The results indicated that grain yield as an important element for thewheateconomicperformance, reinforcing the importance of using practices of crop integrated management to power grain yield at a low cost. Considering the field establishment and plant protection costs, the adjustment of fertilizers doses and plant density to crop conditions, and adoption of cultivars with good cost-benefit ratio, could contribute to reduce these input costs. The use of integrated management practices is an important strategy to decrease the use of chemical control of weeds, diseases and insects, and reduce costs as well. In the case of FHB disease, sowing date scheduling and selection of cultivars with the best reaction to this disease are fundamental. Improvements in application timing and spraying technology can contribute tothe product efficiency use and the reduction of costs; using a disease model can help on the decision-making process. The consideration of these aspects has potential to increase theeconomic return ofwheatfields contributing to maintain this crop on production systems in the Southern Region of Paraná State.
Based on the present results, T 4 and T 3 hormones as well as AST levels were the same for all strains. Thyroid hormones are good indicators for chickens that are susceptible to ascites (Hassanzadeh, Buyse, Dewil, Rahimi, & Decuypere, 1997). Whereas the metabolic rate and consequently incidence of ascites can be predicted by plasma concentration of thyroid hormones (Hassanzadeh, Bozorgmerifard, Akbari, Buyse, & Decuypere, 2000; Scheele, Van Der Klis, Kwakernaak, Buys, & Decuypere, 2003). Therefore, no significant effect of strain on T 3 and T 4 concentrations may be relatedtothe same ascitic mortalities in the present study. Furthermore, Ozkan et al. (2006) reported that feed restriction had a negative effect on thyroid gland activity and plasma T 3 concentrations. As pointed by Luger, Shinder, Rzepakovsky, Rusal, & Yahav (2001), in dead ascitic broilers, the concentration of T 3 and T 4 hormones decreased in the last week to death. Also, by increased metabolic rate and ascites progression, plasma T 3 level is going to be reduced (Luger et al., 2001). In fact, the decrease in plasma T 4 levels can be due tothe negative interaction of T 3 in the hypothalamus, which leads to reduce thyroid-stimulating hormone (Scheele et al., 2003). Regulating body temperature and stimulating growth rate are dependent on plasma T 3 level. In addition, plasma T 3 level
Fiscality was and still is a major obstacle tothe structural evolutions oftheeconomic agent. Each enterprise is touched, in its structure and objectives, in a direct way, by the tax pressure, which produces a series of distortions in its behaviour. But influences are not exercised only by the administrative rules, and also by the burden ofthe financial tasks, which, without a relaxation of them, under the conditions of a generalized economic and financial blockage and of a sub-capitalization, can lead tothe paralization ofthe activity ofthe present enterprises and to prohibition for the foundation of new commercial companies in fields needing important capital investments.
Abstract – The objective of this work was to assess the genetic diversity and population structure ofwheat genotypes, to detect significant and stable genetic associations, as well as to evaluate the efficiency of statistical models to identify chromosome regions responsible for the expression of spike-related traits. Eight important spike characteristics were measured during five growing seasons in Serbia. A set of 30 microsatellite markers positioned near important agronomic loci was used to evaluate genetic diversity, resulting in a total of 349 alleles. The marker-trait associations were analyzed using the general linear and mixed linear models. The results obtained for number of allelic variants per locus (11.5), average polymorphic information content value (0.68), and average gene diversity (0.722) showed that the exceptional level of polymorphism in the genotypes is the main requirement for association studies. The population structure estimated by model-based clustering distributed the genotypes into six subpopulations according to log probability of data. Significant and stable associations were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, and 6D, which explained from 4.7 to 40.7% of total phenotypic variations. The general linear model identified a significantly larger number of marker‑trait associations (192) than the mixed linear model (76). The mixed linear model identified nine markers associated to six traits.
Adverse natural conditions will, generally, induce gemmulation in freshwater sponges. Because of this environmental dependence, gemmoscleres are given exceptional value in taxonomic, ecological and paleoenvironmental studies. Other spicules categories such as microscleres and beta megascleres have received little attention with regard to their occurrence and function during the sponge biological cycle. Metania spinata, a South American species common to bog waters in the Cerrado biome, produces alpha and beta megascleres, microscleres and gemmoscleres. To detect the environmental factors triggering the production of all these kinds of spicules, the species annual seasonal cycle was studied. Artificial substrates were devised, supplied with gemmules and placed in Lagoa Verde pond which contained a natural population of M. spinata. Field monitoring was conducted for eight months in order to observe the growth of sponges and spicules formation. Samples of water were taken monthly for physical and chemical parameters determination. The appearance ofthe alpha megascleres was sequentially followed by that of microscleres, gemmoscleres and beta megascleres. The first ones built the new sponge skeleton, the last three were involved in keeping inner moisture in the sponge body or its gemmules. The water level, temperature and the silicon (Si) concentration in the pond were the most important factorsrelatedto this sequential production of spicules, confirming environmental reconstructions based on the presence or absence of alpha megascleres and gemmoscleres in past sediments.
“Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes” (EISL) (International Study of Wheezing in Infants) surveyed a huge number of one-year-old infants and reported a list of risk and protective factors for recurrent wheeze, defined as three or more episodes of this condition during the first year of life. 25 The study was carried out in a common time frame in a total of 17 centres in Latin America and Europe, and showed considerable variability in the magnitude ofthe association of those factors (measured as adjusted odds ratios, aOR), between centres. For instance, the overall most important risk factor, which was having symptoms of a cold during the first three months of life, ranged from aOR Z 6.04 (95% CI 4.76e7.66) in Valdivia (Chile) to aOR Z 2.03 (95% CI 1.26e3.29) in Bilbao (Spain). Similarly, the magnitude ofthe association ofthe most consistent
Lippia alba is a bush ofthe Verbenaceae family frequently used in popular medicine (Ming, 1994). The pharmacological activities (antispasmodic, soothing, and stomach disorders) of its essential oils have trig- gered the interest of researchers in establishing their effects which resulted in the detection of other impor- tant properties, including the aromatic (Frighetto & Oliveira, 1998) and biological ones (Cáceres et al., 1991; Abad et al., 1997; Alea et al., 1997; Brasileiro et al., 2006). Currently L. alba is a promising plant for the pharmaceutical, aromatic, and perfume industries and may also be indicated for agricultural-chemical in- dustries, due to its proven fungitoxic, insecticidal, and repellent properties (Dubey et al., 1983; Dwivedi & Kishore, 1990; Kishore & Mishra, 1991; Rao et al., 2000; Schwan-Estrada et al., 2000; Ibrahim et al., 2001). In addition, L. alba can be easily cultivated and has great agronomic potential, with rapid and aggres- sive development, clonal propagation via cuttings, and rusticity.
It was obtained in the study in elderly minimum demand for realization of fast testing for STI. It is important to note that in addition to raise aware- ness about safe behaviors prevention, campaigns to be developed by the Ministry of Health, in partner- ship with the states and municipalities should draw the attention of society at large tothe importance of carrying out the serological tests journals that allow early diagnosis or absence of disease. These tests must be carried out after risky situations, such as the shared use of syringes by drug users or sex without the use of condoms. According tothe Na- tional Program of STI/AIDS, the Ministry of Health, the number of people living with HIV should increa- se, since the number of people with sexually active who took the test at least once increased from 40% in 2009 to 60% in 2010. 
In order to be able to understand the child care reforms that are currently taking place in Romania, it is important first to take a look at the past in order to understand how the tragic situation ofthe notorious orphanages and the resulting institutionalised children came about. Romanians are not proud of what happened tothe "child protection" system during the communist era. The late dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu, who ruled the country from 1965 to 1989, wanted to double Romania’s population within one generation. Consequently, he banned contraception and outlawed abortions, except in cases where women already had four children. Families who couldn't afford to raise such a large number of children turned tothe state for support. The state intervened "generously" and assumed legal responsibility for all those children who were separated from their own families. With the creation of this large network of child care institutions, a "demand" for children in need was created and medical staff in particular were encouraged to advise poor young mothers that they could choose to place their child in a comfortable environment where they would have a better life. To some extent this practice continues today and is one ofthefactors that accounts for the large number of babies being left in hospitals.
HASSANPANAH, D. Analysis of GxE interaction by using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction in potato cultivars. International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics, v. 4, n. 1, p. 23-29, 2010. HEINEMANN, A. B.; STONE, L. F.; DIDONET, A. D.; TRINDADE, M. G.; SOARES, B. B.; MOREIRA, J. A. A.; CANOVAS, A. D. Eficiência de uso da radiação solar na produtividade de trigo decorrente da adubação nitrogenada. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v. 10, n. 2, p. 352-356, 2006. KUTMAN, U. B.; YILDIZ, B.; CAKMAK, I. Effect of nitrogen on uptake, remobilization and partitioning of zinc and iron throughout the development of durum wheat. Plant and Soil, v. 342, n. 1-2, p. 149-164, 2011. LAMOTHE, A. G. Fertilización con N y potencial de rendimiento en trigo. In: KOHLI, M. M.; MARTINO, D. L. (Ed.). Explorando altos rendimentos de trigo. Montevideo: CIMMYT/INIA, 1998. p. 207-246.
Logistics is ‘a time-based activity concerned with the profitable movement of information and materials into/through the organization and out tothe customer. It includes everything from the moment a product or service needs to be made, through to incoming raw materials management, production, finished goods storage, delivery to customer and after-sales service’ (Day, 1998). Logistics excellence helps firms create competitive advantages, enhances corporate profitability and drives customer satisfaction (Zacharia and Mentzer, 2004). Anderson and Narus (1995) revealed that companies stress their logistics capabilities to differentiate themselves from others. Hum (2000) obtained findings of companies moving towards outsourcing their logistics activities so that they can concentrate their efforts on their core businesses.
presence and mycotoxin occurrence (González et al., 1998; Lori et al., 2003; Passone et al., 2010). The information resulting from these tests can indicate the hazard analysis critical control point inside the food producer chain (Food and Agriculture Drganization ofthe United Nations, 2001) and allows decision-making measures about the storage time ofthe analyzed product and the need for specific mycotoxin analysis. Thus, the present work had the objectives of analyzing the presence of Aspergillus in Bulgur wheat commercialized in the city of Maringá, Paraná, which is located in Southern Brazil, the main wheat producer region in this country. Bulgur wheat is a cereal food made from wheat grains and it is used in Mediterranean and Arabic cuisine and is greatly appreciated in Brazil. In addition, this work aimed to obtain monosporic isolates and to molecularly identify them; to evaluate the aflatoxin production profile ofthe isolates by culture and chromatographic techniques; and to evaluate the aflatoxins production potential from the obtained isolates through PCR reactions targeting genes that code for enzymes from the aflatoxin synthesis pathway.
Educators and families are therefore able to discover what makes children possess good reading comprehension skills, and they are being able to create involvement in such activities which will increase the reading skills of children in light of such information (Duffey & Roehler, 1993). Research performed regarding thefactors associated with academic success indicate that equipped state of students (Farrow, Tymms, & Henderson, 1999; Gilson, 1999; Aksoy & Link, 2000; Hodges & White, 2001), equipped state of teachers (Betts & Morell, 1999; Larson, 2000), the home environment and sub-structure of family (Jones & White, 2000; Kaplan, Liu, & Kaplan, 2001), and school environment (Erbe, 2000; Hodges & White, 2001; Linnakyla, Marlin, & Taube, 2004) affect the academic success of students.
municipality of Araguaina (TO) showed variations relatedtothe monthly average of IIP between alert and satisfactory situation. IIP was observed higher in the period defined as rainy, favoring the existence of as many breeding contributing to vector proliferation. A similar result was found in a study conducted in São Sebastião (SP) and São Luis (MA), which showed high vector density in the
Although there is no consensus in the overall literature regarding the relationship between size and performance, there are three important pieces of literature to be taken into consideration when designing the methodology and analysing the results obtained. Schmalensee (1989), used data for US corporations between 1953 and 1983, using two-digit SIC level code to classify each company’s industry, and found that, controlling for industry, large firms perform better than small firms. In this study, as in most ofthe works mentioned, the dependent variable chosen to represent returns is the ROA and size is measured in terms of total assets (Log Total Assets). Hall, M., & Weiss, L. (1967) finds that above a certain level, between small and medium enterprises, size is not related with performance hinting at the finding that above a certain threshold a smaller scale is no longer a barrier. In a study regarding Portuguese companies, for the period between 1999 and 2003, Serrasqueiro and Nunes (2008) have found a positive relationship between size and financial performance. Furthermore, the authors suggest this positive impact is due to higher diversification and better capacity to adapt to change, due to a larger buffer.
BOCk, R. E.; kINGSTON, T. G.; DE VOS, A. J. Effect of breed on transmission rate and innate resistance of cattle to infection with Babesia bovis and B. bigemina transmitted by Boophilus microplus. Australian Veterinary Journal, malden, v. 77, n. 2, p. 461-464, 1999. DIXON, R. L.; HART, L. G.; FOUTS, J. R. The metabolism of drugs by liver microsomes from alloxan- diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bethesda, v. 133, n. 1, p. 7-11, 1961. GUGLIELmONE, A. A. Epidemiology of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in South and Central América. Veterinary Parasitology, Amsterdam, v. 57, n. 1, p. 109-119, 1995. LARSON, B. L.; HAYS, R. L. An explanation for bovine parturation edema and treatment with blood protein replacements. Journal of Dairy Science, Champaign, v. 41, n. 1, p. 995-997, 1958.
The prevention of constipation (Martinho et al. 2013) is one ofthe better known health bene ﬁts relatedtothe consumption of DF. Nevertheless, much more e ﬀects can be attributed to DF, namely, preventing diseases a ﬀecting the intestine and colon, blood glycaemia, cardiovascular diseases, and serum cholesterol or cancer a ﬀecting the gastrointestinal system (Kendall et al. 2010; Kaczmarczyk et al. 2012 ). The knowledge about these e ﬀects is somewhat variable, but still far from high levels, as demonstrated in a previous study undertaken solely in Portugal aimed at investigating the same issues (Martinho et al. 2013). Nevertheless, it is important to notice that it is somehow very di ﬃcult to identify what would be a satisfactory level of knowledge expected for the populations because there are no guidelines about it. While FAO and other similar organizations recommend daily intake of DF, because they are easily assessed trough nutrient calculations, the level of knowledge about any subject is something far more di ﬃcult to measure and much less to de ﬁne a standard level or a desired level. When people demonstrate higher knowl - edge about any subject, they are able to make more sustained choices, and this is valid for many situations not only eating habits (Dixon and Burton 2014; Hoek 2015; Ghanouni et al. 2016; Salomaa et al. 2016 ). In the particular case ofthe knowledge about DF, it is believed that it may have important consequences for public health, giving the many bene ﬁts associated with its consumption. In this study, a signi ﬁcant part ofthe participants demonstrated a high level of knowledge about the health bene ﬁts of DF, factor 1, corresponding tothe members in clusters 1 and 2, summing 70% ofthe participants (Table 9). Hence, and given the wide coverage ofthe study undertaken, one could positively infer that in general people are aware ofthe positive e ﬀects of DF for improving the human health.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate various financial indicators, estimated deterministically (considering historical quotes twelve consecutive years - 2003 to 2014), on theeconomic feasibility of finishing steers commercialized with different weights, using the simulation technique. Performance data steers were simulated with average initial weight of 350kg, fed in feedlot and slaughtered with 410, 440, 470, 500, 530, 560 and 590kg. The feeding period varies from 46 to 185 days, respectively. Based in various economic indicators, the viability ofthe investment decreased linearly according tothe increase in slaughter weight. The coefficient of simple linear regression and means from lowest to highest slaughter weight were, respectively: net present value (-0.538 and R$ 67.37, R$ 65.28, R$ 32.14, R$ -7.34, R$ 8.01, R$ -12.38, R$ -23.41); index benefit: cost (-0.0003 and R$ 1.042, R$ 1.039, R$ 1.014, R$ 1.006, R$ 1.003, R$ 0.995, R$ 0.991); additional return on investment (-0.009 and 1.38, 1.29, 0.35, 0.11, 0.05, -0.08, -0.13% per month); internal rate of return (-0.009 and 2.21, 2.10, 1.28, 0.80, 0.93, 0.78, 0.73% per month). Feedlot use as termination option to obtain the direct benefits of this technology is an alternative investment with low economic return.
The risk factors associated with medication errors in an internal medical unit of a Brazilian hospital were analyzed. A prospective, analytical, and exploratory quantitative study was carried out in a regional hospital, from March to May, 2014. One nursing assistant and 17 nursing technicians observed during the prescription, preparation, and administration of medications. The study observed 415 doses and 648 errors were found, organized into five main categories: preparation (29.47%), time (18.36%), and administration (42.12%), as well as 21 (3.24%) omissions and 44 (6.79%) dose errors. For every ten prescribed doses, eight resulted in errors, raising financial and personal costs. Quantitatively errors were relatedto risk factorsof professional category, age, correct use of techniques, type of medication, and route of administration. The results helped identify the weaknesses in the medication system. Keywords: Medication error; Nursing; Electronic prescription; Patient safety; Risk management.
The blocks were heterogeneous (p<0.05) in 36% ofthe trials (Table 2). In most trials (64%), blocking was unnec- essary either due tothe spatial homogeneity ofthe area or because the direction ofthe blocks was oriented such that the blocks were not all within the same range of productivity. Ofthe trials with heterogeneous blocks, the average relative efficiency was 133.3%, meaning that the estimated variance ofthe averages for one genotype was 33.3% lower than the variance for the averages in the completely randomized design. The lowest and the highest occurrences of trials with heterogeneous blocks were in VCU Regions 1 (28%) and 3 (44%). The ANCOVA revealed that the frequency of heterogeneous blocks was approximately 50% and showed little variance among the four regions. Similar proportions of heterogeneous blocks were found in 39% of trials for soybean (Storck et al. 2008), 60% of maize trials (Storck et al. 2010) and 50% of trials for the common bean (Storck et al. 2011). These results show that the method of estimating the covariate (the average error between neighboring plots) in thewheat trials did not correct for the lateral differences between blocks. Possible explanations for the lateral variance between blocks include the method of mechanical sowing used in the trials, which created a greater lateral distance between the blocks than above and below the blocks, or the fact that the blocks did not always follow the linear patterns in soil fertility.