(2) Conducted in a farm (09°35’03"S; 35°47’14"W), inthe municipality of Maceió-AL, from October to December 2013. This site was chosen to facilitate the daily management of insects bythe researchers involved with the research, since in this place was located the creation of P. torridusin cages (BugDorm-43030 Insect Cage - BD43030). Unlike the laboratory, at this site the insects were reproducing more easily and completing their life cycle. The seedlings (n = 30) ofthe model experiment (1) were carefully transported to avoid stress, in their containers within polyvinyl (PVC) boxes and kept in cages (same model ofthe cages ofthe creation of P. torridus) with anti-aphidic screen, without insects, where they remained for eight days to recover from theinjuriescausedbythe herbivory of P. torridus. The cages were outdoors supported on wooden planks. At 73 DAP, 24 seedlings ofthe 30 used inthe first experiment were covered, alone, with antiaphidic screens, for sealing the entry of other pests and exiting the pests under study, as inthe previous experiment, and inserted in each of them ten bedbugs (ten males, ten females, five males with five females) totaling 180 adult insects and a batch of six plants without insects (control). The evaluations were performed at 104 DAP. The Fully Randomized Design (IHD), composed of four treatments (ten males, ten females, five males with five females and control/without insect), with six replications, was used.
There are reports ofthe occurrence ofPachycoristorridus (Scopoli, 1772) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) inJatrophacurcas (Linnaeus) (Euphorbiaceae) planting inthe northern, northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. The herbivory by this bug is associated to the reduction of productivity of host plants. A study of their reproductive behavior, as well as the oviposition capacity serve as a basis for further studies in search ofthe pheromonal composition of this pest. This study has as objective to describe and evaluate the reproductive behavior and biological aspects of P. torridus. Adults with 50 days old, which were transferred from LPqRN to arenas and fed with J.curcas seedlings (90 days after planting) for 42 days. The tests were conducted in arenas located inthe field. After seven days of sexing and confinement, each group (five male and five female) was placed inthe 3rd hour of photoperiod, in an arena (four repetitions) containing five J. curcas seedlings for description and evaluationof cutting behaviors and mating. The means ofthe variables analyzed were: 6.6 the number of copulation; 4.5 minutes duration ofthe cutting until reaching the coupling; 34.75 minutes for females to find males until the beginning ofthe copulation; the starting time ofthe copulation was between 9:00 and 13:30; which lasted 8.72 hours; the pre-oviposition lasted a period of 6.29 days and the post- oviposition 6.14 days; the embryonic period lasted 15.5 days; a number of 67.4 eggs and 86.94% of egg viability. Through the sequence of behavioral categories from short distance that induced sexual receptivity before intercourse, described in twelve steps, the moment of intraspecific communication of P. torridus became clear with chemical nature (emission of volatile organic compounds) intermediated by vibrational signals, sound and groping (antennation) driven bythe male and recognized bythe female.
A espécie Jatrophacurcas (Linnaeus) (Euphorbiaceae) produz matéria-prima para obtenção do biodiesel. Pachycoristorridus (Scopoli, 1772) (ordem Hemiptera) é a praga-chave dessa cultura. Esse percevejo é capaz de reduzir o teor de óleo de J. curcas em até 50%. O presente trabalho visa obter a densidade populacional e dinâmica espacial de P. torridus, assim como avaliar a atratividade de J. curcas sobre essa praga em diferentes direção e distância. Foram realizadas oito coletas de todos os estádios de P. torridus, atuantes na plantação de J. curcas (n=474), com registros das plantas hospedeiras, bem como a quantidade de frutos que tais arbustos possuíam. A última coleta foi efetuada poucos minutos antes da liberação de percevejos adultos, os quais foram divididos em 12 grupos, cada qual continha 20 espécimes, sendo dez de cada gênero. Para identificação dos percevejos utilizou-se esmalte de seis cores diferentes, marcando-os com uma e duas manchas de cada cor. Os insetos foram soltos em três distâncias (50, 125 e 200 m), nas direções Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste da plantação, em seguida foram procurados na área da plantação 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120h após a libertação dos mesmos. Maior parte dos percevejos que atingiu a plantação de J. curcas era macho por serem mais leves e ágeis, que as fêmeas. Dos grupos avaliados, somente representantes de três grupos: Oeste/125m, Norte/200m e Sul/200m não atingiu a plantação. Por fim, a espécie J. curcas emite cairomônios a longa distâncias, os quais atraem isoladamente P. torridus para hospedagem e herbivoria.
The stink bug P. torridus is phytophagous and polyphagous that has great prominence as an agricultural pest, with records of their attacks in 16 vegetable crops (Marques et al., 2012), with emphasis on the cultures of physic nut (Jatrophacurcas Linnaeus 1753), raw material for the production of biodiesel (Borges Filho et al. 2013). This hemipterous is longevous and can live out to 600 days (Gabriel & Franco, 2012), with wide distribution inthe Neotropical region. Shows a wide variation in chromatic patterns, characteristic that made P. torridus be registered several times as a new species (Costa Lima 1940), getting names like: Tetyra schousboei (Fabricius, 1803), Pentatoma fabricii (Tigny 1801),
cant difference (Fig. 3C and D. In strawberry gua- va fruits, we also observed significant difference between males and females, while injatropha fruits, although females lived longer, the differ- ence was no significant. Rodrigues et al. (2011) reported life span of 93 days, therefore, shorter than the results in our study. The difference of approximately 50 days between the result ob- tained inthe current study and those reported inthe literature may also be related to the method used intheevaluationof longevity, given that Rodrigues et al. (2011) assessed adult longevity from nymphs collected inthe field, while in our study, the insects used came from laboratory rear- ing. Moreover, the populations of P. torridus used are from different locations with distinct climatic conditions. Rodrigues et al. (2011) used popula- tions from the Central-Western region in Brazil, which is characterized by tropical climate, while in our study; we used a population collected from the Southern region in Brazil, characterized by temperate climate. For the egg stage, we observed that the duration was roughly 11 days for both treatments. For the survival inthe embryonic stage, eggs laid by females fed with jatropha had a survival rate (51.5%) significantly higher than for those fed with strawberry guava (32.1%) (Table 2). These values ofthe embryonic stage are simi- lar to those found by Rodrigues et al. (2011) (12.7 days), while the survival rate for eggs reported bythe authors was 90.5%. In case of embryonic period survival, probably the used method influ- enced on the study whether in this work the eggs under female care were removed from the laying place, while Rodrigues et al. (2011) didn’t use this procedure.
Pachycoristorridus (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) has been reported as a species that can damage fruit and seed of physic nut, Jatrophacurcas L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological aspects and the damage of this stink bug species on J. curcas. Eggs, nymphs and adults of P. torridus were collected and maintained in a growth chamber. Some adults were confined in cages with developing fruits to damage assessment under field conditions. The postures had an average of 57.6 eggs. The incubation period was 12.7 days and the nymphal stage lasted 8.1, 10.9, 9.7, 11.6 and 11.7 days for the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth instars, respectively. The development from egg to adult was completed in 86.5 days. The copulation took 3h43min. The presence of one female, one or two couples of stink bug caused decreases of 63, 54 and 85% in fruit weight when compared with control fruit (without insects). Seed oil content was reduced in 99% and 58% when fruits were attacked by a female or a couple. Those fruits with two couples had no oil in seed. For mature fruits, there was not observed any change due to insect presence.
The stink bug Pachycoristorridus (Scopoli1772) is considered a pest of great agricultural importance. For being polyphagous and phytophagous your records have already been confirmed in different cultures, however their attacks on culture of physic nut (Jatrophacurcas L), plant which has in its seeds an important source of raw material for the production of biodiesel, are responsible for their agricultural value. For additional information regarding this bug, initially we performed the characterization of its geographical distribution in Brazil and report its occurrence inthe Northwest ofthe state of São Paulo, thus expanding the information related to their distribution. By having several studies of description of patterns of this species, we performed a checklist of all patterns described and we describe three new, completing the list with 30 chromatic patterns, assisting inthe taxonomy of this species, which was already described eight times as a new species. We also described that the development of color patterns in this species is gradual and that the high polymorphism of P. torridus is possibly one aposematic behavior. From the C-band technique, we perform the description of chromosomal homogeneity in different color patterns ofthe stink bug. With the use of molecular markers COI, 28S and 16S concatenated, we performed the genetic characterization of de P. torridus, and we verified that due to its high genetic variability there are several genetic patterns resulting inthe same phenotype. From the population analysis with the mitochondrial marker COI was performed the characterization of haplotype, verifying the structure ofthe species, its high degree of genetic variability and its recent populational expansion associated with expanding the planting of physic nut, thus we provide new information about this bug, that stands out among the most polyphagous insects inthe world.
Pachycoristorridus, is considered one ofthe major pests ofthe nut - Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas L.), however, there are few studies on behavioral aspects of this species. Thus, objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of parental care on the expectation of reaching the adult stage P. torridus. 20 females with their postures were maintained in BOD under monitored conditions of temperature and relative humidity Gerbox boxes then subjected to four treatments (manipulation off immature inthe egg stage, the nymph stage and second stage nymph stage), with 5 replicates. The results show that the presence ofthe female until the nymph stage 2 is important for immature reach adulthood. According to the life table, the mortality of immature into adulthood inthe presence of females is on average 13.8% ± 8.53. On the other hand, the mortality rate inthe absence of parental care is on average 71.36% ± 2.02.
The experiments were conducted in Petri dishes (0.20 m diameter) lined with a thin layer of solidified agar solution to prevent desiccation of J. curcas leaf discs (0.10 m diameter). A single physic nut tree leaf disc was centered upside down on the agar solution. The insects used for the experiments were < 24 hours old and starved for 12 hours before the tests. Nymphs of F. schultzei and E. kraemeri were offered in densities of 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 for predators I. zuluagai, P. vigintimaculata and Anthicus sp. The maximum and minimum densities of each prey for all predators were determined from a preliminary study. To check survival ofthe nymphs of F. schultzei and E. kraemeri inthe absence ofthe predator, the same number of replicates without predators was setup for each prey density. The predators were added to experimental arenas 1 hour after transferring the prey. The Petri dishes were sealed with Parafilm around the edge to prevent escaping. Seven replicates were conducted for each prey density. The number of consumed prey was counted 5 hours after the release ofthe predator into the experimental arenas. Consumed prey were not replaced during the experiments. The data from the consumption bythe natural enemies were analyzed by one-way univariate ANOVA. For all analyses, the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance were verified using PROC UNIVARIATE and PROC GPLOT, and no transformations were necessary.
Other injuriescausedby several thrips species have also been observed in grape berries. F. occidentalis produced dark and suberized scars on Niagara grapes, in some cases also causing the cracking ofthe berries and the prolapse ofthe seeds (Lopes et al., 2002). In mature clusters, F. occidentalis can cause browning around the contact area of berries or around the insertion ofthe stalk ofthe bunch (Espadas, 2008). Drepanothrips reuteri (Uzel) caused linear-shaped tanned stains, and F. occidentalis caused ring-shaped stains on ripe berries of Thompson Seedless (Roditakis; Roditakis, 2007). This variation is possibly related to the different thrips species that occur on the vine and the diversity of grape varieties. These symptoms were not observed in experimental vineyard during the study.
The capsules of J. curcas L. were collected from Baghaani range of Poanta Sahib Forest division, situated in Sirmour district of Himachal Pradesh (30 º 26′ N latitude and 76 º 11′ E longitude at an elevation of 320 m asl). The locality falls under the sub-tropical climate with May-June hottest and December-January coldest months. On an average, the annual rainfall varies from 1950-2100 mm, most of which is experienced during the months of July-September. The annual temperature inthe region ranges between 7-44 º C with a mean value of 23.5 º C. For the collection of capsules, five trees of approximately the same age were randomly selected on the basis of their phenotypic/morphological features. These trees were tagged and marked for the collection of capsules prior to the study. The capsules were harvested at three maturity stages termed as C 1
cytotoxic bioassays have a good correlation with mammalian test systems (Fiskesjö 1985, Jovtchev et al. 2002, Yi and Meng 2003, Çelik and Aslantürk 2006, 2007, Lubini et al. 2008). According to Sousa and Viccini (2011), Allium cepa, Zea mays, Vicia faba, Tradescantia, Nicotiana tabacum, Crepis capillaris and Hordeum vulgaris have been the most common plant species used for cytogenotoxicity evaluations. Campos et al. (2008) reported that the high number of seeds, the high degree of contact with the solution in study, the high sensitivity and the bigger chromosomes of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) made this plant very useful for cytogenetic analysis. Bioassay using lettuce seeds are defined as static and can be used to assess acute toxicity (Andrade et al. 2010) . The effects of pure compounds or complex mixtures on seed germination and seedling development of L. sativa have been evaluated during the first five days of growth (within 120 h of exposure) (Torres 2003). L. sativa is therefore an appropriate system in which to perform cytogenetic and root growth tests: the mitotic index (MI) reflects the frequency of cell division at different karyokinetic stages and is an important parameter in determining the rate of root growth (Andrade et al. 2010).
A Jatrophacurcas, conhecida popularmente como pinhão manso, é uma planta pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, que possui sementes ricas em óleo e vem sendo utilizada para produção de biodiesel em países das Américas Central e do Sul, África e Ásia (Becker e Makkar, 2008; Parawira, 2010). Os biocombustíveis têm atraído atenção por serem fontes de energia renováveis e biodegradáveis, constituindo uma alternativa para a substituição dos combustíveis fósseis, que estão associados a desequilíbrios ambientais, como a chuva ácida e o aquecimento global (Makkar e Becker, 2009).
Net photosynthesis was determined inthe morning (from 9 to 11 a.m.), on sunny days, on leaves located at the middle third of plants. Leaves had to be fully developed, with no injuries. The net photosynthesis reading was carried out in two different leaves, for each plant ofthe pot, using an IRGA LI-6400XT (Licor Inc. Lincoln, NE). Pre- emergence application was evaluated at 24, 29, 42, and 51 DAA and post-emergence application at 14, 24, 29 and 42 DAA.
To study whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) attenuated intestinal dysfunction causedby ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R), rats were underwent 60 minutes of I which was produced by occlusion ofthe superior mesenteric artery, and/or 120 minutes R. The IPC group had the I procedure previously stimulated for 5 minutes and the R for 10 minutes. IPC and sham groups were injected with saline solution (SS) via the femoral vein 5 minutes before the I and R, and for R. After I or I/R, 2-cm jejunal segments were mounted in an organ bath to study neurogenic contractions stimulated by electrical pulses or KCl using a digital recording system. Thin jejunal slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for optical microscopy. Compared with the sham group, jejunal contractions were similar inthe IPC ⫹ I and the IPC ⫹ I/R groups, but reduced inthe I ⫹ SS and the I/R ⫹ SS groups. The jejunal enteric nerves were damaged inthe I ⫹ SS and the I/R ⫹ SS groups, but not inthe IPC groups. These results suggested that ischemic preconditioning attenuated intestinal dysfunction causedby I and I/R.
Objectives: To measure the perineum pain inthe puerperal women who had perineorrhaphy and to characterize their pain perception. Method: Descriptive study and of quantitative approach, which used the qualitative pain scale (QPS) and the Brazilian version ofthe McGill questionnaire (Br-MGQ) for pain assessment. Results: We interviewed fifty-three puerperal women. The episiotomy was principal (70%) cause of perineal suturing. Half (50%) of mothers who had a perineal laceration considered mild pain, and most (46%) who had episiotomies reported moderate pain. The perineal pain causedby episiotomy was characterized as one that bothers (evaluative [56.7%]) and is painful (sensory [51%]). While inthe perineal laceration the pain was characterized as sensible (sensory [50.0%]) and that bothers (evaluative [50.0%]). Conclusion: The perineum pain has intensity and characterization differentiated inthe episiotomy and perineal laceration. Descriptors: Pain, Perineum, Episiotomy.
After 7 days of growth, cellular evolution was observed. The nucleus took shape, and at the end ofthe linear phase, the mitochondria formed, which demonstrated that respira- tory metabolism inthe callus mass was activated. Functional respiratory metabolism is important because the saccharose previously added to the culture medium is incorporated in glycolysis through respiration. Saccharose catabolism into smaller sugars produces the ATP needed to meet the cell’s energy demand for its anabolic processes. With active re- spiratory metabolism inthe callus, cell division is resumed, which renews the cellular complex inthe callus mass. Thus, the linear growth phase inthe J. curcas callus growth curve was observed during this period (7 days).
contrast to the other SSPs showed decreasing deposition pattern during seeds development and revealed to have special role during seed development. In addition, peptidases belong to different mechanistic classes were identified, which have a range of functions, highlighting the role in reserve mobilization during germination. Isoforms of curcin were also identified in this proteome analysis which were absent in our previous proteome analysis ofthe other tissues from these seeds, suggesting that the deposition of these toxic proteins only occur inthe endosperm. Similarly, several enzymes involved inthe biosynthesis of diterpenoid precursors were identified in this proteome analysis but, like in our previous proteome analysis ofthe other tissues from J. curcas seeds,we were unable to identify any terpene synthase/cyclase, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of PEs, which collectively suggesting that the synthesis of PEs may not occur in seeds of this plant. In conclusion, the strategy used here enabled us to provide a first in depth proteome analysis ofthe endosperm from J. curcas developing seeds, which along with providing information regarding important aspects ofthe seed development, also set the foundation of a proteomic approach to study biotechnologically important plant species.
ABSTRACT. Diallel crosses in an unbalanced scheme were carried out inJatropha to (i) evaluate the additive and non-additive genetic components; (ii) select parents through the general combining ability; (iii) estimate the specific combining ability used inthe crosses; and (iv) verify the existence ofthe maternal effect and inbreeding depression. The experiment was carried out in a complete diallel scheme with four progenitors, unbalanced for the number of crosses. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block, with 5 replications and 3 plants per plot. The following characteristics were evaluated: stem diameter (SD), number of branches (NB), plant height (PH), canopy projection on the row (CPR), canopy projection between rows (CPB), mass of hundred grains (MHG) and grain yield (GY). Estimates of variances were obtained using the method of restricted maximum likelihood, while breeding values were estimated bythe best linear unbiased prediction. It was concluded that the additive effect was predominant inthe genetic control for SD, CPR, and CPB; the dominance effect was predominant for PH, NB, and GY; there was a cytoplasmic effect and nuclear genes ofthe female parent for all evaluated traits; parents 107 and 190 are promising for reducing the size and increasing the grain yield; there was inbreeding depression for SD and GY; and the favorable crosses for increasing GY were 190x107 and 190x190.
physiological status and may confer greater adaptability to environmental conditions . In this sense, both J. curcas genotypes presented transcription factors responsive to salinity, but the phenotypic efficiency attributed to the tolerant-like J. curcas genotype may be related to the greater number and diversity of transcription factors responsive to ABA, favoring greater regulatory capacity in this genotype, as well as greater perception and adjustment to salt stress. In addition to transcription factors, other proteins were categorized into RNA metabolism and gene expression regulation in both genotypes. Among these, Maturase K (MATK) (spot 107, Table 1 and spot 40, Table 2) is an important plastid protein that is involved inthe pre-mRNA splicing process for mature mRNA. The presence of MATK has already been mentioned to be involved inthe response to saline condition , inducing tolerance for playing a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation. Despite the presence of this protein in both J. curcas genotypes, it is worth noting that the difference in molecular mass and isoelectric point between the MATKs identified inthe genotypes suggests the formation of isoforms or modifications to these proteins, which may have favored the tolerant- like J. curcas genotype inthe salinity responsibility. These data are corroborated bythe significant enrichment found inthe proteins involved in ribonucleotide metabolism processes.