Two of the trials by the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) on women who received estrogen re- placement therapy (ERT) had ended early due to greater risks in heart disease, breast cancer and stroke which outweighed the benefits of decrease in risk of fractures. Since the release of the results, many women have stopped their ERT regimen and turned towards natural plant compounds as alternative instead [1, 2]. Licorice root of the glycyrrhiza plant has been widely used in Asia  as a herbal medicine . They are a rich source of flavonoids  which may serve as natural estrogen agonists in preventing the symptoms and diseases associated with es- trogen deficiency . Thus they might offer opportunities for its development into supple- ments aimed at women with menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown that licorice root extracts have estrogenic activity towards estrogen receptors . This estrogenicityof lico- rice had been attributed to the presence of phytoestrogens such as glabridin, the main isoflavan present in licorice root [6, 8].
poor prognosis in patients with EEC [34–36]. Bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against VEGFA), the first antiangiogenic drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, has been studied in recurrent EC and shows promising therapeutic Figure 3. SHARP1 inhibits angiogenesis. (A) The concentration of VEGF in the CMs collected from Ishikawacells transfected with empty plasmid (1.6 mg/ml) under normoxia (N) and hypoxia (H), or Ishikawacells transfected with SHARP1 full-length plasmid (1.6 mg/ml) under normoxia (N + S) and hypoxia (H + S) were determined by ELISA. Viability (B), trans-well migration (C) and tube formation (D) of HUVECs, and Matrigel plug assays (E) using the CM described above. (B) MTT and (C) migration assays were performed 24 h after incubation. (D) 96-well dishes were coated with Matrigel, and HUVEC tube formation assays were performed 14 h after incubation. Left, representative photographs are shown at 1006 magnification (scale bar, 200 mm). Right, the relative total tube length formed under the indicated conditions. Matrigel plug assays were performed using CMs (E) or corresponding Ishikawacells described above (F). CMs (100 ml) or cells (1610 6 per injection) mixed with Matrigel (300 ml) were inoculated into the
Figure 6. Activation of TrkB by BDNF promotes carcinogenesis in EC. A. After BDNF (100 ng/ml) treatment for 24 h, the effects on the proliferation ofIshikawa and RL95-2 cells were determined by MTT assay (*p,0.05). B. BDNF(100 ng/ml) treatment for 24 h promoted tumor growth ofIshikawa and RL95-2 cells as assessed by colony formation in soft agar (*p,0.05). C. Left: Cell invasion was detected in transwell chambers with or without 24 h BDNF (100 ng/ml) treatment (2006). Representative images are shown. Right: Graphical representation of the fold change in the number of invasive cellsinIshikawa and RL95-2 cells following BDNF treatment. *p,0.05 is considered significant. Bars show mean 6 SD. D. mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and EMT markers as analyzed inIshikawacells by qRT-PCR 24 h after BDNF treatment. b-actin was included as an internal control (*p,0.05, **p,0.01; #, not significant). E. Protein levels of BDNF, TrkB, and EMT markers as analyzed inIshikawacells by Western blotting 48 h after BDNF treatment (Right), and further quantification by densitometry of triplicates (Left, *p,0.05, **p,0.01; #, not significant). b-actin was included as an internal control. F. mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and EMT markers in RL95-2 cells as analyzed by qRT-PCR 24 h after BDNF treatment. b-actin was included as an internal control (*p,0.05; #, not significant). G. Protein levels of BDNF, TrkB, and EMT markers as analyzed in RL95-2 cells followed by Western blotting 48 h after BDNF treatment (Right). The results were further quantified by densitometry of triplicates (Left, **p,0.01; #, not significant). b-actin was included as an internal control. All experiments were carried out in triplicate and repeated at least three times.
collectively generated the name Plantationocene for the devastating transformation of diverse kinds of human-tended farms, pastures, and forests into extractive and enclosed plantations, relying on slave labor and other forms of exploited, alienated, and usually spatially transported labor. The transcribed conversation will be published as “Anthropologists Are Talking About the Anthropocene,” in Ethnos. See the website for AURA, http://anthropocene.au.dk/. Scholars have long understood that the slave plantation system was the model and motor for the carbon-greedy machine-based factory system that is often cited as an inflection point for the Anthropocene. Nurtured in even the harshest circumstances, slave gardens not only provided crucial human food, but also refuges for biodiverse plants, animals, fungi, and soils. Slave gardens are an underexplored world, especially compared to imperial botanical gardens, for the travels and propagations of myriad critters. Moving material semiotic generativity around the world for capital accumulation and profit—the rapid displacement and reformulation of germ plasm, genomes, cuttings, and all other names and forms of part organisms and of deracinated plants, animals, and people—is one defining operation of the Plantationocene, Capitalocene, and Anthropocene taken together. The Plantationocene continues with ever-greater ferocity in globalized factory meat production, monocrop agribusiness, and immense substitutions of crops like oil palm for multispecies forests and their products that sustain human and nonhuman critters alike. The
The study describes the technology of fabrication of composite layers in cast steel reinforced with titanium carbides. In the process under discussion, the reinforcing TiC phase is formed in situ from the substrates deposited on mould cavity, where the said substrates under the effect of heat supplied by molten metal poured into mould (1823K) undergo a synthesis in the SHS reaction. An outcome of this process is the formation, within the casting surface, of a layer from 550 to 1200µm thick. Carbides produced in this synthesis have the size from 0,5 to 20µm and a non-typical spheroidal shape. The hardness of the produced layer examined in function of the distance from the casting surface is from 700 to 1134 HV, and is determined by volume fraction of the reinforcing TiC phase. To better document the type of microstructure obtained in the produced material, metallographic and structural examinations were carried out using the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (EDS/EDX), and phase analysis (XRD). To check the mechanical properties of the examined material, hardness was measured by the Vickers test.
The object of corrosion studies were as-cast samples of M g-Li alloys of 30 x 20 x 10 mm dimensions designated as: - alloy no. 1 containing 3,54% Li (monophase hcp alloy), - alloy no. 2 containing 8,15% Li (two-phase alloy; phase
For the mother, a drug can be considered safe during pregnancy if it produces no additional side-efects than when used in non-pregnant patients, if it does not increase the rate of complications such as miscarriage or prematurity, and may be considered safe in the child if it does not produce short or long-term adverse efects. A teratogen is an agent that has the potential to interfere with the normal functional or structural development of an embryo or fetus. During organogenesis (15-60 days after conception), the fetus is presumed to be most vulnerable to teratogens. Gross anatomical defects are no longer possible once the deinitive form and relationships within an organ system are established, although derangements in the function of organ systems and resulting physiological defects and fetal growth restriction may be present later in pregnancy. 15 The USA FDA has established ive
The preparation of the casting process included heating the mould in 70°C, which caused water to evaporate. Next, the mould parts were joined together and filled with an aluminum alloy. After the alloy solidified, the mould was broken and the cast cooled (fig. 3).
se of excreta on arable land secures valuable fertilisers for crop production and limits the negative impact on water bodies [29,13, 6]. The environmental impact of excreta disposal usage would always be less than that of the direct use of water bodies as the primary recipient of excreta and greywater . To preserve its fertility, arable land needs to be compensated for the plant nutrients removed. Today, chemical fertilisers produced by fossil resources do mostly this. In the long-term perspective the world cannot securely rely on fossil resources, as the recycling of plant nutrients. Another way of compensating soil fertility is from human excreta’s direct application to arable land . Urine has been used as a valuable plant food for centuries in many parts of the world, particularly in the Far East. It is surprising, therefore, that nearly all the urine produced in the West and in Africa goes to waste and is lost to agriculture . Urine is known to contribute the major proportion of the nutrients (N, P and K) in domestic wastewater as compared to faeces which even poses a greater health risk when used . Thus, separating the urine which accounts for about 1% of the total wastewater flow, and using it as fertilizer makes it possible to utilize most of the nutrient content of wastewater . Urine is usually collected in a source separating toilet , and nitrogen
At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique of the nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.
Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand proper- ties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.
of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs in the fight against poverty . In the implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT in the health sector play a key role in enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown in the introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions of the world. This is primarily as a result of the high cost of services . Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald  argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities .
assignments task on the cores and tolerate processing component failures which could either be rogeneous or heterogeneous. The heterogeneity of the processors implies that they have diverse velocities or transforming abilities. The transient flaw likelihood that may happen in transistors, entryways and even a bit, is called Architectural helplessness variable (AVF) . By averaging over some time, this component can characterize the rate of soft errors that can show up on a core; while it runs a task. This algorithm when compared with other techniques we found that the proposed fault tolerant method outflanks both TMR and DMR methods about 35% in average. In computing most common topologies in N-Modulo Redundancy are TMR and DMR. TMR method is used when reliability of task is important as it can only mask the faults. The problem is that voter can also be faulty. The other method DMR includes two cores running parallel and checks for the similarity in the output thus only indicate the mismatch doesn’t tolerate the fault so have to use separate mechanism for fault recovery . In software based fault tolerance based approach replica of process are used so it is necessary that replicas use same memory addresses. We also need to ensure that leader and follower use same replica copies. Replica can be created using fork system call in which process generates same process as follower process and it works same as leader process. If the result of both leader and follower process is same then we can say that there is no error. But if there is difference between leader and follower process then error is there. We can use check points for efficiency. If after execution of leader and follower process result is same then previous checkpoint is eliminated and if result
Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products made in socially and environmentally responsible ways. Consumers claim that they are willing to pay a higher price for products of socially responsible firms, but are not willing to spend time on figuring out which firm is socially responsible. At the same time, a segment of consumers continue to buy products from firms with well acknowledged bad ethical conducts. Consumers do not act as what they claim. A small number of highly ethical consumers do exist. They care much about producers‘ CSR in their buying and consumption choices (Carrigan & Attalla, 2001). Carrigan and Attalla (2001) categorized consumers into four types based on their ethical awareness and ethical purchase intention. Consumers with low ethical awareness and low ethical purchase intention are called oblivious consumers. Confused and uncertain consumers are those with low ethical awareness but show high ethical purchase intention. Consumers with high ethical awareness who do not make purchase intention accordingly are cynical and disinterested consumers. The last type is caring and ethical consumers who obtain sufficient CSR information and are highly ethical in their purchase activities. Carrigan and Attalla (2001) also pointed out that consumers are not the only stakeholders of a business. Other stakeholders such as employees, environmental organizations may care much about a firm‘s CSR. Each stakeholder group has a focus on firms‘ CSR. The focus is usually what influences their interest most. When addressing CSR, firms need always engage the target stakeholders and their focus of concerns. Philanthropy seen everywhere without any consumer engagement has little contribution to consumer choice. Consumers‘ awareness of firms‘ CSR is limited in general, so opportunities exist in the communication of corporate social performance and social responsibility initiatives with consumers. Even though consumers‘ choices are not significantly influenced by a firm‘s CSR, it is still important to be socially responsible in business operations. Consumers may have more CSR information and become more ethical in their purchasing behavior in the future. In addition, the new generation may behave differently to socially responsible companies‘ products.
The metaphysicians of chance point to the probabilistic nature of scien- tiic laws. Such probabilistic laws assert some dependencies and enable us to predict (with a given probability) the future of aggregates or collectives, but not the future of their individual parts. We also meet this kind of unpre- dictability in the case of human behaviour, individual as well as social. All these data give us evidence that our universe has not been created according to a very detailed and precise plan encompassing all substances and all of their properties. Protons, electrons, and genes, but also species, kinds, and particular human beings, are not part of a divine plan and creative volition (Bartholomew 1984, p. 145). How could it be that God brings about the existence of beings which are purposeless, unpredictable and, as such, not determined by his creative volition? If our non-deterministic universe has a Creator, He does not control every substance and every property, de facto, he is not the Creator of all contingent entities in our world. Thus, divine action consists in the creation of the universe in its initial stage, and the world is such that God need neither act continuously upon that world nor intervene from time to time in order to achieve His aims. God created the world in such a way that His providence does not have to control absolutely every contingent substance at every moment of its existence in order to realize all that divine will wills to be realized.
Objective: The study’s goal has been to analyze, through the Ishikawa Diagram, the causes and solutions of HIV infection in nursing professionals due to sharps handling. Methods: It is a literature review based on the Construction of the Ishikawa Diagram, which was carried out in May 2017 in the PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases. Results: The following are the main causes of HIV infection through sharps: work overload, perception of frail risk, careless use of needles, lack of training. Regarding the solutions: adequate post-exposure management, implementing and monitoring compliance with biosafety standards, improving the notification of accidents with sharps. Conclusion: There is a need to alerting managers towards intervening in the factors that might trigger accidents with sharp materials by the nursing team.
mechanical grinding and polishing. Back scattered electrons (BSE) were utilized in SEM in order to reveal difference in chemical compositions of microcomponents present in particular samples. The SEM investigations were used to reveal the distribution of graphite and other big particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), on the other hand, was applied for examination of nanosized secondary precipitates, i.e. vanadium or niobium carbides and/or nitrides (or carbonitrides). The thin foil technique was implemented for this purpose. The 3 mm disks were ground down on sand papers and then dimpled to about 0.1 mm thickness. Afterwards the disks were further thinned in an ion mill until a perforation had appeared. The TEM investigation was carried out by means of a JEOL 2010 ARP analytical scanning transmission electron microscope operating at acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Imaging was performed by conventional transmission mode while for chemical analysis (X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - EDS) the nanoprobe mode was utilized. The nanoprobe mode enabled to obtain electron probes approaching a few nanometers in diameter (practically about 10 nm because at smaller electron probes the number of X-ray counts is usually too low for analysis). The EDS analysis was performed by Oxford-Link system attached to the microscope. The Oxford- Link system was equipped with Si(Li) detector. This system detects all elements down to boron. In order to examine the crystallography of precipitates the Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) patterns analysis was also performed.
The resulting, internal database system should allow the sto- rage of all available data on materials, not just of those specified attributes that are necessary for the currently implemented model of reasoning, as at later stages of the system execution, other attributes may be needed as well. Hence, another optimisation problem appears: how to plan the structure of a database to, on the one hand, store as much as possible of the available information while, on the other, preserve data integrity and consistency, without generation of empty arrays requiring disk space allocation.