Top PDF Ethnic background and genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk: a systematic review.

Ethnic background and genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk: a systematic review.

Ethnic background and genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk: a systematic review.

As the potential clinical utility of risk alleles for patient stratification are increasingly considered [17–19], the need to understand how these variations may differentially affect members of diverse ethnic groups is growing. Concomitantly, the accurate translation of clinical studies from one ethnic group to another becomes more important as economic factors drive an increasing number of clinical studies to be performed as multiregional trials, with global results used in support of applications in the sponsoring country [20,21]. To date, well-populated studies for the identifi- cation of associations between gene variants, and the validation of these associations, has been conducted primarily in populations of European ancestry; however the utilization of these findings in other populations may not be straightforward. A study by Ioannidis et al., which examined published meta-analyses of gene association studies involving several complex diseases (including four cancer types) wherein the polymorphism was seen to be significant in at least one ethnic group, found low heterogeneity among ethnic groups in the majority of the studied loci [22]. This study, which focused on validation studies of candidate markers, possibly contained many causative genetic variants, and suggests that basic biology is conserved across ethnic boundaries. However, many apparent differences between ethnic populations in how alleles are associated with cancer risk have been identified (for examples, Table S2–S7). A related study to the 2004 study of Ioannidis et al. showed that when loci identified from genome wide association studies of several complex diseases were assessed the majority of studied loci did not show consistency of disease association across ethnic backgrounds [23]. This second study, focusing on GWAS nominated variants, likely includes many markers only in linkage disequilibrium with the causative variant. Similarly, a study of several GWAS identified prostate cancer risk loci showed that most of the assessed loci did not replicate in a Japanese population [24]. The results of these study suggest that GWAS identified loci, as compared to those identified from family studies (such as BRCA1) or candidate gene approaches, are less likely to be tightly linked to the true functional loci, leading to relatively weaker strengths of association. Further clarification of the role of ethnic background in affecting the association of variants with cancer risk is needed. As cancer risk profiling becomes increasingly common, and as an increasing number of treatment decisions are linked to genotyping results, e.g., erlotinib used for the treatment of lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations [25], or cetuximab therapy for colon patients lacking KRAS mutations [26] elucidating the roles ethnic differences have in the clinical management of cancer will entail a better understanding the relationship between ethnicity and predictive markers.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

Two study populations are included. The first, a population- based case-control study of colon cancer, included cases (n = 1,555) and controls (n = 1,956) identified between October 1, 1991 and September 30, 1994 living in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California (KPMCP) and a seven-county area of Utah [21]. The second study used identical data collection methods as the first study but included population-based cases with cancer of the rectosigmoid junction or rectum (n = 754) and controls (n = 959) who were identified between May 1997 and May 2001 in Utah and KPMCP [22]. Eligible cases were between 30 and 79 years old at time of diagnosis, English speaking, mentally competent to complete the interview, no previous history of CRC, and no known (as indicated on the pathology report) familial adenomatous polyposis, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn’s disease. Controls were matched to cases by sex and by 5-year age groups. At KPMCP, controls were randomly selected from membership lists. In Utah, controls 65 years and older were randomly selected from the Health Care Financing Administra- tion lists and controls younger than 65 years were randomly selected from driver’s license lists. In Minnesota, controls were selected from driver’s license and state-identification lists. Study details have been reported [21,22]. The Study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Utah. All participants signed informed consent.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Lack of association of the TP53BP1 Glu353Asp polymorphism with risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lack of association of the TP53BP1 Glu353Asp polymorphism with risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

There are several limitations in this meta-analysis that should be considered. First, cancer is a multi-factorial disease including complex interactions from environmental exposure to gene factors. In this meta-analysis, we had insufficient data to perform an evaluation of such interactions for the independent role of TP53BP1 Asp353Glu (rs560191) polymorphism in cancer devel- opment. Second, only seven studies were included in this meta- analysis. Thus, more studies are needed to identify this association more comprehensively. Third, study by Naidu et al. [4] showing genotype distributions of the control population that were not in HWE was included in this meta-analysis. Forth, we did not consider studies published in languages other than English/ Chinese or data presented in abstracted form; thus, publication and potential language biases may occur.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

Abstract: The study examined the male and female level of access and ownership to land for cassava production in Abia state. The objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, determine the differences in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used select 218 respondents. Questionnaire was used for data collection while frequency counts, mean, percentages and Z-test were used in analyzing the data generated. The result shows that the mean age for male and the female were 52.7 and 46.2 years respectively. 94.5% of the male and 97.2% of the female had one form of formal education. The mean household size of the male and the female were 8 and 7 persons per house. The mean farming experiences of the male and female were 16.54 years and 13.26 years respectively. Mean income generated from cassava stand to be (#) 54882.57 and (#) 126082.60 respectively for both male and female. The Z- test analysis result shows that mean farm sizes of the respondents were 2.91 hectares and 2.45 hectares respectively for both male and female. The analysis also showed that there was significant difference between access to farmland of male and the female farmers at t = -2.613 at 5% significant level and cassava output of male and the female at t = -4.764 at 1% significant level. It was therefore recommended that a micro- credit scheme be established by government and nongovernmental organization target mainly on female cassava farmers for purchase of resources for cassava production.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

Int. braz j urol.  vol.43 número2

Int. braz j urol. vol.43 número2

In a systematic review, contemporary bladder-preservation modalities were assessed, while fo- cusing specifically on TMT in MIBC (7). This review included 83 studies in its synthesis, which consisted of 5 prospective TMT Phase III trials, and 2 Phase III randomized controlled trials (RTCs). The remaining articles consisted of large retrospective series and Phase II trials that were conducted with small cohorts. Overall, the mean response rate following TMT was 73%. The types of cancers that were optimal and eligible for bladder preservation were those with low-volume T-2 disease without hydronephrosis or extensive carcinoma in situ who underwent resection of all visible disease prior to therapy. Following TMT, the rate of recurrent bladder tumors ranged from 24%-43%, and the salvage cystectomy rate was 25-30%. Although feasible, salvage cystectomy after TMT is associated with a slightly higher risk of complications, and almost all patients end up receiving ileal conduit diversion instead of orthotopic ne- obladder reconstruction. In the same review, bladder preservation approaches with TMT were not found to be free of complications; the acute grade 3-4 toxicity rates ranged from 10%-36%. Most studies with TMT had small cohorts (<50 patients) or limited follow-up data; they also featured heterogeneous treat- ment protocols that provided few data on long-term oncologic control or late toxicity.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

Uruguay is unique among Latin American countries in that it has no Native American or African-descendant communities. This fact has shaped its national identity, which at least until the 1980s was considered to be almost strictly European. This view has also affected population genetics studies. In 1986, however, the first analysis of the Mongolian spot trait showed a frequency that was much higher (42%) than that expected in a mostly European pop- ulation (Sans et al., 1986). This initial study encouraged ad- ditional enquiries into the Uruguayan identity. One of the first of these studies indicated that Montevideo (in the south) and Tacuarembó (in the northeast) had differences between them: while the African and Amerindian contribu- tions in Montevideo were estimated as 7% and 1%, respec- tively, the same contributions in Tacuarembó were 15% and 20%, respectively (Sans et al., 1997). These data dem- onstrated not only a clear non-European contribution to an- cestry in the northeast but also population heterogeneity in this small country (176,215 km 2 , 3,286,314 inhabitants, ac-
Mostrar mais

20 Ler mais

Lipids And Hscrp As Markers Of Coronary Heart Disease Risk In HIV Infected Adults

Lipids And Hscrp As Markers Of Coronary Heart Disease Risk In HIV Infected Adults

3mg/L, respectively [11]. Furthermore, hs-CRP test is cost effective and has a generally acceptable precision and reproducibility in coronary heart disease risk profiling [13]. de Luka et al also pointed out that high hs-CRP is associated with coronary heart disease independent of traditional risk markers, viral load, CD4 count and the combination of antiretroviral therapy [14]. Use of hs-CRP in the HIV-infected population is however subject to debate, since levels may be elevated pre- antiretroviral therapy and during therapy regardless of regimen [15]. hsCRP levels also seem to remain elevated despite normalised CD4 cell count and suppressed viral load [15]. A cohort study done amongst HIV infected patients in South Africa showed elevated levels of hs-CRP and other biomarkers pre-antiretroviral therapy [16]. hs-CRP levels may be falsely elevated due to tissue injury, recent infection or general inflammation, and in individuals taking non-steroidal inflammatory drugs such as: aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen [2]. Levels are also elevated in arthritic patients while anti- inflammatory drugs and statins reduce hs-CRP levels [2]. In some studies, changes in regimen have shown to be associated with increases in hs-CRP therefore use of hs-CRP may be more useful in those on stable antiretroviral therapy [17], [18]. In contrast to some of the editorial commentary that has expressed concerns about the robust predictive value of hs-CRP testing for risk assessment, in a comprehensive 2007 review of available published CRP study data, Ridker supported the use of hs-CRP as a consistently additive and independent inflammatory predictor of future coronary heart events, while refuting some of the critical commentary directed at certain ‘negative’ studies [19]. Results from an analysis in a cohort study done by Boger et al. [20], also gave evidence for use of hs-CRP as a more reliable estimate of coronary heart disease risk in people with well-controlled HIV infections than standard risk markers [20]. The study also traced significant correlation between hs-CRP and triglycerides, cholesterol, and body mass index (BMI). The study by Boger et al. also showed the following prevalence (as %): hs-CRP >3mg/L (high risk)- 47%, hs-CRP between 1 and 3mg/L (average risk)-26%, and hs-CRP <1mg/L (low risk)-25% [20]. Though BMI were less predictive of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected patients there were indications that higher BMI is correlated with hs- CRP [20]. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of coronary heart disease in both antiretroviral-naïve and antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients using highly- sensitive C-reactive protein and lipid profiles.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due to the intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management of the Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response to the arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance of the Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one of the forms of the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia relating to the international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related to the waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard to the coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

Center The Netherlands, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 9 Genetic Epidemiology Research Institute, Center for Cancer Genetics Research and Prevention, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America, 10 N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus, 11 Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, 12 Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States of America, 13 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America, 14 Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America, 15 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg Comprehensive Cancer Center, Erlangen EMN, Erlangen, Germany, 16 Gynecology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America, 17 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, 18 Centre for Cancer Biomarkers, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 19 Radiation Oncology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 20 Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, 21 Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada, 22 Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada, 23 Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 24 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, HUS, Finland, 25 Department of Pathology, Helsinki University Central Hospital
Mostrar mais

17 Ler mais

Estimation of outdoor and indoor effective dose and ex-cess lifetime cancer risk from Gamma dose rates in Gonabad, Iran

Estimation of outdoor and indoor effective dose and ex-cess lifetime cancer risk from Gamma dose rates in Gonabad, Iran

For measurements, similar and common masonry buildings were selected and Geiger-Muller de- tector (X5C plus) was used that calibrated by manufacturer for a period of two years. All dose rates on display of survey meter were recorded. The mean of all data in each station and buildings was computed and taken as measured dose rate of that particular station. Using measured data, annual effective dose of background radiation was estimated as follows [8]:

7 Ler mais

J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.)  vol.36 número4

J. Coloproctol. (Rio J.) vol.36 número4

Sphincter preserving surgery remains a priority and a mark of surgical quality RC treatment, in part due the general belief by both patients and surgeons that avoiding a permanent colostomy would result in better long term QoL. However, there is enough evidence to support that long-term QoL in patients with a permanent stoma are similar to those after sphincter preserving surgery for low RC. Patients should be aware that sphincter preserving surgery for low RC often result in poor functional outcomes that impairs QoL. Therefore, depending on patient’s characteristics and personal prefer- ences, decision should be individualized since not all patients may benefit from a sphincter preserving surgery “at any price”. Postoperative bowel disabilities should always be taken into account when surgery technique is selected and patients who are not willing to live with such potential limitations should consider undergoing a non-sphincter preserving surgery.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Braz. j. .  vol.80 número2

Braz. j. . vol.80 número2

The usual concept of conservative treatment of larynx cancer is misinterpreted by clinicians. This concept usually refers to a less aggressive treatment. But the usual consideration of less aggressive treatment modalities are refered to radiation treat- ment for early larynx cancer and chemoradiation for advanced larynx cancer. However, both treatments are not less aggressi- ve treatments, compared to surgery, as patients are submitted to high doses of radiation therapy, in a daily bases, and when radiosensitizing chemotherapy is added to radiation therapy the toxicity more than doubles. 1 These toxic effects related
Mostrar mais

2 Ler mais

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

Machine and tools elements made of the steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness of the high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.

4 Ler mais

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Brazil has the world’s eighth largest economy (IMF, 2008). Nevertheless, 21.4 % of the country’s people live in poverty, and 7.3% in misery (IPEADATA, 2009). This contradiction is the result of the country’s glaring income inequality (UNDP, 2010) 1 . But, after decades remaining at a very high and stable level, inequality has recently started to decline in Brazil and in several other Latin- American countries (Lopez-Calva and Lustig, 2010). The aim of this paper is to understand the reasons behind the fall of the Brazilian inequality, using a flexible econometric approach and focusing on the role played by education and age.
Mostrar mais

41 Ler mais

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

Breast cancer is a major public health problem around the world, and its carcinogenesis is not yet well understood. The Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-2 (HER2) seems to play an important role in the development of this neoplasia, and genetic alterations in this gene, such as point mutations and polymorphisms have been detected in breast cancer patients. We analyzed the frequency of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the HER2 gene in 152 breast cancer patients and 146 healthy controls using PCR-RFLP. We found a twofold increase in risk of breast cancer in women who are carriers of a Val allele genotype - Ue/Val and Val/Val genotypes (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.23-3.25; p = 0.005). Our results indicate an association between the presence of the Val allele in the HER2 polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate
Mostrar mais

96 Ler mais

Int. braz j urol.  vol.39 número2

Int. braz j urol. vol.39 número2

Materials and Methods: It was conducted a systematic review of literature and meta- -analyses of all studies data published after 2008. In those studies, the patients with prostate cancer with indication to radical prostatectomy were submitted to magnetic resonance image (MRI) at pre-operatory period and the results were compared to those of histopathological studies after the surgery. The selected terms for research included pros- tate cancer, magnetic resonance, radical prostatectomy, and prostate cancer diagnosis, in the databases EMBASE, LILACS, PUBMED/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library. The data were collected using a specific qualitative instrument and the meta-analysis data were presented in the forest plot graphics, homogeneity test and sROC curves and funnel plot. Results: A total of seven studies were included, with a total of 603 patients. Among the- se studies, six evaluated the value of MRI for the detection of prostate cancer, and the median sensitivity of meta-analysis was 0.6 and specificity 0.58, but with heterogenei- ty among the studies. Three studies evaluated extra-prostatic extension with a median sensitivity of 0.49, specificity 0.82 and heterogeneity only for sensitivity. Three studies evaluated invasion of seminal vesicles, with median sensitivity of 0.45 and specificity 0.96, with heterogeneity in both analysis.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

POLIMORFISMO NO GENE HER2 NO CANCRO DA MAMA E DO OVÁRIO

oncogene encodes a 185 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein, which is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. The members of this family posses intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity (Hynes, 2000; Stern, 2000), which allows them to play an important role in signal-transduction pathways, regulating many cellular functions, such as cell differentiation and proliferation (Goel et al., 2002). This activation of the signaling pathways results from dimerization of the HER receptors (Eppenberger and Mueller, 1994), and in this context, HER2 seems to be the preferred heterodimerization partner for all HER members (Sundaresan et al., 1999).
Mostrar mais

96 Ler mais

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

5 Ler mais

Rev. paul. pediatr.  vol.35 número3

Rev. paul. pediatr. vol.35 número3

Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente a literatura sobre a habilidade de indicadores antropométricos para predizer fatores de risco cardiometabólico (FRC) agrupados em crianças e adolescentes. Fonte de dados: Foram analisados estudos publicados de 1º de junho de 2011 até 31 de maio de 2016 nas bases PubMed, SciELO e LILACS. A pesquisa baseou‑se em palavras‑chave derivadas dos termos “indicadores antropométricos” AND “fatores de risco cardiometabólico”. Foram incluídos estudos observacionais sobre a habilidade de indicadores antropométricos como preditores de FRC agrupados em crianças e adolescentes, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Não foram incluídos estudos com grupo especíico de pacientes com obesidade ou outras doenças. Síntese dos dados: Dos 2.755 registros encontrados, 31 estudos foram selecionados para revisão sistemática. Vinte e oito estudos analisaram a habilidade do índice de massa corporal (IMC) como preditor de FRC agrupados. Dos 25 estudos transversais, apenas em 3 não foi observada associação entre indicadores antropométricos e FRC agrupados. Os resultados dos seis estudos que compararam a habilidade de diferentes medidas antropométricas como preditoras de FRC agrupados foram divergentes, não sendo possível deinir um único indicador como melhor preditor de FRC agrupados. Apenas seis estudos eram de coorte, e os achados sugeriram que mudanças na adiposidade na infância predizem alterações nos FRC agrupados na adolescência.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Correction: Does the Chemotherapy Backbone Impact on the Efficacy of Targeted Agents in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature.

Correction: Does the Chemotherapy Backbone Impact on the Efficacy of Targeted Agents in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature.

There is an error in reference 22. The correct reference is: Peeters M, Price TJ, Cervantes A, Sobrero AF, Ducreux M, Hotko Y, et al. Randomized phase III study of panitumumab with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan(FOLFIRI) compared with FOLFIRI alone as second- line treatment in patients with metastaticcolorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Nov 1;28(31): 4706-13.

2 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...

temas relacionados