Top PDF Expression of angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 correlates with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and affects survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Expression of angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 correlates with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and affects survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Expression of angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 correlates with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis and affects survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Ang-2 signaling may play critical roles in the lymphatic vessel system. It was previously reported that Ang-2 is required to form functional lymphatics [2]. However, unlike other lymphatic regulators, such as VEGFR-3 or the transcription factor Prox-1 pathway [18,19], Ang-2 appears not to be required for initiation of lymphatic vascular development. Rather, Ang-2 seems to play a key role in remodeling and maturation of the lymphatics. This concept is supported by the phenotype of Ang-2 knockout mice, which exhibit hypoplasia of the lymphatic capillaries in the skin and small intestine and have collecting lymphatic vessels not properly invested by smooth muscle cells [2]. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first to examine whether Ang-2 expression and VEGFR-3 expression predict overall survival in patients with OSCC with long-term follow-up. Both univariate and multivariable analyses showed that patients with high expression of Ang-2 or both Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 was signifi- cantly associated with survival or risk of overall death compared with those with low expression of Ang-2 or other combinations of Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression, indicating that high expression of both Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 in tumor cells predicts poor clinical outcome in patients with OSCC. A recent study [20] has shown that systemic overexpression of Ang-2 promoted metastatic dissemination whereas specific Ang-2 blockade attenuated tumor lymphangiogenesis and reduced tumor cell dissemination into the regional lymph nodes. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes constitutes the main route toward progression and dissemination of OSCC; at the same time it is the most significant adverse prognostic indicator for this disease. In recent years, significant effort has been expended in an effort to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis of oral cancer. Our studies demonstrated that high expression of Ang-2 cooperated with VEGFR-3 in OSCC and was significantly associated with LVD and poor prognosis. Ang-2 may play a crucial role in the VEGFR-3-related tumor lymphangiogenesis and progression of OSCC. The precise nature of the collaboration between Ang-2 Table 2. Univariate and multivariable analysis on association of Ang-2 and VEGFR-3 expression with survival of OSCC patients.
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Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in patients with carcinoma of the mouth floor and tongue

Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in patients with carcinoma of the mouth floor and tongue

Background/Aim. Although there are several types of ma- lignant oral cancers, more than 90% of all diagnosed oral cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Angiogenesis is a cascade-like mechanism which is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in OSCC and its effect on clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis is of major interest. So far researches have shown that increased expres- sion of this gene, in other words enhanced sinthesis of this protein (VEGF), independently on other factors, increases a chance for local relapse, and distant metastasis. Consequently, patients with OSCC have poor disease-free survival, as well as poor overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine clinical significance of VEGF expression in patients with stage II and III OSCC. Methods. This retrospective study analysed 40 patients who had been operated for OSCC of their tongue and the mouth floor. Of these patients, some had stage II and III OSCC with histological grade, G1-G3 and nuclear grade Ng1-Ng3. Two high quality tissue samples were obtained and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF was quantitatively determined by using high micro- scope amplification. The value of VEGF expression of 20% was rated as significant expression, whereas tumor cells reactivation less than 20% was considered very low or no ex- pression at all. The patients were followed up for a 3-year pe- riod. Results. The obtained results showed that 11 (17.5%) patients had VEGF expression less than 20% and 29 (82.5%) above 20%. A statistical significance was immanent with positive nodal status (p < 0.05) and disease stage (p < 0.05). No statistical correlation was found between the level of VEGF expression and histological and nuclear grade, tumor size, disease relapse or patients overall survival. Conclusion. Inspite the controversy about the prognostic relevance of VEGF our results as well as the results of previous studies, suggest that the expression of VEGF is not reliable as a clini- cal parameter for the prognosis and disease outcome but it is one of the important factors for the disease progression.
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Prox1 and FOXC2 act as regulators of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Prox1 and FOXC2 act as regulators of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

In the present study, we found that the mRNA expression levels of Prox1 or FOXC2 in OSCCs were higher than that in the normal oral mucosa. By immunohistochemistical analysis, Prox1 was shown to be closely associated with tumor progression (T factor and clinical stage), nodal metastasis, and LVD, and FOXC2 expression was shown to be significantly correlated with MVD in OSCCs. The patients with Prox1- or FOXC2-positive OSCCs had shorter disease-free days, and Prox1 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor in OSCC. We also found that Prox1 accelerates migration, invasion, VEGF-C expression, and lymphovascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration in OSCC cells. Furthermore, FOXC2 was shown to regulate the expression of VEGF-A and Prox1 as well as the growth and migration of vascular endothelial cells. We also confirmed that Prox1 and FOXC2 induced tube formation in the endothelial cells (data not shown). We speculate that the interactions of Prox1 and VEGF-C are the cause of reduce growth and migration ability of HUVECs by Prox1 knockdown treatment (Fig. 4d, Fig. 5). Indeed, it has been defined tumor cells-secreted VEGF-C knockdown inhibits HUVECs proliferation and migration [38] and we also clarified VEGF-C is accelerates angiogenesis in OSCC [29]. We also infer that the reason for growth and migration potential of HDLMVECs reduce upon siRNA treatement of FOXC2 are FOXC2 regulates expression of Prox1 (Fig. 4d, Fig. 5).
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Co-Expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Survival.

Co-Expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Survival.

The occurrence of EMT has been shown to indicate an aggressive disease and therefore, we hypothesized that expression patterns of EMT-related proteins could be associated with worse prognosis in our OSCC patient cohort. Indeed, we observed a trend where TWIST1 and ZEB2 were associated with poor prognosis, although this did not reach statistical significance. As the EMT process is complex and often involves more than one EMT-related protein [2, 4, 50], it is likely that simultaneous overexpression of several EMT-related proteins are necessary for tumorigenesis. Taking into the account the co-expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2, we found that patients with expression of both proteins had significantly poorer survival compared to those whose tumor only expressed one or none of the 2 proteins. This effect was more apparent when we examined the expression of these 2 proteins amongst lymph node negative patients where individuals with co-expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 are 3.8 times more likely to have a poor prognosis compared to those with the expression of either one or neither of the proteins indicating that the co-expression of these 2 markers is an independent prognostic factor for identifying aggressive disease particularly amongst lymph node negative patients. Emerging evidence suggest that EMT-related markers have other oncogenic roles in addition to driving the EMT process as measured by change of cell morphology and invasion. Although studying the functional role of EMT proteins is not within the scope of this study, previous studies dem- onstrated that TWIST1 and ZEB2 have other roles including repressing cellular senescence and conferring stem-like properties to cancer cells respectively [64, 65].
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Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

The key challenge of bone tissue regeneration using ceramic scaffolds is still insufficient vascu- larization [1,2]. While many strategies are being developed, one avenue that has not been extensively explored in bone graft engineering is the incorporation of nervous system glia and their potential role in bone tissue regeneration. Studies have shown that, throughout the body, nerves and blood vessels run in parallel. Even in cases where nerves have been intentionally made to misalign, blood vessels will still follow the defective nerve pathway [3]. This suggests a significant role of the nervous system in angiogenesis [4–6], which is pertinent due to angio- genesis’s key role in osteogenesis [7]. Additionally, nerves run throughout all three layers of the bone (periosteum, cortical bone and trabecular bone) and studies have shown that they serve a significant function in their coordination with bone metabolite cells—the osteoblasts and oste- oclasts [8,9]. Of the cell types specific to the nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) have great potential to assist in the creation of an integrated, multi-system bone graft. SCs are already widely known to provide not only innervation to grafts through their role in peripheral nerve repair [10–12], but also significant angiogenic inducing potential through growth factor secre- tion [13].
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Kaempferol inhibited VEGF and PGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis of HRECs under diabetic-like environment

Kaempferol inhibited VEGF and PGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis of HRECs under diabetic-like environment

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common and specific microvascular complications of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) proliferation, migration, and sprouting were measured by CCK-8 and transwell, scratching wound, and tube formation assays, respectively. Protein levels were determined by western blot. High glucose (25 mM) increased the mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PGF as well as the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF in HRECs, which can be antagonized by kaempferol (25 mM). Kaempferol (5–25 mM) significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, migration distance and sprouting of HRECs under high glucose condition. The anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol was mediated via downregulating the expression of PI3K and inhibiting the activation of Erk1/2, Src, and Akt1. This study indicates that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis of HRECs via targeting VEGF and PGF to inhibit the activation of Src-Akt1-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. The results suggest that kaempferol may be a potential drug for better management of DR.
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Immunohistochemical Evaluation of GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

GLUT-3 mediate glucose uptake by cancer cells, regulating energy metabolism, and have been related to the aggressive behavior of some tumors (Ogane et al., 2010; Eckert et al., 2012). Szablewski (2013) analyzed GLUT in melanocytic lesions and verified that GLUT-3 was expressed in all lesions under the investigation, while GLUT-1 was expressed by 87.5% of all cases. It is known that that GLUT-1 plays an important role in glucose uptake in cancer cells (Tian et al., 2004; Roh et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2016). Ayala et al., (2010) studied the GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 immunolabeling in OSCC and detected high expression levels of GLUT-1 in nearly all of the cases under the investigation. Although GLUT-3 appeared in only 21.1% of the studied samples, it was not found in the normal oral epithelium. Contrary to these findings, our study showed 100% immunolabeling of the analyzed samples. Zhou et al., (2008) found no immunoexpression of this glucose transporter in any of 38 head and neck carcinomas. On the other hand, Tian et al., (2004) observed GLUT-3 immunostaining in 16 out of 19 OSCC cases (84.2%). Demeda et al., (2014) studied metastatic and non-metastatic lower lip squamous cell carcinoma and found that immunostaining for GLUT-3 was much lower than that for GLUT-1. In addition, they observed that GLUT-3 staining prevailed in central areas of tumor nests, islands and sheets. In the present study, GLUT-3 immunostaining was discovered in the basal and suprabasal layer, suggesting that the expression of GLUT-3 represents a secondary glucose uptake mechanism in OED and OSCC lesions.
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Simultaneous Determination Of Adjusted Ranks Of Sample Observations And Their Sums And Products

Simultaneous Determination Of Adjusted Ranks Of Sample Observations And Their Sums And Products

However, the sums of squares of ranks are different depending on whether or not there are tied observations in the data and hence are assigned mean ranks. In general, especially when there are tied observations that is when all or some of the observations are tied and hence assigned mean ranks, the sum of squares of these ranks, that is the sum of squares of the ranks of the n sample observations drawn from population X 1 is

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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The examination of the structure and microhardness of surface layer of C90 non-alloy steel and HS 6-5-2 high speed steel after electric arc treatment are presented in the paper. The comparison has been presented due to the similar content of the carbon in both steels. The structure of the remelted zone of the steel C90 before the conventional tempering consists of the cells, dendritic cells surrounded with the cementite, there is a plate martensite and retained austenite inside them, whereas the structure of the steel HS 6-5-2 is consistuted with cells, dendritic cells and dendrites surrounded with the eutectic system, inside of which there is a plate martensite and retained austenite. Such structure is characterized by the similar microhardness (790-800 HV0,065) and intensity of the tribiological wear. The tempering causes the decrease of the microhardness in non-alloy steel and the increase of the microhardness in high speed steel.
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Dental Press J. Orthod.  vol.19 número3

Dental Press J. Orthod. vol.19 número3

On the pressure side, PDL cells showed intense expression of FGF-2 three days after experimental tooth movement, which was concomitant with the observation of a higher number of osteoclasts and bone resorption in this group, thus indicating that this growth factor plays an important role during orthodontic movement. On day 7, a significant de- crease of FGF-2 expression, as well as a lower num- ber of osteoclasts were noted. One possible explana- tion is that there is dissipation of the applied orth- odontic force due to tooth movement in the arch. A new increase in FGF-2 expression recorded on day 14 could be associated with PDL remodeling in this phase of orthodontic movement. FGF-2 has the abil- ity to accelerate periodontal tissue regeneration at the final phase of tissue repair in alveolar bone defects by promoting angiogenesis and inducing growth of immature PDL cells. 24
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Vascular endothelial growth factor-A enhances indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression by dendritic cells and subsequently impacts lymphocyte proliferation

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A enhances indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression by dendritic cells and subsequently impacts lymphocyte proliferation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen (Ag)-presenting cells that activate and stimulate effective immune responses by T cells, but can also act as negative regulators of these responses and thus play important roles in immune regula- tion. Pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to cause defective DC differentia- tion and maturation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of VEGF to DC cultures renders these cells weak stimulators of Ag-specific T cells due to the inhibitory effects mediated by VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and/or VEGFR2 signalling. As the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is recognised as an important nega- tive regulator of immune responses, this study aimed to investigate whether VEGF affects the expression of IDO by DCs and whether VEGF-matured DCs acquire a suppressor phenotype. Our results are the first to demonstrate that VEGF increases the expression and activity of IDO in DCs, which has a suppressive effect on Ag-specific and mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. These mechanisms have broad implications for the study of immuno- logical responses and tolerance under conditions as diverse as cancer, graft rejection and autoimmunity.
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Naisandra Bezerra da Silva2 , Maria de Lourdes Freitas2 , Osiel Benedito de Almeida2 , Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha

Naisandra Bezerra da Silva2 , Maria de Lourdes Freitas2 , Osiel Benedito de Almeida2 , Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha

medroxiprogesterona, associadas a aplicações intramus- culares de cloprostenol e gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina. Após remoção das esponjas, o estro foi identificado em aproximadamente de 72h. Concluído o tratamento, as ca- bras foram subdivididas em 4 grupos (n=5 cada) para aba- te nos dias 2, 12, 16 e 22 após ovulação (p.o.). Posterior- mente, foram retirados os ovários e realizadas as mensurações de peso, tamanho e área do órgão e dos CL. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas e a progesterona sérica (P4) mensurada utilizando-se RIA convencional. A DV média dos CL AOLC foi 24,42±6,66; 36,26±5,61; 8,59±2,2 e 3,97±1,12 vasos/mm2 para os dias 2, 12, 16 e 22 p.o., respectivamente. A concentração média de P4 foi de 0,49±0,08; 2,63±0,66; 0,61±0,14 e 0,22±0,04ng/ml para os dias 2, 12, 16 e 22 p.o., respectivamente. Os parâmetros em estudo também se mostraram afetados pela fase do ciclo estral, sendo observados os maiores (p < 0,05) valo- res no dia 12 p.o. Neste experimento, a ovulação ocorreu predominantemente no ovário direito (70% dos animais), o qual apresentou medidas maiores que o contralateral. Ob- servou-se ainda alta correlação significativa entre o peso do ovário e o do CL (r=0,87; p<0,05) e entre o tamanho destes órgãos (r=0,70; p<0,05). Conclui-se que, a morfologia dos ovários de cabras e a concentração sérica de progesterona variam em função da fase do ciclo estral e podem ser utilizadas como parâmetro na avaliação funcio- nal do órgão.
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Development of Public Market of Corporate Bonds in Poland

Development of Public Market of Corporate Bonds in Poland

By the end of 2010, corporate bonds had not been very popular in Poland. Most of the issues were not public, which limited their volume and value, and mainly resulted from the lack of a proper public market for trading. The situation changed in September 2009 when the Warsaw Stock Exchange launched the bond market Catalyst that is a public market for trading in debt instruments. The aim of this work is to analyse corporate bonds available on Catalyst to prove that this market has become a significant place for raising capital by companies and has influenced popularity of bonds as a source of financing business activity. The primary methods used during the preparation of this work included: analysis of legal acts and papers on the Catalyst market. The author also conducted an analysis of statistical data on, for example, number of issuers as well as the volume and value of issues over the whole period of Catalyst operations, i.e. from September 2009 until the end of the first half of 2014.The analysis allowed achieving the aim and confirmed that launching the Catalyst market encouraged companies to raise funding through issues of bonds.
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Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition reduces angiogenesis via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and Notch1 in head neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition reduces angiogenesis via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and Notch1 in head neck squamous cell carcinoma.

decreased HIF-1α, a hypoxic biomarker frequently observed in advanced-stage HNSCC [29]. This effect likely involves the impact of cetuximab on angiogenesis by reducing HIF-1α nuclear translocation and/or reducing migration and chemoattractants, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), for endothelial cells. This phenomenon prevents angiogenic signal- ing. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of stem cell and neuronal cell death [30, 31]. However, recent evidence has shown that the Notch signaling pathway serves an important function during blood vessel formation and remodeling [32]. The Notch signal- ing pathway is involved in endothelial cell biology; it influences the budding of endothelial tip cells during angiogenesis initiation [33]. Notch1 was confirmed to be regulated by HIF-1α in a culture cell system [34]. Notch blockade can abolish the tumor resistance of glioblastoma to VEGF inhibitors [35, 36]. Blocking both Dll4/Notch and VEGF pathways synergistically inhib- its tumor growth, which indicates the potential application of Notch inhibitors as new adjuvant chemotherapy reagents [37]. Dll4/Notch transcription was activated by Erk and PI3K signaling pathways, which were also downstream of canonical EGFR transduction [38]. Notch1 downre- gulation also reduced VEGF expression [39]. Thus, we hypothesized that cetuximab can
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An overview of the spindle assembly checkpoint status in oral cancer

An overview of the spindle assembly checkpoint status in oral cancer

Figure 1: Current models of the signaling pathway of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). (a) According to the first model, the presence of unattached or inappropriate attached kinetochores activates the SAC (SAC on). At the kinetochore level, the complex Mad1-“closed” Mad2 generates a diffusible signal, converting the cytosolic “Open” Mad2 into new “Closed” Mad2, which in association with Bub3, BubR1, and Cdc20 forms the mitotic checkpoint complex. Mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) sequesters Cdc20 preventing activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Once all chromosomes are properly attached, MCC disassembles (SAC off) and Cdc20 is free to activate the APC/C that targets Securin and Cyclin B for degradation. This way, Separase is released and cleaves Coesins allowing sister chromatid separation, while Cyclin B degradation allows mitosis exit. (b) According to the second model, cytosolic “closed” Mad2 promotes a conformational change in Cdc20, allowing its binding to the N terminus of BubR1 bound to Bub3, which maintain the APC/C inhibited thus preventing anaphase onset. Once this complex is formed, “closed” Mad2 is released and returns to cytosol.
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Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

We firstly combined 22 eligible studies and found a HR of 1.025 (95%CI, 0.872–1.179), indi- cating that OS was not associated with bFGF expression. However, there was moderate hetero- geneity in the whole group (I 2 = 31.03%, p = 0.073). One study that followed exclusively SCC patients was found to be the main source of heterogeneity through sensitivity analysis. The combined HR and 95%CI did not alter significantly when excluding any study but this one. We compared this article carefully with others, and we inferred that there may be two reasons for this heterogeneity. First, adenocarcinoma and SCC are not homogeneous, although both are categorized as NSCLC. In this paper, bFGF, FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression was examined in adenocarcinoma and SCC, and high bFGF expression was found to be a good predictor of OS in SCC. However, the effect of bFGF expression on adenocarcinoma was not mentioned (without any text description, data or chart). In the other reports, the histological type enrolled was NSCLC, non-SCC or adenocarcinoma. Additionally, the method of evaluating the IHC results in this article was different from that of the others. According to Behrens et al., cyto- plasmic expression and nuclear expression were calculated by different methods. Nuclear over- expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 significantly correlated with a worse outcome. In contrast, cytoplasmic overexpression of bFGF and FGFR2 significantly correlated with better OS. In the study by Zhao et al. [27], cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining in the tumor cells was evaluated by the same criterion simultaneously. The remaining 8 articles used IHC to evaluate bFGF expression according to the cytoplasmic staining intensity of bFGF and/or the percentage of bFGF-positive tumor cells. Therefore, we excluded the Behrens study from the final analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the remaining 21 studies (I 2 = 0%, p = 0.630) and the pooled HR was 1.202 (95%CI, 1.022–1.382), indicating a worse prognosis with high bFGF expression. However, in subgroups by histologic type and disease stage, bFGF expression remained signifi- cantly associated with OS in SCLC and operable NSCLC, but not in advanced NSCLC.
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Filtration of aluminum alloys and its influence on mechanical properties and shape of eutectical silicium

Filtration of aluminum alloys and its influence on mechanical properties and shape of eutectical silicium

Filtration during casting of high quality aluminum alloys belongs to main refining methods. Even when there are many years of experiences and experimental works on this subject, there are still some specific anomalies. While using ceramic filtration media during casting of aluminum alloys, almost in all experiments occurred increase of strength limit and atypical increase of extension. This anomaly was not explained with classical metallurgical methods, black-white contrast after surface etching neither with color surface etching. For that reason was used deep etching on REM. By using pressed ceramic filters, by studying morphology eutectical silicon was observed modification morphology of eutectical silicon, this explains increase extension after filtration. Pressed ceramic filters were used on experimental works. Casting was executed on hardenable alloy AlSi10MgMn.
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J. Appl. Oral Sci.  vol.22 número5

J. Appl. Oral Sci. vol.22 número5

Figure 3- Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) showing type 3 pattern of invasion with groups of cells with no distinct borderline (S100A4, 20x).. Figure 4- Oral squamous cell carcinom[r]

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VASCULARIZAÇÃO DO ÚTERO - Estudo morfológico e experimental -

VASCULARIZAÇÃO DO ÚTERO - Estudo morfológico e experimental -

Perante as dificuldades e a escassez de espécimes disponíveis para estudo (25 úteros em cerca de 600 autópsias efectuadas), optámos desde o início dos trabalhos, por "rentabilizar" o estudo de cada espécime colhido no I.M.L., analisando cada um por mais de uma das técnicas seleccionadas. Assim, para além da observação e fotografia macroscópica de todos os úteros humanos, e após estudo inicial dos primeiros seis, por diafanização, optámos pelo prosseguimento do estudo com duas técnicas em cada caso: aplicando a técnica de injecção vascular e diafanização para o estudo do parênquima e a de injecção-corrosão-fluorescência para o pedículo vascular. Completámos esse trabalho com preparação de três órgãos por injecção- corrosão, para observação em microscopia electrónica de varrimento e pela técnica de injecção-corrosão-fluorescência com adição de pigmentos diferentes para artérias e veias, tanto do pedículo vascular, como dos ramos primários, nos últimos seis casos.
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Research Smad2 and Smad6 as predictors of overall survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

Research Smad2 and Smad6 as predictors of overall survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

The thermal cycling included an initial denaturation step of 5 minutes at 95°C followed by 35 cycles of 15 seconds at 95°C, 1 minute at 60°C and 1 minute at 72°C. Melting analysis was performed by heating the reaction mixture from 74 to 99°C at a rate of 0.2°C/second. Threshold cycle (Ct) and melting curves were acquired by using the "quantitation" and "melting curve" program of the Rotor gene 6 software version 6.0 Corbett Research (Corbett Research, DE). Only genes with clear and single melting peaks were taken for further data analysis. Samples with irregular melting peaks were excluded from the calcula- tion. The threshold was set manually, using identical threshold levels for one gene in all analyzed samples. Reaction efficiency was established for each set of prim- ers, after quantification of four different dilutions of a ref- erence cDNA.
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