Summary. One of the key moments of radioiodine therapy, and also radioisotope diagnostics of cancers of a thyroidgland is ability of their cells to accumulate iodide. This ability is provided with activity of the specific transporter – sodium-iodidesymporter. Our research has shown disorders ofsodium-iodidesymporter immunoexpression in all tumorsofthyroidgland: from overexpression and absence of plasma membrane expressionin differentiated carcinomas, up to weak or actually absent in low differentiated cancers and Hurtle-cells tumors. Thus, there is a prospect of application of the sodium-iodidesymporter, as the prognostic marker ofthyroid cancers.
The thyroidgland has the ability to uptake and concentrate iodide, which is a fun- damental step inthyroid hormone biosynthesis. Radioiodine has been used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for several years. However, the studies related to the mechanisms ofiodide transport were only possible after the cloning of the gene that encodes the sodium/iodidesymporter (NIS). The studies about the reg- ulation of NIS expression and the possibility of gene therapy with the aim of trans- ferring NIS gene to cells that normally do not express the symporter have also become possible. In the majority of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules, both benign and malignant, NIS gene expression is maintained, but NIS protein is retained in the intracellular compartment. The expressionof NIS in non-thyroid tumoral cells in vivo has been possible through the transfer of NIS gene under the control of tis- sue-specific promoters. Apart from its therapeutic use, NIS has also been used for the localization of metastases by scintigraphy or PET-scan with 124 I. In conclusion, NIS gene cloning led to an important development in the field ofthyroid patho- physiology, and has also been fundamental to extend the use of radioiodine for the management of non-thyroidtumors. (Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2007;51/5:672-682)
This report is the first to demonstrate a decrease iniodide uptake by FRTL-5 in- duced by estradiol. The observed effect was quite mild and could have been influenced by the presence of estrogenic activity in the medium (steroid activity of phenol red pre- sent in the medium, or inhibitory steroids in serum). In addition, the concentrations of estradiol used were supra-physiological and experiments to study estrogen associated with an antagonist of its action were not per- formed, so that some nonspecific effect can- not be excluded. Nevertheless, since the de- crease of the sodium-iodidesymporter gene expression, described previously using simi- lar experimental conditions, was fully re- versed by ICI182780 (3), an estrogen an- tagonist, we would expect the same to occur for iodide uptake.
The patient with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ma- lignant mixed tumor) was a 55 year-old woman presenting a painful palpable mass of rapid growth, proptosis and displace- ment of the globe off axis. She was treated with lateral orbi- totomy with complete resection of the tumor and postoperative radiation. Macroscopically, the tumor measured 40x20x17 mm, was partially encapsulated, and had an irregular reddish surface (Figure 1D). It was composed of benign (pleomorphic adenoma) and malignant (adenoid cystic carcinoma) components (Figure 2F). According to the UICC/TNM Classification, the tumor was classified as T3aN0M0. Four years after the surgery, there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.
Serving as protection against injuries caused by ROS due to their antioxidant properties, metallothioneins (MTs) are from a group of intracellular, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins . There are four isoforms of mammalian MT: MT-1, MT-2, MT- 3, and MT-4. The MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms, which only differ by one negative charge, are the most extensively expressed iso- forms in a variety of tissues [5,6]. They play an important role in heavy metal detoxification and metal homeostasis . Addi- tionally, MTs have a potent antioxidant function, which may act as an adaptive protein that shields cells and tissues from ox- idative stress [8,9]. In light of these characteristics, MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild type (WT) mice were used to investigate the effects of mito- chondrial oxidative stress in the thyroidin our present study. Propylthiouracil (PTU) is an anti-thyroid agent and an inhib- itor ofthyroid peroxidase (TPO), it plays a role in inhibiting io- dide oxidation and monoiodotyrosine iodination, interferes with the synthesis of thyroxine (T4) production, and blocks the peripheral conversion of T4 to triiodothyronine . Perchlo- rate (KClO 4 ) competitively inhibits iodide uptake into the thy-
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The incidence oftumorsof Salivary glands is not uncommon in the surgical practice in Telangana state. In the present study 178 patients with a clinical diagnosis of salivary glandtumors between 2006 and 2014 at Warangal, Telangana were analyzed both retrospectively (2006-2010) and prospectively (2011-2014). Demographic data like age, sex and clinical features like tumor location, FNAC reports, CT scan findings, nature of growth and predisposing factors were recorded. All the patients with benign tumors were managed by surgical excision and malignant lesions with surgery in combination with Radiotherapy. Cervical lymph node metastases were managed by RT and neck dissection. AIM: This study aims at analyzing the clinical, pathological, Surgical and RT outcome of Salivary glandTumorsin patients attending a large tertiary Hospital at Warangal, rendering services to four districts of Telangana. STUDY DESIGN: 178 patients diagnosed as SGTs retrospectively and prospectively and undergoing surgical treatment were analyzed with respect to their clinical, cytological and surgical outcome. RESULTS: There were 143 patients with benign tumors and 35 patients with malignant tumors. The mean age was 41.3±2.6 years for benign tumors and 65.4±1.8 for the malignant tumors. Parotid gland was commonly involved 75(42.13%) followed minor salivary glands of Hard palate 29(16.29%) and Submandibular gland 23(12.92%). Remaining 51(28.65%) patients presented with tumors involving cheek, lips and floor of the mouth. Among the benign tumors Pleomorphic adenoma accounted for 94(52.80%) and warthin’s tumor for 23(12.92%). Among malignant tumors Mucoepidermoid carcinomas were 12(6.74%), adenocarcinomas 9(5.05%), adenoid cystic carcinomas 6(3.37%) and Acinic cell carcinomas 5(2.80%), EMC 2(1.12
particular characteristics of the studied populations. Some factors, such as genetic profile and environmental character- istics, certainly influence the prevalence of different types of cancer. The role played by genetic heredity has been particu- larly studied. Several loci have recently been associated with some types of cancer and reported to increase their risk . A study conducted on 9.6 million people found a greater association with hereditary factors in cancers in the thyroid (53%), endocrine system (25%), testis (23%), breasts (20%), and melanoma (20%). However, other types of cancers, such as those in the nervous system, colon, rectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and lungs, showed only slight agreement . In general, the specific role played by each gene locus in malig- nancy induction seems to be relatively small . The phe- nomenon of incomplete alleles of cancer susceptibility and environmental exposure could be responsible for these find- ings. Hence, depending on the environment, an individual with high genetic risk for developing a neoplasia may never show it, while another individual at low risk could eventually develop it [16, 17]. Among environmental factors, the pos- sible influence of disruptors is noteworthy. Exposure to such elements seems to play an important role in the occurrence of certain cancer types . The group of molecules identified as disruptors is heterogeneous and includes synthetic prod- ucts such as industrial solvents/lubricants and their byprod- ucts [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dioxins], plastics [bisphenol A (BPA)], plasticizers (phthalates), pesticides [methoxychlor, chlor- pyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)], fungi- cides (vinclozolin), and pharmaceutical agents [diethylstilbe- strol (DES)]. Natural compounds present in humans as well as animal foods (e.g., phytoestrogens, including genistein and coumestrol) can also work as disruptors [19, 20]. Depending on age and exposure time, studies show that some disruptors can change mechanisms that regulate cell proliferation and tissue organization patterns, and such alterations may also be associated with the development of neoplastic lesions. Disruptors, such as DDT, BPA, DES, seem to be associated with breast and prostate cancer [21–26].
It is seen that in literature some authors suggest medical treat- ment even if there are no suspicion of malignancy and serious clinical symptoms. On the other hand, other authors suggest the excision of the thyroid tissue in the selection of treatment method regardless of the presence of normal thyroid tissue . In the latter suggested method the patient’s condition improves and the possibility of a future development of malignant de- generation is eliminated. The fact that the lesion was large, the patient was old and the fact that the patient informed us about an enlargement in the last three months made us conclude that the risk of malignancy may be high. Besides, the insistence of the patient to get the mass surgically removed and the fact that he was living in a rural and remote area again made us move away from the option of medical treatment that would take a long time and would necessitate careful follow-up. It should be remembered that thyroid tissue can rarely be seen outside its normal localization and it should definitely be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis. It should also be noted that, although it is rare and is most of the time a benign anomaly, ETT may cause serious problems based on its local mass effect and potency for malignant degeneration.
All SGT diagnosed and treated at the Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto (a tertiary center in Northern Portugal for the diagnosis and treatment of non-oncologic and oncologic patients), between 2005 and 2015, were retrieved from the pathology department files. Only patients with major or minor salivary glandtumors that were subjected to surgical treatment were included. Patients who underwent surgical treatment due to primary skin or oral cancers with salivary gland direct invasion were excluded. Histological re- evaluation of the whole stored surgical specimen’s material was performed in all cases and additional histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were carried out whenever appropriate. Histopathological classification was accomplished according to the current World Health Organization (WHO) blue book, 12 and pathological staging
The main clinical manifestation is a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass, commonly in the seventh decade. Approxi- mately 30%---50% of patients manifest compression symptoms of the adjacent structures, in addition to dysphagia, stri- dor, hoarseness, cough and a pressure sensation in the neck. Symptoms such as fever, night sweats and weight loss are less common. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis appears to be a risk factor for thyroid lymphoma although the association is still debated. 1,2
The hypothyroidism is traditionally defined as deficient thyroidal production ofthyroid hormone by factors affecting the thyroidgland itself; the fall in serum concentrations ofthyroid hormone causes an increased secretion of TSH resulting in elevated serum TSH concentrations and, can also be caused by insufficient stimulation of the thyroidgland by TSH, due to factors directly interfering with pituitary TSH release or indirectly by diminishing hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) release (Lee HJ, 2015; Yoo WS, 2016; Mincer, DL, 2017).
water). Each sample was overlaid with min- eral oil (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) and incubated in a thermocycler (GeneAmpl 9700, Perkin-Elmer, Foster City, CA, USA) using one cycle at 94ºC for 3 min followed by 40 cycles of 94ºC for 60 s, 58ºC for 45 s and 72ºC for 90 s. PCR fragments were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Sample contami- nation by genomic DNA was verified sub- mitting the RNA sample to PCR amplifica- tion omitting the reverse transcriptase step. Cyclophilin (housekeeping gene) was co- amplified as an internal control. The primers used are listed in Table 1.
158 233. Gregory PA, Bracken CP, Smith E, Bert AG, Wright JA, Roslan S, et al. An autocrine TGF-beta/ZEB/miR-200 signaling network regulates establishment and maintenance of epithelial- mesenchymal transition. Mol Biol Cell. 2011; 22(10): 1686-1698. doi:10.1091/mbc.E11-02-0103. 234. Guaita S, Puig I, Franci C, Garrido M, Dominguez D, Batlle E, et al. Snail induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in tumor cells is accompanied by MUC1 repression and ZEB1 expression. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277(42): 39209-39216. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206400200. 235. McCawley LJ, Li S, Wattenberg EV and Hudson LG. Sustained activation of the mitogen- activated protein kinase pathway. A mechanism underlying receptor tyrosine kinase specificity for matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274(7): 4347-4353. 236. Dedes KJ, Natrajan R, Lambros MB, Geyer FC, Lopez-Garcia MA, Savage K, et al. Down-regulation of the miRNA master regulators Drosha and Dicer is associated with specific subgroups of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011; 47(1): 138-150. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.08.007. 237. Grelier G, Voirin N, Ay AS, Cox DG, Chabaud S, Treilleux I, et al. Prognostic value of Dicer expressionin human breast cancers and association with the mesenchymal phenotype. Br J Cancer. 2009; 101(4): 673-683. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605193.
This research was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee with the following reference number: CAAE - 37156714.6.0000.5149. From January 2008 to December 2015, we selected patients undergoing surgical treatment and histological diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. We collected data regarding gender, age, previous history, history of smoking or alcoholism, presence of gallstones, family history for neoplasia, histological type, tumor staging and survival after treatment. The laboratory tests analyzed were bilirubins and Ca 19-9. The classification of the anatomical location of the tumors and the staging were based on the description of the radiological studies (Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and/ or Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography) associated with the findings of the surgical description and anatomopathological study. We revised the hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained slides to classify tumors as polypoid and non-polypoid. Classification and staging followed the TNM pattern of the American Joint Cancer Committee/Union for International Cancer Control - 7th edition 20,21 .
just as in the present study, used an alternative and economic method. The TMAs were pre-selected with representative samples from tumor biopsies (one sample per patient), surgical resection specimens (two samples per patient), perigastric lymph node metastasis (one sample per patient) and distant metastasis (one sample per patient), according to which one was available for each patient. When the patient had two or more specimens, all of them were included for analysis and posteriorly paired. For the construction of the tissue microarray, slides were analyzed and the original area of interest was selected. Then, the selected area was identiied in the original parafin blocks (donor blocks), and a tissue cylinder of 2 mm was removed from this area, using a metal tool known as a "punch" for skin biopsies. The cylinder was then inserted into a new block (receptor block), containing eight samples per block – divided into four rows and four columns. The position of each patient was identiied in a spreadsheet. In the case of surgical resection specimens where two samples of each patient were included in the TMA, the higher obtained score was considered for the analysis.
The lesion penetrated the serous (peritoneum) without the invasion of adjacent structures (spleen, stomach, liver, diaphragm, pancreas, abdominal wall, adrenal, kidney, small intestine and retroperitoneum) (T3) in 28 patients (70%); the lesion invaded the mus- cularis propria or subserosa (T2) in 10 patients (25%), and adjacent structures (T4) in 2 patients (5%). None of the patients presented only the invasion of lamina pro- pria or submucosa (T1). Four patients (10%) had liver metastasis at the moment of surgery, while 36 (90%) patients did not present such condition.
Introduction: Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with poor prognosis. The treatment is based only on clinical criteria, such as risk group that only considers age, extent of tumor resection, recurrence, and metastasis. Objective: To evaluate a possible relationship between the immunoexpression of biomarkers (Ki67, receptor neutrophin-3 [TRKC], epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], and cyclin-D1), and the classical clinical prognostic factors of medulloblastoma. Material and method: thirty-ive samples of pediatric medulloblastoma free of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were separated and reviewed for their histopathological classiication; two areas representative of tumor were used in the construction of tissue microarrays. The following clinical data from 29 patients were used for comparison with the biomarkers expression: patient’s age, presence or absence of complete tumor resection, staging patient’s risk group, presence or absence of metastases, presence or absence of postoperative chemotherapy, and presence or absence of recurrence. Clinical follow-up of the study ranged from two to thirteen years, and cases with fatal outcome were also analyzed. Results: Patients with upper age showed higher expressionof TRKC (p = 0.033). There was inversely proportional and statistically signiicant correlation between TRKC and Ki67 (p = 0.027). There was no statistical signiicance in the analysis of EGFR, Bcl- 2, and cyclin-D1. Conclusion: The immunoexpression of TRKC might be considered a biomarker related to tumors with better prognosis in patients with medulloblastoma, contributing to better risk groups’ stratiication.
The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields ofstudy. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields ofstudy are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields ofstudy refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
Odontogenic tumors arise from epithelial and/or ecto- mesenchymal elements involved in odontogenesis and are classified according to the tissue of origin. Tumors originating from odontogenic apparatus or its deriva- tives or remnants exhibit marked histologic variation and are classified as benign or malignant. 1 Ameloblas- tomas are the most frequent benign tumors derived from odontogenic epithelium and are characterized by slow-growth but local invasion and a high rate of re- currence. These tumors morphologically resemble tis- sue structures of the odontogenic epithelium, such as the enamel organ and/or dental lamina, 1 and can be divided into multicystic (solid), unicystic, and periph- eral tumors based on clinical and radiographic findings. Regarding clinical behavior, unicystic ameloblastomas have been reported to present a less aggressive biologic behavior and a better prognosis than solid ameloblas- tomas. 1,2
16 lead to an enhancement of proliferation by increasing the β catenin levels 29 and, therefore, mimic the canonical Wnt/β catenin signaling 29,46 . However, it was demonstrated that although the inhibition of the GSK3β pathway occurred at concentrations as low as 1 m M lithium, substantial growth inhibition of tumor cells does not appear until treatment with 10 m M lithium 47 . Recently, it was demonstrated that treatment with lithium inhibited growth of a medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line (TT) both and and that exerts its effect via inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Increased concentration of lithium significantly reduced growth of TT cells in a dose dependent fashion 48 . Inhibition of GSK3β by specific inhibitors has shown to reduce tumors growth in other cancers including colon, melanoma and glioblastoma 49 51 . Therefore, these conflicting results could be explained not only for the different concentrations used but also by the fact that the effect of lithium may not be general but cell type specific.