Top PDF Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

Wynikiem 20-letnich badań lipidów i kwasów tłuszczowych, ich izjologicznego wpływu na człowieka oraz istotności ich wywa- żonej proporcji w diecie i krwi jest rekomendacja zachowania pr[r]

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Current overview of the role of short-chain fatty acids in prevention or therapy of colorectal carcinoma

Current overview of the role of short-chain fatty acids in prevention or therapy of colorectal carcinoma

The mammalian intestinal tract contains a complex, dynamic, and diverse microbial community dominated by nonpathologic bacteria or “good bacteria” (Teitelbaum & Walker, 2002). The vast majority of bacteria in the human body reside in the large intestine, where the slow transit time, availability of nutrients, anaerobic conditions and pH are favorable for microbial growth (G. G. Gibson et al., 2010). Colonic microorganisms have ample opportunity to degrade available substrates, which may be derived from either the diet or by endogenous secretions (Bergman, 1990; Cummings & Macfarlane, 1991; Miller & Wolin, 1979). Bacterial fermentation involves a variety of reactions and metabolic processes in the anaerobic microbial breakdown of organic matter, yielding metabolizable energy for microbial growth and maintenance and other metabolic end products for use by the host (Cummings & Macfarlane, 1991; Wong, de Souza, Kendall, Emam, & Jenkins, 2006). In terms of end products, a variety of different metabolites arise, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as acetate, propionate and butyrate, (G. R. Gibson, Willems, Reading, & Collins, 1996). Thus, carbohydrate fermentation generally leads to health promoting SCFA production (Figure 4).
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

An intention to treat analysis was used to evaluate all outcomes. Baseline characteristics were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables. The primary outcome measure was 50% or greater improvement in MADRS scores at 3 months. Secondary outcome measures included 50% or greater improvement in BDI scores at 3 months and change in quality of life (PCS and MCS) over 3 months. For the primary outcome a mixed effects logistic regression model was used, the dependent variable was a dichotomous variable indicating whether or not 50% or greater reduction in MADRS score was achieved at 3 months, the model was adjusted for age and MS disease duration. The group difference in slope was assessed by the interaction of inter- vention time by omega-3 FA group using the placebo group as the reference. Improvement in BDI was assessed using the same analytic method. For quality of life (PCS, MCS) linear mixed effects model was used, this method allows for correlation between repeated observations on each subject and this model and mixed effects logistic regression model provides valid infer- ence in the presence of missing data as long as the data is missing at random (MAR). For logis- tic and linear mixed effects models, each outcome was set as the dependent variable,
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OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE ISEKI_FOOD ASSOCIATION

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE ISEKI_FOOD ASSOCIATION

Several studies have shown that pomegranate seed oils present interesting properties due to their elevated content of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly conjugated ones. These fatty acids play a natural preventive role in cardiovascu- lar diseases, mainly because they promote re- duction of total cholesterol (Melgarejo & Art´es, 2000), but other health attributes are being in- creasingly reported, including anti-carcinogenic activity (Kohno et al., 2004). Several stud- ies have been performed on fatty acid composi- tion in Iranian (Fadavi, Barzegar, & Azizi, 2006; Habibnia, Ghavami, Ansaripourc, & Vosough, 2012), Turkish (K´ yralan, Golukcu, & Tokgoz, 2009), Tunisian and Chinese (Elfalleh, Ying, et al., 2011; Jing et al., 2012) cultivars. Still, few studies have been performed on European cul- tivars (Melgarejo & Art´es, 2000; Hern´ andez et al., 2011). Moreover, some pomegranate seed oils have shown interesting tocopherol contents (Caligiani, Bonzanini, Palla, Cirlini, & Bruni, 2010; Habibnia et al., 2012; Jing et al., 2012), recognized for their antioxidant activity, partic- ularly important in the prevention of lipid oxida- tion processes.
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Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

The experiments previously described involved different assumptions and methodological approaches to assess effects of PUFA on dairy cattle energy metabolism. Results point to opposite conclusions: fish oil does not change milk yield and decreases plasma glucose (Mattos et al., 2004), or fish oil increases DMI, milk yield and plasma glucose (Moussavi et al., 2007a); supplementation with linseed during puerperium may be beneficial (Petit, 2002; Petit et al., 2007), or supplementation with saturated fat prepartum improves energy metabolism compared to linseed (Andersen et al., 2008). How can one reconcile these results? It should be kept in mind that periparturient dairy cows are highly variable in their ability to cope with the onset of lactation, metabolic profile is influenced by factors not directly dependent on diet composition (e.g., environmental and social interactions) and there is a complex relationship between nutrition and onset of various metabolic disorders and diseases. Under-replication is a frequent problem in nutrition trials during periparturient period because these experiments are labor intensive, time consuming, and expensive. Methods for handling data from cows with metabolic disorders or disease may differ among studies and are often not adequately described. Observations are frequently excluded from analysis due to onset of disorders, supposedly unrelated to dietary treatments. Conversely, data may be included under the supposition that milk production or blood metabolites were not affected. Invariably milk production or blood and liver metabolite data are analyzed statistically under the assumption that there is sufficient replication (i.e., statistical power). In contrast, data on health disorders typically are not analyzed statistically because they have binomial distribution (outcome is yes or no), requiring much more replication. However, given the large effect of health status on milk production (Edwards & Tozer, 2004), can we say that a study has sufficient replication for detecting treatment effects on milk production and blood and liver metabolites, when there is insufficient replication to detect treatment effects on animal health? These limitations may ultimately lead to conflicting
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Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Finishing Bulls Fed Crude Glycerin- Supplemented Diets

Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Finishing Bulls Fed Crude Glycerin- Supplemented Diets

fermentation of glycerin by rumen microbes provides high levels of volatile fatty acids (mainly propionate and butyrate) that could be used as the main energy sources for the animal. Apparently, glycerin present in the rumen is metabolised as a carbohydrate, and when formulated into a diet of high forage for dairy cows and the estimated value of net energy for lactation (ELL) of the glycerin has been from 1.98 to 2.27 Mcal/kg (Hippen et al. 2008). Schröder and Südekum (1999) estimated this from 1.98 to 2.26 Mcal/kg for ruminant diets and concluded that glycerin could be included in the diets for ruminants up to 10% of the DM as a rapid-fermentation energy source. Donkin (2008) reported an increase in body weight of dairy cows fed with the diets containing 10 or 15% glycerin. Parsons et al. (2009) observed no difference for dry matter conversion when glycerin was up to 2% of the diet and also found that the inclusion of 4, 8, 12 and 16% glycerin resulted in a linear decrease in the intake by the crossbred heifers. Elam et al. (2008) used 156 heifers and found that the feedlot performance was slightly reduced with an increase in the level of crude glycerin in the diet (7.5 or 15% on DM basis). The reductions in the performance were directly related to linear decrease in dry matter intake. Elam et al. (2008) aimed to compare the substitution of the flaked corn by glycerin (10% of DM) in the finishing diet and suggested that glycerin could be metabolised in the rumen as a unit of three carbons, and thus modify the behaviour. These authors used 72 crossbred Charolais vs. Hereford and observed no difference in DMI, ADG and FC as a result of the treatments. However, there is a clear difference in feeding behaviour because the animals that received the treatment containing glycerin need more time to consume food than the diets without glycerin. Parsons et al. (2009) observed an increase on final body weight of 12.7, 8.1 and 5.3 kg when glycerin composed 2, 4 or 8% of the diet of crossbred heifers. Mach et al. (2009) used 48 Holstein bulls and evaluated three levels of glycerin (0, 4 or 12% on DM basis) and observed that DMI, ADG and starch intake were not affected by the glycerin level in the diet.
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Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr.  vol.67 número3B

Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr. vol.67 número3B

a possible relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, epi- lepsy, and SUDEP should be considered. Along these lines, several experimental studies have been shown that ome- ga-3 fatty acids reduce neuronal excitability and may be useful in the nonpharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy 3-9 . Very recently, our group was the irst to

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Glucose and Free Fatty Acids Determination

Glucose and Free Fatty Acids Determination

ABSTRACT: Propolis is one of the hive products that has been used extensively in folk medicine, due to its several biological and pharmacological properties. Besides, propolis-containing products have been intensely marketed by the pharmaceutical industry and health-food stores. This work was carried out in order to investigate whether propolis treatment could revert the metabolic alterations of streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Animals were kept in metabolic cages and diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, IV). After a week, rats with glycemia higher than 230 mg/dL were divided into two groups and treated with ethanolic extract of propolis (10 and 90 mg/kg, PO) for seven days. Glycemia and free fatty acids were determined, as well as food and water intake, body weight and urine volume were registered weekly. Data showed no significant differences in the analyzed variables. Based on these results, one may conclude that propolis had no effects after diabetes establishment, in our conditions assays. Further assays with different concentrations of propolis and periods of administration should be carried out in order to evaluate its therapeutic potential in this disease.
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Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

A Northern Finland Birth Cohort study showed that women who ate ish once per month or less were 2.6 times more likely to develop depression in com- parison with women who ate ish once or more times a week (Timonen et al., 2004). he orbitofrontal cor- tex in post mortem studies demonstrated selective deicits of DHA in individuals with major depres- sive disorders, the diference being greater in women than in men (McNamara et al., 2007). Fetal brain growth requires maternal mobilization of PUFAs, especially DHA, that may play a role in the develop- ment of depression during pregnancy and postpar- tum (Hulbert et al., 2005). About 10-16% of women sufer antenatal depression and 19% postpartum de- pression (Borja-Hart, Marino, 2010). In women at 6 months postpartum, a 1% increase of plasma DHA was associated with a 59% reduction in reporting of depressive symptoms (Makrides et al., 2003). In some studies, DHA supplementation did not prevent postpartum depressive symptoms (Doornbos et al., 2009). In two small, randomized pilot trials, all sub- jects received ω-3 fatty acids in varying doses with consecutive 40-50% reduction in depression scores during pregnancy and postpartum (Freeman, 2006). A Harvard University longitudinal study of over 50,000 women found no association between the in- take of EPA and DHA and a reduction in depression over a period of ten years, while the intake of ALA was positively associated with a signiicant reduction in depression risk (Lucas et al., 2011). Low levels of DHA were associated with an increased risk of sui- cide in a study among United States Military person- nel (Lewis et al., 2011).
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O Impacto da Dieta Vegetariana no Risco Cardiovascular

O Impacto da Dieta Vegetariana no Risco Cardiovascular

Results: Overall, vegetarian population presents better car- diovascular risk profile, expressed by lower body mass index, better blood pressure control, reduced pro-atherogenic lipids and better glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity. Other ath- erogenic paths seem to be influenced, such as chylomicron remnants removal from circulation, oxidative and inflammation profile, blood fluidity and intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, im- aging methods have shown better structural and functional vas- cular properties among vegetarians. However, a non-balanced vegetarian diet might lead to nutrients deficit, which could nullify these advantages. These limitations may be overcome through a carefully planned diet and, in some cases, supplements or fortified foods. Ultimately, a beneficial effect is associated with a healthy vegetarian concept, with scarce intake of refined and processed food products, avoiding overconsumption of sugar and trans fats.
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Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ractopamine concentrations on swine fat and meat lipid profiles. Ninety finishing barrows, initially weighing 71.9±4.4kg, were distributed in a randomized block design in three ractopamine concentrations (0, 10 and 20ppm) with fifteen replicates of two animals in each. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the lipid profiles of backfat and meat. The inclusion of ractopamine in the diet changed (P<0.05) α-linolenic acid and eicosatrienoic acid concentrations in the backfat but did not affect (P>0.05) any of the other fatty acids or indexes evaluated. In the meat, a significant effect (P<0.05) was observed on nine fatty acids evaluated, with a decrease (P<0.05) in lauric, myristic, and palmitic fatty acids, and an increase (P<0.05) in linoleic, γ-linolenic, dihomo-γ-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acid. Ractopamine also affected (P<0.05) the concentration of α-linolenic and arachidonic acid in the meat (P<0.05). The indexes evaluated were also affected (P<0.05). Addition of 10ppm decreased the saturated fatty acid concentration, atherogenic index, thrombogenic index and omega 6: omega 3, while it increased unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations. Ractopamine ad- dition had less effect on the backfat than on the meat, and the 10ppm level improved the meat lipid profile.
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J. Braz. Chem. Soc.  vol.27 número1

J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.27 número1

Chemometric methods were very useful for improvement of fatty acids composition of gluten-free chocolate cake. Factor chia flour presented higher contribution for increasing n-3 series and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as nutritional indices. The models analyzed were significant and allowed obtaining the response surfaces. Principal components analyses distinguished samples with higher contents of chia flour. The formulation with higher contents of chia and azuki flour was considered as a point of greatest desirability. This formulation presented higher levels of n-3 fatty acid and PUFA, and lower indices of atherogenicity and trombogenicity than control cake. The addition of grains with high nutritional value is a great
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Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing

Were policies in Brazil effective to reducing

Hydrogenation of vegetable oils has been done commercially in Brazil since the late 1950s, as part of the industrial production process of shortening and hard margarine. This process led to a quick replacement of animal fats with processed vegetable fats in the diet of the Brazilian population. During this partial hydrogenation process, the temperature of polyunsaturated oils is increased in the presence of nickel or other catalyst metals and the material is exposed to hydrogen gas. Some of the double bonds are saturated in this process while others undergo geometric isomerism, changing to a trans configuration, or positional isomerism, being shifted to a different position in the aliphatic chain.
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Dieta, aterosclerose e complicações aterotrombóticas [21]

Dieta, aterosclerose e complicações aterotrombóticas [21]

64 - Brinton E.A., Eisenberg S., Breslow J.L. - A low-fat diet decreases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by decreasing HDL apolipoprotein transport rates. J. Clin. Invest. 1990; 85:144-151. 65 - Key T.J., Fraser G.E., Throgood M., Appleby P.N., Beral V., Reeves G., Burr M.L., Chang-Claude J., Frentzel-Beyme R., Kuzma J.W., Mann J., McPherson K. - Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutr. 1998; 1:33-41.

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Influence of carbon-bearing raw material on microfungus Blakeslea Trispora biomass producing

Influence of carbon-bearing raw material on microfungus Blakeslea Trispora biomass producing

For detection sterols in microfungus Blakeslea trispora biomass, we obtained unsaponifiable fractions of biomass samples. For complete total (qualitative and quantitative) definition 3β-hydroxysterols we applied methods of adsorption chromatography and thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometric. Saponification of samples was carried out with the use of petroleum-ether (40…60 °C) as extractant, elimination of solvent ― in vacuum under temperature 30…35 °C, while detection of unsaponifiable fraction ― with gravimetric method.
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Parâmetros de qualidade de fritura por imersão em óleo de soja e os efeitos do consumo em ratos Wistar

Parâmetros de qualidade de fritura por imersão em óleo de soja e os efeitos do consumo em ratos Wistar

SILVA, Marina Maria Lelis da. M.Sc. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, May, 2008. Quality parameters of deep frying in soybean oil and the effects of consumption in Wistar rats. Adviser: Céphora Maria Sabarense. Co-advisers: Ângela Maria Campos Santana, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana and Clóvis Andrade Neves.

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Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

Acylation of protein has been demonstrated to be a principle posttranslational modification of protein, which plays a pivotal role in protein subcellular targeting and cellular function [17]. For example, palmitoylation and myristoylation can both influence the localization of eNOS to caveolae [25,26]. To determine the acylation of caveolin-1, we purified caveolin-1 by immunoprecip- Figure 2. Quantification of fatty acids bound to caveolin-1, associated with caveolae, and present in CHO cells. The CHO cells were cultured in Ham’s F-12 medium to 90% confluency. After washed with PBS, they were dissolved in MBST/OG on ice. Post nuclear supernatant (PNS), cytosol (Cyto), internal membranes (IM), plasma membrane (PM), and caveolae (CM) were isolated with Opti-Prep method. Total fatty acids were extracted from each sample with Folch reagent, methyl esterified with BF3, and then subjected to GC/MS equipped with Omegawax 250 capillary column. Fatty acids bound to caveolin-1 (A), associated with caveolae (B), and present in CHO cells (C) were identified by MS. (D) Isolation of caveolae from CHO cells. Subcellular fractions were isolated with Opti-Prep method and subjected to Western blot using antibody against caveolin-1. (E) Immunoprecipitation of caveolin-1. The CHO cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-caveolin-1 IgG/protein A-Sepharose beads and detected by Western blot using antibody against caveolin-1. The experiments were repeated three times with triplicate measurements. Quantitative analysis of the data is shown in Figure 3.
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Changes in the ceIl membrane of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during storage following freeze-drying

Changes in the ceIl membrane of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during storage following freeze-drying

The total areas of the main fatty acids present, cyclopropane, palmitoleic, stearic, pabnitic and oleic acids were used to determine the relative percent of each fatty acid present,[r]

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Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

Analysis of quality and cost of FeSiMg treatment master alloy vs. cored wire in production of ductile cast iron

At the Foundrys of Drawski M łyn and “WSK–Rzeszów” Metallurgical Plant in Rzeszów, a special technique of the nodularising (or vermicularising ) treatment was implemented. It was based on the use of cored wires, one cored with magnesium, and another with inoculant.

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Rev. bras. farmacogn.  vol.26 número3

Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.26 número3

Larvicidal activity was conducted following the method adapted from WHO (1970). For each treatment and control, five larvae of third stage instars, or early fourth stage instars, were transferred into 20 ml glasses in 14.9 ml of distilled water. The solutions of crude extracts, or fractions, were prepared in ethanol and added (0.1 ml) to the treatment glasses with a pipette to give the final assay concentrations. Controls received aqueous solution with 0.1 ml of ethanol only. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae in each glass was counted. All treatments were replicated three times. The 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) was calculated with a 95% confi-
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