On the other side, the level ofCD150 glycosylation also contributes to its surface exposure in glioma cells, since inhibition of glycosylation downregulates theCD150 cell surface expres- sion . N-glycosylation starts in ER, and is followed by specific processing in Golgi, where oli- gosaccharides are replaced and/or modified in a strict order and manner. Surface receptors in Golgi acquire their specific oligosaccharide structure and composition, which would be recog- nized as a signal for their transport to the plasma membrane . Tumor cells, including glio- mas, have an altered pattern of protein glycosylation compared to normal cells due to the modifications of glycosylation machinery inthe Golgi apparatus . As mentioned above, CD150 colocalization with Golgi marker was significantly lower in glioma cells in comparison to B cell line (Fig. 5). Therefore, in glioma cells CD150 glycosylation could be insufficient or al- tered leading to the lack of its surface expression on the plasma membrane. This is supported by our results of western blot analysis that showed differences inthe pattern ofCD150 protein bands between glioma and B cells with preferential expressionof bands with lower molecular weight in glioma cells (Fig. 3C). In MP-1 cell line the band of 40 kDa (Fig. 3C) corresponds to non-glycosylated protein core of mCD150 . Moreover, multiple bands in glioma cells may correspond to different CD150 isoforms (sCD150, cCD150 or vmCD150/tCD150) [4, 10, 12], and/or previously not identified CD150 splice variants.
Gliomas represent the most common class of malignant tumorsofthecentralnervoussystem being the most aggressive, and lethal brain tumorsin primary brain tumors. Among the treatments, radiation is one ofthe most used therapies, but the intrinsic radioresistance of these tumors remains a critical problem inthe management of these patients. Currently it is known that the effect of radiation extends beyond the directly cytotoxicity caused in tumor cells. Radiation therapy appears to induce an immunogenic cell death that among the features is ATP release. The ATP can cause cytotoxicity via P2X7 receptor and also acts as a sign of damage activating the immune system. The ATP can be hydrolyzed by enzymes ofthe purinergic system, among them the ectonucleotidase CD39, to adenosine, which has an opposite effect to ATP, causing immunosuppression. The radiation-induced ATP release and the ability of this nucleotide in modulate immune responses raised the hypothesis about the purinergic signaling participation inthe tumor and immune cells response to radiation. Therefore, this study investigated: i) the role of ectonucleotidase CD39/NTPDase1 inthe radiation-induced immune response in gliomas, ii) the importance of ATP-P2X7 receptor inthe gliomas response to radiotherapy. Using knockout mice for CD39/NTPDase1, we observed that the deletion of this enzyme combined with radiotherapy significantly reduced the immunosuppressive cells Tregs inthe tumor and spleen, attenuated the infiltration of myeloid derived suppressor cells caused by radiation and increased CCR7 expressionin splenic dendritic cells and macrophages, indicating the presence of freshly mobilized antigen presenting cells available to differentiate in immune-effector cells that sustain a more prolonged antigen-specific T-cell –mediated immune response. Thereby, showing that blocking the activity of CD39/NTPDase1 can control immunosuppressive mechanisms generated by the tumor and promises to improve the radiotherapy response. Furthermore, in this study we observed that radiation actives the P2X7 receptor and by silencing this receptor on the GL261 glioma cell line, we have shown that radiotherapy is less efficient in vivo when compared with mice injected with GL261 WT cells, which constitutively express the P2X7 receptor. We also showed that patients with glioma that overexpress the P2X7 receptor, showed a better response to radiotherapy, revealing the importance oftheexpressionof this receptor on glioma cells as a useful marker to analyze the tumor sensitivity to radiation and a successful radiotherapy response. In summary, our data shed light on the purinergic signaling for modulating the radiotherapy response in gliomas.
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6 or GRM6) belongs to the class III ofthe metabotropic glutamate receptor family. It is the only known mGluR that mediates direct synaptic transmission inthenervoussystem and is thought to mediate the ON-response inthe ON-pathway ofthe vertebrate retina. Phylogenetic and gene structure analysis indicated that the zebrafish genome harbours two mglur6 paralogs, mglur6a and mglur6b. Besides expressioninthe inner nuclear layer and distinct regions inthe brain, both mglur6 paralogs are expressed in ganglion cells ofthe retina, an expression pattern which can also be observed inthe downstream effector molecules gnaoa and gnaob. This unexpected expression pattern is consistent with immunohistological labeling using a peptide antibody specific for the mGluR6b paralog. These expression patterns contradict the existing view that mGluR6 is solely located on ON-bipolar cells where it functions in signal transmission. Consistent with expressionin ON-bipolar cells, we report a decreased b-wave amplitude inthe electroretinogram after morpholino-based downregulation of mGluR6b, showing a function inthe ON response. Our data suggest more widespread functions of mGluR6 mediated signaling inthecentralnervoussystem, possibly including sign reversing synapses inthe inner retina.
Inthe paper the 2D task concerning the continuous casting technology is discussed. On the basis ofthe knowledge of temperature history at the selected set ofthe points from the casting domain the boundary heat flux is identified [5, 6, 7]. Theidentificationofthe boundary heat flux inthe primary cooling
Obtaining the best material structure for a specific requirements becomes possible with making use of theories on crystallization processes to control technological processes [3, 4]. Registration of a phenomena arisen in result of solidification process of alloys in order to determine their properties is enabled by a methods based on analysis of temperature changes run (thermal methods - ATD), of electric conductivity (electric
the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification, proceeding in fact under the non-equilibrium conditions. The negative influence ofthe effects ofthe peritectic transformation during the solidification of carbon steels, particularly those cast with use ofthe CSC technology, is well- known and results inthe increased quantity of defects [5-9]. The verification – based on the analysis ofthe duplex type cast steel solidification – if it is reasonable to speak about a peritectic transformation in relation to GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 cast steel has been recognized as important. Chemical compositions of ferritic-austenitic cast steel grades given by the PN-EN 10283:2004 Standard provide for ferritic solidification. It is confirmed by the data calculated according the formulae shown in Table 1 .
Experimental castings were prepared in moulds made of two types of plaster. Cast temperatures were 1120 and 1200°C for bronzes and 700 and 800°C for silumin. Temperatures ofthe mould were 500 and 600°C for bronzes and 200 and 300°C for aluminum alloy. The roughness measurements were carried out with use of Hommelwerke Tester T1000. The average arithmetic deviation of roughness profile Ra, the ten-point height of irregularities Rz and maximum peak to valley height Rm, were measured.
products (Kim & Chung, 2011:40), so it’s important to recognize consumer purchasing behavior. Many companies use marketing strategies by analyzing consumer behavior in order to study the effect on purchase decision (Jalalkamali & Nikbin, 2010:235). The purchase decision is also influenced by the perceived quality which is also an aspect of brand value that makes consumers pay for certain products or services (Yaseen et al., 2011:833). It confirms that the consumer purchase decision on products or services is strongly influenced by customer perception of quality of value brand. Decision making is a way of choosing between two or more possible options when a person has a choice between purchasing or not (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). Inthe assessment stages of different choices, the consumers classify different brands and the purchase intention is created in his mind. Shareef et al. (2008) revealed purchase decision is a continuous process, which refers to thoughtful, consistent action undertaken to bring about need satisfaction. Choubtarash et al. (2013) confirmed that purchase decision is a person inthe mind who is carefully analyzing the features of products, trademarks or services and tries, by using logical methods, to choose a choice that can satisfy the recognized need with the least expenses. Consumers perceived organic as a healthier alternative to conventional foods in that they contain more nutrients which enhance personal well-being organic produce is also considered safer and better in taste and more enjoyable than conventional products (Shaharudin et al., 2010:72). Last organic purchasing is defined as purchasing goods and services which have less harmful for environmental and human health (Othman & Rahman, 2014:93). Purchasing decisions can be measured through several dimensions, including recommend, purchase frequency, overall satisfaction and purchase intention (Shareef et al., 2008:101). The measure is not different from the study by Liu et al. (2009:72) which provide specifications for purchasing decisions by some measures, including product selection, brand selection, object selection, purchase opportunity, and purchase quantity. Consumer purchasing decisions on products had relationship with consumer perceptions of quality and risk products (Yee et al., 2011:47). Consumer interest inthe products can be improved by an increase inthe quality of products (Kwak & Kang, 2009:85). And previous research has argued that a consumer perception of quality has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior (Wang & Tsai, 2014:27). Based on these studies, next hypothesis as follows:
technique was employed in sample selection. Inthe first stage, the three agricultural zones inthe state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. Inthe second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each ofthe agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While Inthe third stage two communities was randomly selected from each ofthe local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result ofthe objective ofthe study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves the use of Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) ofthe responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) ofthe product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance ofthe foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region ofthe Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
The paper presents a statistical assessment ofthe effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis ofthe reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears ofthe unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role inthe diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
We designed a set of experiments for both models. Obtained results are presented in Figure 6. As can be seen only one curve, corresponding to the factor 1 f , diverges from the others, including cooling curves obtained by our model. Curves corresponding to other two factors are convergent with each other and with curve obtained by means ofthe proposed model. We noted that for both eutectic transformation modes the same correcting factor in analytical model can be used to describe eutectic structure evolution in case of hypoeutectic alloy. This implies that in order to take into account various eutectic transformation modes, there is no need to differentiate between various correction factors.
A modeling method ofthe Steinmetz equivalent diagram elements corresponding to the Eddy current losses from a single-phase transformer is proposed. The analytical calculations were carried out based on the transformer shell form. The obtained results can be employed for the calculation ofthe active loss in an electromagnetic domain of other forms such core form and toroidal form. However, the results do not include the hysteresis loss. The characteristic of alloy constituting the core is not given. Collaboration with manufacturers of sheets for the electric machines to have fuller information is necessary. A good correlation between the practical and theoretical results was verified with the proposed approach. The iron resistance and reactance are clarified analytically according to the geometrical and electromagnetic data ofthe core. Consequently, using the different powers in no load and short-circuit test, the article expressed the elements empirically given by Steinmetz. Finally, all the elements ofthe Steinmetz equivalent diagram can be calculated analytically. Inthe future, we expect to extend the proposed model to the larger fields of applications as electrical rotating machines modeling.
Studies have proved that structure ofthe chromium cast iron greatly depends on the additionally introduced elements such as titanium and tungsten. Titanium is a carbide-forming element, but in contrast to other elements of this type it does not form complex carbides inthe chromium cast iron, but only a TiC carbide, which is formed at high temperature inthe liquid metal. Tungsten is also a carbide-forming (and pearlite-forming) element but, like titanium, is rarely used inthe manufacture of chromium cast iron. High melting points of tungsten and titanium may cause difficulties inthe metallurgical process of chromium cast iron manufacture. Tungsten effect on the mechanical properties is similar to that of molybdenum, although it is weaker. Tungsten increases the hardenability of cast iron. Currently, the use of tungsten can be justified because of its price slightly lower than that of molybdenum.
At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique ofthe nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.
Inthe quality assurance system for components cast using the lost wax method, the object of evaluation is the grain size on the surface ofthe casting. This paper describes a new method for evaluating the primary grain parameters on the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades. Effectiveness ofthe method has been tested on two macrostructures distinguished by a high degree of diversity inthe grain size. The grounds for evaluating the grain parameters consist of geometric measurement ofthe turbine blade using a laser profilometer and of approximation ofthe measurement results using a polynomial of a proper degree. The so obtained analytical non-planar surface serves as a reference point for an assessment ofthe parameters of grains observed on the real blade surface of a variable curvature. The aspects subjected to evaluation included: the grain areas, shape and elongation coefficients of grains on a non-planar surface ofthe blade airfoil, using measurements taken on a perpendicular projection by means of a stereoscopic microscope and image analysis methods, and by making calculations using the Mathematica ® package.
Prof Alberto Briganti’s presentation began with the case of a 57-year-old male diagnosed with a 4 + 3 bilateral extended prostate cancer. The patient displayed some CV risk factors, including diabetes and obesity. Following staging, the patient appeared to have no systemic disease inthe bone or inthe abdomen and pelvis; however, a prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a suspicious area of minimal extracapsular extension at the right apex. Prostate-speciic antigen (PSA) levels were 21.6 ng/mL, indicating that he was a high-risk patient. He consequently underwent bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). The inal pathological report revealed that the patient had a Gleason score of 8, 2/21 positive lymph nodes, and a positive surgical margin, with complete recovery of urinary continence at 4 weeks after surgery. Post-surgery evaluation showed that the patient had a PSA of 0.07 ng/mL, had no spontaneous erections, and did not require a protective pad at 40 days.
41. Wang WL et al. The beneit of pretreatment esophageal screening with image-enhanced endoscopy on the survival of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol. 2013;49(8):808-13. 42. de Monès E et al; Socéité Française de l’Otorhinolaryngologie. Initial staging of squamous cell carcinoma ofthe oral cavity, larynx and pharynx (excluding nasopharynx). Part 2: Remote extension assessment and exploration for secondary synchronous locations outside ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. 2012 SFORL guidelines. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130(2):107-12.