultural characteristics and the perception of parks can be associated to their use. Also, future studies in Latin America should assess the efect of implementation and/or improvement in quality of parks and levels ofphysicalactivity in thecommunity.
This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears ofthe structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence ofthe solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment ofthe resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis ofthe transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range ofthe high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application ofthe welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality ofthe products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability ofthe product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to thephysical characteristics ofthe product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
Theepidemiological survey conducted in the city of Sa˜o Paulo showed that vertigo was the most common type of dizziness (41% ofthe symptomatic subjects). Vertigo is known to be related to vestibular diseases, so the prevalence of vestibular disorders could be estimated at 8.3 % of our study population which is consistent with other studies. 10,11 Some epidemiologi- cal data was previously published in a Brazilian Journal. 6 Amongthe younger population, vestibular symptoms pre- dominated, probably related to lifestyle and diet choices in this age group. It is well known that increased ingestion of soft
The results ofthe numerical experiments are presented in Tables 1 to 12. From Table 1 all the methods (the stationary methods, the accelerated schemes and the Krylov subspace acceleration methods) converged for the system considered. The Accelerated gradient scheme (AGS) converged faster than all the other methods (after just one or two iterations). The minimum and maximum optimal relaxation parameters for the stationary and acceleration schemes were 1.01 and 1.25 respectively. The number of iterations for both the acceleration schemes and Krylov subspace acceleration methods reduced drastically with the exception of that of Richardson with the stationary iterative methods. The speed indicates fast converges ofthe method even though it is relative, depending on the type of computer used. Each method has small relative residual which show that the approximation to the solution is stable and accurate.