The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting onfood market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence foodindustry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.
The proposed study of this paper uses regression analysis to study the relationship between banking deposit with five other independent variables including rate of banking deposit, rate of return of banking industry, money market return, commodity market and foreign exchange rates. Therefore, there are five hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper.
An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencingfactorson work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.
Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]).
Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Impulsive buying behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factorsinfluencing impulsive buying behavior. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed among 200 regular customers and 149 questionnaires have been collected. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.804, which is well above the minimum desirable level of 0.7. The survey is conducted among regular customers who normally make purchases from Shahrvand food chains in city of Tehran, Iran. The results of factor analysis reveals four major factors including intelligence pricing strategy, involvement, promotion margin and consumer behavior. The proposed study of this paper considers “intelligence pricing strategy” for the first time as an important factor in consumer’s purchasing behavior.
The studyFood Drink Europe (2015) summarizes the basic economic performance of the foodindustry in the EU. The meat industry represents 14% of the food and drink industries of the EU which makes it the second highest number of enterprises after the bakery industry (54% of enterprises). The sector employs 21% of employees in the foodindustry (the second highest number of people). It contributes by 15% (which is the fourth highest part) to the value added of foodindustry and has a turnover of 20% (the highest portion). However, labour productivity is very low, it is below average of food and beverage industry, ie. 33 000 EUR/ person (the second lowest labour productivity). A publication Panorama of FoodIndustry (MoA, 2015) is dedicated to the problems of the food processing industry in the Czech Republic. According to this publication, the meat industry reached 22.9% of total revenues from the sales of own products and services of foodindustry in 2014. In this ield there is the fourth highest number of companies (i.e. 23.8%), which employ 24.4% of the entire foodindustry. The foodindustry contributed with 17.4% to the value added of food processing industry in 2014, ie. the third highest part. Problematic area of the meat industry is a long-term decline in the number of employees in this ield (in 2014 the company employed 21 051 persons); as well as low labour productivity (484 000 CZK) and a low average wage per month of employees. In the long term the lack of competitiveness in the pork production is reported, especially the negative foreign trade balance. Decrease in the number of pigs and sows as well as low self-suficiency, especially in pig and poultry meat are among the greatest challenges of livestock production in the Czech Republic. The declining self-suficiency is involved in increasing pork imports that compete with domestic supply and thus inluence the proitability of the sector. According to the above stated data the situation of meat processors does not develop very favourably. For this reason, the economic performance of enterprises plays an increasingly important role in this ield, and identiies competitive position of those companies on the Czech market.
Job satisfaction plays an essential role on the success of any organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of five factors including work conditions, pay, promotion, supervisor and co-worker on job satisfaction. The proposed study is performed among 130 employees who work for one of Iranian transmission electricity in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among selected employees and, at the same time, measured overall job satisfaction from other method. The results of testing different hypotheses indicate that all employees are satisfied from their job (t-student=3.243, P-value=0.01). The study also presents a method to find desirable weights for each component of job satisfaction.
They studied the impact of intermediary trust vs. seller trust. Caruana and Ewing (2009) studied on how corporate, quality and value influence online loyalty. Forgasa et al. (2012) performed a comprehensive studyon online drivers and offline influences associated with loyalty to airline websites. Chang and Wen (2008) investigated the factors impacting customer interface quality, satisfaction and switching costs on e-loyalty using internet experience as a moderator. Naoui and (2010) investigated the impact of relationship quality on client's loyalty in an application in the parapharmaceutical industry. Customer satisfaction in e-commerce means customer's satisfaction from purchasing a product on digital market (Ding et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2011). The proposed study of this paper investigate the following seven hypothesis,
In this paper, we have presented an empirical investigation to detect important factorsinfluencing export of Iranian herbal supplements. The proposed study has performed a comprehensive review on different items and using factor analysis, the study detected six factorsinfluencing this industry. We hope the results of our study could help experts find major barriers in exporting herbal supplements and expand this market. In our survey, subsidiary rules were considered the most important item and the government needs to take the necessary actions on changing the rules and regulations on helping this industry grow. Marketing climate was the second most important factor and the experts are suggested to cooperate with public media to create more awareness on the advantages of exporting herbal supplements.
This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out important factorsinfluencing future research, training and employment in Iranian scientific environment. The proposed model of this paper prepares a questionnaire consists of various questions and distributes it among some experts and analyze them using DEMATEL model. The model divides the 7 factors into two groups of cause and effect. On the cause side, there are four factors including preventing future unemployment crises, detecting future skills, finding future profitable/unprofitable job opportunities and prevention on having open position with no volunteer to work. On the effect factors, there are three factorsinfluencing the future research including detecting the present risk associated with jobs, detecting necessary standards for future works and creating a balance between demand and supply.
Abstract—Steel Industry is the primary industry which plays tremendous important role on the country development and economy sustainability. This industry’s supply chain and logistics system is considered complex and appears to be part of other industries’ supply chain and logistics systems, such as infrastructure, electronics, electrical, or automotive industries, etc. Thai government has seen an opportunity for the importance of logistics and supply chain systems development for Thai steel industry. In order to support and develop logistics systems, we were coordinating by the Ministry of Industry, to conduct research on how to develop logistics and supply chain system for Thai steel industry. The logistics cost of this industry was also considered in this research as it is one of the performance measurement of the entrepreneur. The result of the study indicated that the logistics cost of the steel industry was according to the principle of supply chain and logistics management theory and also relied on other economics factors such as oil price, the number of labor, interest rate, and exchange rate, etc. Additionally, the results indicated that Thai steel industry has potentiality of developing logistics and supply chain system strived for cost and time reduction in supply chain and has the important guideline as 1) increasing the performance efficiency by reducing the non-value added activities, 2) planning effective transportation, 3) increasing the effectiveness of predicting the demand in relevant to the need of customer and transportation plan, and 4) developing the information technology system to link and exchange information within organization, between organization, and between government sector and entrepreneur.
An effective safety management requires attention to human factors as well as system compo- nents which make risky or safe situations at technical components. This study evaluates and analyze ergonomic behaviors in order to select the best work shift group in anIranian process industry, in 2010.The methodology was based on the Ergonomic Behavior Sampling (EBS), and TOPSIS method. After specifying the unergonomic behaviors and with reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined, with a sampling accuracy of 5% and confi- dence level of 95%. However, in order to gain more confidence, 2631 observations were col- lected. The results indicate that 43.6% of workers’ behaviors were unergonomic. The most fre- quent unergonomic behavior was amusing of legs while load lifting with 83.01% of total uner- gonomic behaviors observations. Using TOPSIS method, the most effective shift group and the least attractive alternatives for intervention were selected in this company. Findings declare high number of unergonomic behaviors. Catastrophic consequences of accidents in petrochemical industry necessitate attention to workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace and promotion of them.
Romano and Fjermestad (2003) studied e-CRM, presented a conceptual framework to study the relationships among and between different areas within e-CRM, and proposed how they might be integrated to further research this area. They started with a discussion of each of the research areas through brief reviews of relevant literature for each and a discussion of the theoretical and strategic implications related to some CRM technologies and research areas. They also presented a theoretical framework for e-CRM in terms of the five research areas and how they influenced one another, as well as e-CRM processes and both performance and non-performance outcomes.
Bakshi et al. (2008) developed some techniques of stochastic discount factors in international economies, which generate stochastic risk premiums and stochastic skewness in currency options by approximating the models using time-series returns and option prices on three currency pairs. The results indicated that the average risk premium in Japan was larger than that in the US or the UK, the global risk premium was more persistent and volatile than the country-specific risk premiums, and investors responded differently to various shocks. They also determined high-frequency jumps in each economy but reported that only downside jumps were priced. Finally, their analysis specified that the risk premiums were economically compatible with movements in stock and bond market fundamentals.
One of the issues of production planning in auto parts industry is to find important factorsinfluencing demand including weather conditions, regional factors, etc. Saipa Yadak Company was established in 1992 to supply spare parts and after-sales services for an automaker firm named Saipa. Saipa Yadak has applied a supporting method of development by performing warranty policies while being active in international commercial world of spare parts at the same time, which allows SAIPA updating its after-sale industry and developing its network in the world. The proposed study of this paper first has asked 45 experts to determine important factorsinfluencing demand for auto parts and 19 factors have been determined summarized in Table 1 as follows,
In this paper, we have studied the effects of customer value and its key aspects on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer retention in banking industry. The results indicate that all aspects of customer value have direct and positive impact on customer satisfaction. Therefore we could conclude that banks need to provide diversified products and services for their customer and elevate their social image in order to increase the level of customer satisfaction. The banks must also increase customer emotional value by providing easily accessible facilities such as automated teller machines, reliable internet facilities, etc. In this research we have found that emotional value is the only aspect of customer value that has a direct and positive relationship with customer loyalty. It is expected that customers who have pleasant experiences while using a bank’s services and products will be more loyal to it in long term. We did not find any meaningful relationship between customer loyalty and functional value.
In further discussing the identification of these critical factors, we assessed the proposals of some authors. Chourides et al. (2003), highlight the factors related to organizational strategy, human resource management (HRM) and IT. Davenport et al. (1998) conducted an exploratory study in 24 companies and established eight critical factors for KM: economic performance, clear language, flexible organizational structure, multiple channels for knowledge transfer, “friendly” culture, technical infrastructure, motivational and support management practices. Gonzalez & Martins (2014), based on a survey in companies in the automotive industry, identified eight critical factors: HRM, proactive leadership, learning culture, lean organizational structure, teamwork, primary knowledge, IT, incremental improvement and innovative strategy. Lin (2014) divides the contextual factors that support KM into two groups. The first, named technological context, includes the support of IT systems; and the second, named organizational context, consists of managerial support, learning culture and awards system. And, finally, the APQC (2003) establishes four critical factors for KM: leadership, learning culture, strategy and technology. In this way, based on Heisig’s (2009) contribution and above-mentioned factors, this study considers the following contextual factors that support KM:
The authors’ intention is to contribute to the existing literature on branding in three ways. First, a brand success scale has been developed and tested empirically in two countries. The authors applied an abductive theory approach that is based on abductive reasoning in which explanatory propositions (hypothesis) are formed, using theoretical rationale and empirical experience of the subject, and evaluated, i.e., estimated with a statistical technique. Second, the characteristics of brand success drivers in a specific industry context were examined. The study is also a first attempt to determine the underlying factors of brand success in general. Third, this study has avoided the conventional focus on single-authored measures (e.g., Singh & Ranchhod 2004) as well as added operationalization adjustments from anindustry, because a multifaceted approach to branding has been applied. Instead of focusing on a single perspective (e.g., financial, customer oriented), this approach includes internal, external, as well as interactive items in each variable.
Harris (2002) reported that management approaches to developing market orientation differ along five different dimensions, with each firm tending to stress one of these emphases. Homburg and Pflesser (2000) reported that a market-oriented culture could influence financial performance indirectly through market performance and that this relationship could be stronger in highly dynamic markets. Au and Tse (1995) investigated the effect of marketing orientation on firm Performance in on Hotel industry in Hong Kong and New Zealand. Greenley and Matcham (1986) investigated the marketing orientation of the firms who supply the UK's service of incoming tourism. Qu and Ennew (2003) investigated the consequences of market orientation in China. Diamantopoulos and Hart (1993) looked for the relationship between market orientation (Porter, 1990) and company performance.
Brand loyalty plays essential role on product development especially in mobile industry. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to study the effects of different factors including brand associate, brand awareness, distribution intensity and quality perception on brand loyalty. The proposed model of this paper is examined by designing a questionnaire consists of 16 questions in Likert scale and distributing it among 200 people who use a particular brand in mobile industry called Nokia. The results are analyzed using structural equation modeling where Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.84. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between perception quality as well as brand awareness and brand loyalty. In addition, there is a positive relationship between brand awareness and perception quality.