implementation for diverse application areas requires the coverage of broad range of topics. In fact these requirements are increasingly put forward to present day engi- neers. It has been recognized, however, that the growth of the field, primarily driven by the rapid development in ICT technologies, but also by increased demand for water- and environmental knowledge by many sectors in society, brings challenges to design-
In both the DSS and the FMM course, the approach to structuring of the content was based on the concept of competence-based learning, which ensures that final learn- ing outcomes are achieved (Cheetam and Chivers, 2005). In this concept the whole learning process should be realised in such a way that the learning outcomes of the students lead to attainment of measurable competencies. Competencies are defined as final learning outcomes which demonstrate profes- sional ability to perform given actions to a sufficient, recog- nised standard. This attainment can also be at different lev- els, but, in general, the attainment of a given competence is associated with a required minimum level of demonstra- ble evidence. It needs to be realised that even when using competence-based learning, prerequisites are important and certain learning sequence is preferred for the kinds of hy- droinformatics topics, such as DSS and FMM. In this set- ting a recommended approach is to include extensive self- evaluation tests for each competence, which was not done so far for the two courses introduced here and remains to be introduced in the future. The design and development of content of the DSS course into competencies, so that under- standing is achieved in a short period of time, is described in detail in Jonoski and Popescu (2012). A similar description for the FMM course is available in Popescu et al. (2009).
A basic educational course was repeated three times with 21 students participating in each course. Before starting this course, students were given two weeks to take a pre-test of basic points that were to be included in the course itself. No students were admitted to the course without prior completion of the pre-test. The result of the pre-test did not influence participation in the course. Students were randomly divided into three equal numbered groups using computer block randomization. Group 1a (eBook, n = 21) was presented with textbook material electronically, while group 1b (eCase, n = 21) participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program. Group 2 (classroom teaching, n = 21) received case- based classroomeducation. The subject was ‘the lung volume curve’ and cases relating to both this and pulmonology. In Group 1b and 2 education was based on four case-stories and lung volume curve relevance shown using those. Group 1 was free to use the e-learning module as much as they desired during a two- week span. All students were required to hand in a post-test within two-weeks. The improvement of each participant (post-test result minus pre-test result) was used as statistic for comparison between groups. The amount of time that each student spent on each educational element was also measured.
The section Media explains which mediums are used for knowledge delivery and explains how their quality has evolved over time. Systems with a physical campus mainly deliver content via face-to-face lectures and text-based material. Existing online offerings first used printed textbooks only, which is still the main case in some distance education programs. Up until now, onlineeducation has relied mainly on digital text documents, TV broadcast or CD and DVD as for example the Virtual University Pakistan (interview Dr. Naveed A. Malik, May 17, 2013), before using the internet for its lectures. Massive Open Online platforms mainly rely on video delivery, accompanied by text documents, audio podcasts and animated presentations as the course ethnography showed The first striking difference between online educations so far and MOOCs is the quality of the Media. While those OCW platforms, which included videos, simply recorded the professor in class, the new videos are tailored especially for online consumption. For example, presentation slides are not recorded, and are instead directly inserted and animated. The video and audio quality has also improved. A schreenshot comparison of an OCW video and some MOOC examples is displayed in Appendix E. Techniques from TV such as studio-quality lighting, professional cameras, and post-production are being implemented in the development of MOOC videos (experience of Prof. J.A. Villarroel, April 04, 2013). Second, the variety of presentation methods has increased. MOOCs incorporate gaming and simulation technology, which makes the learning experience more dynamic. For example, some videos of the “Sustainability” course on Coursera are taught in open air and the student can follow the practice lecture without leaving home. The presentation media inonlineeducation has developed from HTML text based media, to a combination of video, audio and chat conferencing, thus enabling a richer experience which feels closer to the face-to-face delivery in the traditional system.
These previous aspects are also related to the need to consider which actors can contribute to promoting critical readers and commenters. Letters to the editor and readers’ comments go through a selection phase that is also related to the public’s ability to critically read the world. While schools play an important role in promoting this capacity, the news industry is also a ma- jor influence (Brites, 2017b). Critical literacy is a necessary component of literate citizens and of democratic societies (Gregory & Cahill, 2009). Freire and Macedo (2005/1987) refer to the emancipatory literacy political project, which promotes a definition of literacy viewing citizenship as a lifelong project (Gregory & Cahill, 2009; Dewey, 2007). In fact, critical literacies are a step forward in matters of democratic correspondence of the citizens, due to the fact that being valuable active in the current media and information environment is a key factor of success. This can be easily achieved with the societal involvement of different media and social actors. “Citizenship begins with a sense of belonging, first in one’s immediate life, and then in locales such as the home or school” (Clark & Monserrate, 2011, p. 429). Media education is proposed as a solution to the growing demands for active citizenship in democratic societies (Kleemans, 2016). Informed citi- zens make democracy work (Milner, 2002) and need a certain degree of literacy to acquire valid civic knowledge (Dahlgren, 2009). In this context, news literacy has the potential to connect the worlds of journalists and audiences, which have grown increasingly unrelated (Mihailidis, 2012).
Faced with this scenario, the battle, lost beforehand by the schools I visited, was one of trying to face, undo, or destabilize these previously formed publics. As already exposed, apart from the music, youngsters in a classroom can be part of many other publics, such as the aficiona- dos of a given sport, members of some religious group, players of video- games, or even of those who support a given political opinion. At school, they may or may not find others who share the same tastes and prefer- ences in those various areas, who belong thereby to the same public. In every case, we must reflect about how the notions of taste, preference and style mobilize consumption as an important mark in the formation of a public. The dimension of consuming certain items of mass culture or even certain technological equipment, such as smartphones of one brand or another or perhaps designer clothing and shoes, articulates a rather particular social group. Pierre Bourdieu (1983) defines lifestyle as distinctive forms of situating oneself in the social space marked by symbolic re-translations of objective differences generated by taste or preferences for a “[...] given category of objects or practices classified and classifying” (Bourdieu, 1983, p. 83). According to Gabriel Tarde (2005), the public is also characterized by a group of people possessing similar tastes and lifestyles. Thus, buying the same products or dress- ing in a certain way creates social links and supposes certain affinities among people.
Past experience using online platforms to buy clothes and accessories contribute favourably to behavioural intentions . Actually, expertise and proficiency influence the use of technology [3, 30]. Past experience is also related to a better performance expectancy (e.g. [31, 32]). Thus: H3: Experience with online fashion websites is positively related to performance expectancy. Credibility is regarded as “the believability of the product position information contained in a brand, which depends on the willingness and ability of firms to deliver what they promise” (, p. 34). Consumers tend to have more difficulty in evaluating the credibility of an online context, based on the reviews/comments, because they are anonymous sources who have no prior relationship with the receiver [4, 34]. Past studies have explored the influence of source credibility on perceived information usefulness [25, 35, 36]. Therefore, we expect that:
the Netherlands and Australia, and it will be interesting to see how generalizable the results are, this very prestigious study undertaken by the Department of Health by some very high- profile people across the UK looking at birth in hospital, in birth centres alongside the hospital, in “freestanding” birth centres away from the hospital (both type of birth centres run by midwives), and at home. The Birthplace study found that for every single group of women except first-time mothers delivering at home, the babies did as well and it was cheaper if the birth took place out of hospital – either at a birth centre or at home - and the mothers did much better. So except in the case of first-time mothers at home where the rate of perinatal mortality was slightly higher – and they are looking into why that may be - for primagravida women in freestanding hospital birth centres and “alongside” birth centres run by midwives, and multigravida women at these birth centres and home, it was better for low-risk women to give birth out of hospital than in hospital. So it´s not even actually that you set the women´s life experience against the well-being of the baby: all things being equal, apart from the case of first-time mothers having their baby at home, it was better for both mother and baby to have the baby out of hospital for low-risk healthy women, and it was cheaper. As I said, that study is now being repeated in Holland and Australia to see if the results can be generalized but I think the mother-baby dichotomy is in fact a false one.
The participants’ discourses temporally mark the teaching of health promotion competencies, characterizing, thus, periodicity. According to Benjamin, cited by Larrosa-Bondía 8 (p. 22), “periodicity is the great modern device for the generalized destruction of experience”. Periodicity directs practices towards repetition and uniformity, blocking moments of singular meanings to subjects. Due to this, the contemporary rhetoric of educating subjects who inform and are informed excludes the possibilities of experiences because it allows the reiteration of knowledge, but not its experientiation.
ABSTRACT. Resilience thinking and ecosystems approaches to health (EAH), or ecohealth, share roots in complexity science, although they have distinct foundations in ecology and population health, respectively. The current articulations of these two approaches are strongly converging, but each approach has its strengths. Resilience thinking has developed theoretical models to the study of social– ecological systems, whereas ecohealth has a vast repertoire of experience in dealing with complex health issues. With the two fields dovetailing, there is ripe opportunity to create a dialog centered on concepts that are more thoroughly developed in one field, which can then serve to advance the other. In this article, we first present an overview of the ecohealth and resilience thinking frameworks before opening a dialog centered on seven themes that have strong potential for cross-pollination between the two approaches: scale interactions, regime shifts, adaptive environmental management, social learning, participation, social and gender equity, and knowledge to action. We conclude with some future research suggestions for those interested in theoretical and practical applications at the intersection of environment and health. In particular, closer collaboration between these two fields can lead to addressing blind spots in the ecosystem services framework, complementary social-network analysis, the application of resilience heuristics to the understanding of health, and the development of a normative dimension in resilience thinking.
For the PE, the problematization is no longer just a teaching strategy or even a dynamic way to teach, it is a shared research challenge between educators and learners, jointly committed by concrete problems experienced at work andin society. It is not a methodological resource to facilitate the teaching of predefined content but a commitment to the challenges posed by the dynamics of illness and fight for the health of individuals and society in a continuous process of reflection, action, reflection. A problematization open to the new, the not yet thought, and the one that emphasizes authentic dialogue, that is, the one that comes from the recognition by the educator of the limits of their knowledge to the challenges presented by students and by reality. It seeks not only the most intense learning knowledge previously considered as significant, but also the strengthening of the role of students for the education of a participative and democratic society. Democracy is also constructed by the cognitive protagonist role of workers in institutions and citizen. For the PE, the active teaching dynamics begins with the objective to help explain previous knowledge, feelings, perplexities and subtle doubts still poorly prepared, in an appreciation perspective of the knowledge and interests of students and the population, and is not a strategy to make teaching more interesting and lively. It emphasizes not only the dialogue between teacher and student, for it includes the problematization process, the knowledge and demands of the most disadvantaged and with less opportunity of a clear and steady development of their social groups interests and perspectives. The discussions need to seek answers not only internally, among those involved in local professional practice, for they are correlated to the more general political, economic and cultural dynamic aspects of the society that need to be valued.
The centralconcept ofmeanconcentration ofall decisionsand policies related tothe process ofplanning and developmentunder the control ofcertain partiesarebodiesplanningindifferent countries, andis embodiedministriesorplanningcouncilsin most countries, and itshall issue its decisionsto thespecialized committeesin order to betranslated intodevelopment plansturningtovarious international institutions,tobeing implementedinparticipation andthispushesresearcherstosay thatthe basicsfrom thehigh authorities ofplanning institutionstorankat leastasordersarenon-negotiable. (Khamis0.1999m) Theresearcheraddsthat the centralconceptconsists ofthree maindecisionsare:
Teaching online requires different skills, roles and competencies for online instructors compared to teaching in traditional learning environments. Universities should offer ongoing support in various forms to help academic staff through their online journey. This paper provides insights into a multinational faculty development program for teaching online, elaborating on results of expectancy and satisfaction surveys. From a local program to a subproject within the Swiss National Science Foundation Project Scopes, e-Tutor aimed at expanding competencies inonline lecturing and providing OER material for training colleagues. Designed in the form of a descriptive case study, this research was conducted with 34 attendees of e-Tutor. Data was collected using an e-learning readiness and expectancy questionnaire, and open-ended questions after the program to measure satisfaction. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data and content analysis for open-ended data. Participants considered e-Tutor a well-planned and targeted program with good theoretical and practical balance. Duration of such courses, opportunities for adaptation to real-life situations, and localization of the content are areas to be explored further. For future studies, it would also be interesting to see whether participants can apply their newly acquired knowledge and skills to create efficient online learning environments.
Thus, along with public policy transfers and diffusion, Brazil’s recent advances toward Africa (not only Lusophone Africa) tend to combine investment strategies, technical cooperation, and financing in specific countries and territories of political, commercial, and economic national interest. This combination is clear in Mozambique’s Nacala Corridor where national mining and construction companies such as Vale, Odebrecht, and OAS are working with the support of BNDES (National Bank for Economic and Social Development), in the same territory where ProSavana is being implemented. In Angola, this is expressed in Odebrecht’s involvement with the PungoAdongo project in partnership with the Capanda Agroindustrial Center Development Society. Private interests can also be observed in cooperation agreements, like the one between the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and the Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV-Agro), which aim to create ProSavana Master Plan and propose a structure for the Nacala Fund, and also in Embrapa´s role in transferring technologies that favors the engagement of the Brazilian private sector in African agriculture. It is worth noting the criticisms made by international movements and networks that characterize such initiatives as large land grabbing projects, the strongest one being the “NO to ProSavana” campaign.
In architectural curricula the incorporation of online tools of learning has been scarce so far (Bender, 2005). In most cases, the online presence of an architectural course simply relects its in-class development (lipped clas- sroom mode). The design studio in particular, the backbone of architectural education, is deeply rooted in the physical co-presence and interaction of professors and students and that is a habit that has resisted change. So far some isolated examples have been registered such as Susan Yee’s MIT su- ccessful attempts coordination to form interdisciplinary and transcontinen- tal synergies between architectural Institutions. Technology was used to support the social character of learning by bringing together people from diferent cultures. (Yee, 2001) Or the more recent venture of Petar Arsic’s Design Studio at the Faculty of Architecture of Belgrade University. Here, the course’s online aspect was mostly oriented to supporting the studio as it is, by incorporating MOODLE features and proiting from its repository character. (Devetakovic et al. 2011)
Para a construção do referencial teórico, a produção científica relacionada aos descritores: “educação online”, gamificação, “design de sistemas gamificados”, “motivação em ambientes gamificados” e estudos empíricos sobre gamificação aplicada à educação foi pesquisada. Foram consultados os seguintes ambientes de compartilhamento de produções científicas: Gamification-Research.org, ResearchGate.net e Mendeley.com, bem como as seguintes bases de dados e portais: Scopus (Elsevier); Library and Information Science Abstracts - LISA (ProQuest); Information Science & Technology Abstracts - ISTA (EBSCO); SciELO.ORG; Web of Science (Thomson Reuters); Wiley Online Library; Emerald Insight; OneFile (GALE); ProQuest Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Collection; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); Science Direct Journals (Elsevier); SpringerLink Open Access; Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science) e ERIC (U.S. Dept. of Education). Como especificado acima, as expressões de busca incluíram combinações das palavras-chave gamification, education, design e system, em inglês e português. As referências duplicadas, ou seja, que apareceram como resultado em mais de uma base de consulta, foram excluídas. Foram considerados apenas trabalhos de fontes de periódicos, conferências ou teses e dissertações acadêmicas.
The ability to make mental images, either of things (spaceships) or of social situations (ruler or emperor) can help the player to be more emotionally connected to a game or a character. It may also influence the level of difficulty, allowing him to use knowledge to achieve a goal through abstraction (cognitive fantasy). As an example, driving a spaceship in a computer game can be easier if the play- er knows how to drive a real car, being able to use this previous knowledge in acquiring new skills. The implicit notion of a game implies that there is a specific objective, a goal to pursue. The goal has to be meaningful and adequate, requiring the increasing ability to challenge the player, not get- ting boringly simple. It also requires increasing skilled performance to overcome phases and obsta- cles. Usually, they also have fantasy elements, such as piloting a plane, ruling a city, becoming an emperor, and others. The game should also have a performance metric system, based on the time or on the scores the player achieve. The challenge is also dependent on an uncertain outcome, either by a variable difficulty level, by existing hidden information or by randomness.
productivity firms to formalize, which decreases firm informality; however, these newly formalized firms hire a large share of informal workers, and therefore the net effect on labor informality is nearly null. The opposite is true when increasing enforcement on the intensive margin: it generates a small reduction in the share of informal workers and actually increases informality among firms. The latter effect is observed because the de facto cost of being formal increases for less productive firms, as it is now harder for them to hire informal workers, thus increasing their incentives to become informal. These sub- tler policy impacts can only be uncovered if one explicitly considers the intensive margin. The existing literature has focused on the extensive margin alone, and therefore reducing firm informality necessarily leads to lower labor informality (and vice-versa). As these results show, however, firm and labor informality can move in opposite directions as firms optimally respond to different policies towards informality.
The paper presents the results of the research with the basic goal to study the readiness of primary school teachers to accept disabled students. Research partici- pants were 205 teachers from primary schools at the territory of Serbia. The goal was accomplished through: (a) studying attitudes towards joint education of disabled students and their peers; (b) studying teachers’ experiencesin working with disabled students; and (c) studying teachers’ readiness to accept disabled students, depending on their involvement/non-involvement in projects of inclusive education. Teachers express supportive attitudes towards joint schooling, but more than one half of them think that a selective approach is necessary in that process, according to the kind and degree of developmental disability. They support joint schooling from the humanistic point of view, but express concerns about the academic achievement of classes that include disabled students. The majority of teachers had experience in working with disabled students and based on that provided interesting suggestions for improving joint schooling. Higher readiness for accepting disabled students was demonstrated by teachers whose schools were involved in the projects of inclusive education. That implies the need for involving schools in similar projects and enabling teachers’ im- mediate contact with students with developmental disabilities.
In addition to efforts made to increase scientific production on aggressiveness, there is also a growing concern from many sectors of the population related to the prevention of violence in different social contexts. However, despite important advances in research on aggressive behavior in the family and school environments (McCartney et al., 2010; Souza & Castro, 2008), aggressive behaviors in the context of early childhood education have not been investigated as frequently as should have been the case in recent years. The growing number of children attending child daycare centers in the country (Finkelhor, 2008; Monks, 2011; Pellegrini et al., 2011) andin particular, the observation that such events in very young children are not being treated as a form of violence (Finkelhor, 2008) need to be considered. In the present work, we interpret aggressive behaviors as antagonistic interactions, considering the children’s reactions, the type of activity and the antecedent and consequent events of the behaviors, as proposed by Tremblay (2008). It is important to make a distinction between the type of behavior known as Rough and Tumble Play (RTP), which is characterized by the use of behaviors involving motor activity that resembles aggressiveness (e.g., pulling, running and knocking down), but in reality, constitutes part of a context of play (DiCarlo, Baumgartner, Ota, & Jenkins, 2015). Aggressive behaviors were identified based on criteria established by Garcia, Almeida and Gil (2013), that is, a behavior was considered aggressive when it was directed from one child to the other or directed toward objects and followed by reactions of discomfort, such as crying and verbal complaints.