Top PDF Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.

Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.

Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.

On the other side, the level of CD150 glycosylation also contributes to its surface exposure in glioma cells, since inhibition of glycosylation downregulates the CD150 cell surface expres- sion [7]. N-glycosylation starts in ER, and is followed by specific processing in Golgi, where oli- gosaccharides are replaced and/or modified in a strict order and manner. Surface receptors in Golgi acquire their specific oligosaccharide structure and composition, which would be recog- nized as a signal for their transport to the plasma membrane [35]. Tumor cells, including glio- mas, have an altered pattern of protein glycosylation compared to normal cells due to the modifications of glycosylation machinery in the Golgi apparatus [36]. As mentioned above, CD150 colocalization with Golgi marker was significantly lower in glioma cells in comparison to B cell line (Fig. 5). Therefore, in glioma cells CD150 glycosylation could be insufficient or al- tered leading to the lack of its surface expression on the plasma membrane. This is supported by our results of western blot analysis that showed differences in the pattern of CD150 protein bands between glioma and B cells with preferential expression of bands with lower molecular weight in glioma cells (Fig. 3C). In MP-1 cell line the band of 40 kDa (Fig. 3C) corresponds to non-glycosylated protein core of mCD150 [7]. Moreover, multiple bands in glioma cells may correspond to different CD150 isoforms (sCD150, cCD150 or vmCD150/tCD150) [4, 10, 12], and/or previously not identified CD150 splice variants.
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Papel do receptor P2X7 e da enzima CD39/NTPDASE1 na resposta à radioterapia em gliomas

Papel do receptor P2X7 e da enzima CD39/NTPDASE1 na resposta à radioterapia em gliomas

Gliomas represent the most common class of malignant tumors of the central nervous system being the most aggressive, and lethal brain tumors in primary brain tumors. Among the treatments, radiation is one of the most used therapies, but the intrinsic radioresistance of these tumors remains a critical problem in the management of these patients. Currently it is known that the effect of radiation extends beyond the directly cytotoxicity caused in tumor cells. Radiation therapy appears to induce an immunogenic cell death that among the features is ATP release. The ATP can cause cytotoxicity via P2X7 receptor and also acts as a sign of damage activating the immune system. The ATP can be hydrolyzed by enzymes of the purinergic system, among them the ectonucleotidase CD39, to adenosine, which has an opposite effect to ATP, causing immunosuppression. The radiation-induced ATP release and the ability of this nucleotide in modulate immune responses raised the hypothesis about the purinergic signaling participation in the tumor and immune cells response to radiation. Therefore, this study investigated: i) the role of ectonucleotidase CD39/NTPDase1 in the radiation-induced immune response in gliomas, ii) the importance of ATP-P2X7 receptor in the gliomas response to radiotherapy. Using knockout mice for CD39/NTPDase1, we observed that the deletion of this enzyme combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the immunosuppressive cells Tregs in the tumor and spleen, attenuated the infiltration of myeloid derived suppressor cells caused by radiation and increased CCR7 expression in splenic dendritic cells and macrophages, indicating the presence of freshly mobilized antigen presenting cells available to differentiate in immune-effector cells that sustain a more prolonged antigen-specific T-cell –mediated immune response. Thereby, showing that blocking the activity of CD39/NTPDase1 can control immunosuppressive mechanisms generated by the tumor and promises to improve the radiotherapy response. Furthermore, in this study we observed that radiation actives the P2X7 receptor and by silencing this receptor on the GL261 glioma cell line, we have shown that radiotherapy is less efficient in vivo when compared with mice injected with GL261 WT cells, which constitutively express the P2X7 receptor. We also showed that patients with glioma that overexpress the P2X7 receptor, showed a better response to radiotherapy, revealing the importance of the expression of this receptor on glioma cells as a useful marker to analyze the tumor sensitivity to radiation and a successful radiotherapy response. In summary, our data shed light on the purinergic signaling for modulating the radiotherapy response in gliomas.
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Novel expression patterns of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 in the zebrafish nervous system.

Novel expression patterns of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 in the zebrafish nervous system.

The metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6 or GRM6) belongs to the class III of the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. It is the only known mGluR that mediates direct synaptic transmission in the nervous system and is thought to mediate the ON-response in the ON-pathway of the vertebrate retina. Phylogenetic and gene structure analysis indicated that the zebrafish genome harbours two mglur6 paralogs, mglur6a and mglur6b. Besides expression in the inner nuclear layer and distinct regions in the brain, both mglur6 paralogs are expressed in ganglion cells of the retina, an expression pattern which can also be observed in the downstream effector molecules gnaoa and gnaob. This unexpected expression pattern is consistent with immunohistological labeling using a peptide antibody specific for the mGluR6b paralog. These expression patterns contradict the existing view that mGluR6 is solely located on ON-bipolar cells where it functions in signal transmission. Consistent with expression in ON-bipolar cells, we report a decreased b-wave amplitude in the electroretinogram after morpholino-based downregulation of mGluR6b, showing a function in the ON response. Our data suggest more widespread functions of mGluR6 mediated signaling in the central nervous system, possibly including sign reversing synapses in the inner retina.
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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the 2D task concerning the continuous casting technology is discussed. On the basis of the knowledge of temperature history at the selected set of the points from the casting domain the boundary heat flux is identified [5, 6, 7]. The identification of the boundary heat flux in the primary cooling

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Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Identification of AG10 alloy’s mechanical properties on base of ATND method

Obtaining the best material structure for a specific requirements becomes possible with making use of theories on crystallization processes to control technological processes [3, 4]. Registration of a phenomena arisen in result of solidification process of alloys in order to determine their properties is enabled by a methods based on analysis of temperature changes run (thermal methods - ATD), of electric conductivity (electric

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The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

The analysis of solidification process of ferritic-austenitic cast steel

the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification, proceeding in fact under the non-equilibrium conditions. The negative influence of the effects of the peritectic transformation during the solidification of carbon steels, particularly those cast with use of the CSC technology, is well- known and results in the increased quantity of defects [5-9]. The verification – based on the analysis of the duplex type cast steel solidification – if it is reasonable to speak about a peritectic transformation in relation to GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 cast steel has been recognized as important. Chemical compositions of ferritic-austenitic cast steel grades given by the PN-EN 10283:2004 Standard provide for ferritic solidification. It is confirmed by the data calculated according the formulae shown in Table 1 [10].
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Roughness of surface of vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds

Roughness of surface of vacuum castings prepared in plaster moulds

Experimental castings were prepared in moulds made of two types of plaster. Cast temperatures were 1120 and 1200°C for bronzes and 700 and 800°C for silumin. Temperatures of the mould were 500 and 600°C for bronzes and 200 and 300°C for aluminum alloy. The roughness measurements were carried out with use of Hommelwerke Tester T1000. The average arithmetic deviation of roughness profile Ra, the ten-point height of irregularities Rz and maximum peak to valley height Rm, were measured.

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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). In the assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person in the mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest in the products can be improved by an increase in the quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
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The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

The quality of castings obtained during lost-wax and Replicast CS processes in aspect of ecology

Haratym, Dok ł adno ć wymiarowa odlewów wykona- nych w procesie Replicast CS, Archiwum Odlewnictwa rocznik 3, nr 9, Katowice 2003.. Arendarski, Niepewno ć pomiarów, Oficyna Wydaw- nic[r]

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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

technique was employed in sample selection. In the first stage, the three agricultural zones in the state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. In the second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each of the agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While In the third stage two communities was randomly selected from each of the local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result of the objective of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves the use of Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) of the responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) of the product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

The paper presents a statistical assessment of the effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis of the reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
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Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

Modeling of Two-Stage Solidification: Part II Computational Verification of the Model

We designed a set of experiments for both models. Obtained results are presented in Figure 6. As can be seen only one curve, corresponding to the factor 1 f , diverges from the others, including cooling curves obtained by our model. Curves corresponding to other two factors are convergent with each other and with curve obtained by means of the proposed model. We noted that for both eutectic transformation modes the same correcting factor in analytical model can be used to describe eutectic structure evolution in case of hypoeutectic alloy. This implies that in order to take into account various eutectic transformation modes, there is no need to differentiate between various correction factors.
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Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

A modeling method of the Steinmetz equivalent diagram elements corresponding to the Eddy current losses from a single-phase transformer is proposed. The analytical calculations were carried out based on the transformer shell form. The obtained results can be employed for the calculation of the active loss in an electromagnetic domain of other forms such core form and toroidal form. However, the results do not include the hysteresis loss. The characteristic of alloy constituting the core is not given. Collaboration with manufacturers of sheets for the electric machines to have fuller information is necessary. A good correlation between the practical and theoretical results was verified with the proposed approach. The iron resistance and reactance are clarified analytically according to the geometrical and electromagnetic data of the core. Consequently, using the different powers in no load and short-circuit test, the article expressed the elements empirically given by Steinmetz. Finally, all the elements of the Steinmetz equivalent diagram can be calculated analytically. In the future, we expect to extend the proposed model to the larger fields of applications as electrical rotating machines modeling.
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies have proved that structure of the chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides in the chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature in the liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used in the manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties in the metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
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Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique of the nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.

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Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

Distributions of grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades

In the quality assurance system for components cast using the lost wax method, the object of evaluation is the grain size on the surface of the casting. This paper describes a new method for evaluating the primary grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades. Effectiveness of the method has been tested on two macrostructures distinguished by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. The grounds for evaluating the grain parameters consist of geometric measurement of the turbine blade using a laser profilometer and of approximation of the measurement results using a polynomial of a proper degree. The so obtained analytical non-planar surface serves as a reference point for an assessment of the parameters of grains observed on the real blade surface of a variable curvature. The aspects subjected to evaluation included: the grain areas, shape and elongation coefficients of grains on a non-planar surface of the blade airfoil, using measurements taken on a perpendicular projection by means of a stereoscopic microscope and image analysis methods, and by making calculations using the Mathematica ® package.
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Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prostate Cancer: A State of The Heart

Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease in the bone or in the abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension at the right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

41. Wang WL et al. The beneit of pretreatment esophageal screening with image-enhanced endoscopy on the survival of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(8):808-13. 42. de Monès E et al; Socéité Française de l’Otorhinolaryngologie. Initial staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, larynx and pharynx (excluding nasopharynx). Part 2: Remote extension assessment and exploration for secondary synchronous locations outside of the upper aerodigestive tract. 2012 SFORL guidelines. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130(2):107-12.
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