ABSTRACT. Background. The malignant melanomas are the most important group of skin cancers. Although less common than the familiar basal and squamous cell tumoursof the skin, they are much more frequently fatal, due to their intrinsic ten- dency to lymphatic and haematogenic metastasis. Objective. The article is devoted to parsing cases melanocytictumours that were established through immunohistochemical study. Methods. In the study analyzed 236 patient material (150 women and 86 men) aged 28 to 77 years during 2010-2013 turned out to clarify the histological diagnosis of skin tumors or metastases to lymph nodes (rare at other sites). The primary monoclonal antibodies used ytokeratin, an Ab1 (clone AE1/AE3), S100 (clone 4C4.9), Ki-67 (clone SP6), Vimentin (clone V9), Melanoma gp100 (clone HMB-45). Results. Naevus proliferation rate showed a statistically significant difference with respect to proliferation rate of malignant melanomas (p<0,05). All sam- ples (100%) showed positive expression of high-intensity staining (+++) or moderate (++) intensity on the marker S100; 98,30% of samples (232 of 236) showed positive expression of marker HMB-45 at least in terms of tumor cells with intensity color from the high (+++) to weak (+) and 83.89% of the samples (198 of 236) were negative (–) ytokeratin, an Ab1 (other 38 cases showed weakly positive expression (+/–) of tumor cells). Conclusions. 1. In the differential diagnosis of melanoma and naevus, we must bear in mind the uniformity immunophenotype of these tumors and consider only the cytological fea- tures of the tumor, changes in the structure of the epidermis and dermis (contour, symmetry, depth, inflammatory infiltration) and proliferation rate. 2. Patients whose lymph nodes were the first clinical signs of cancer are always in need for additional immunohistochemical studies to avoid diagnostic errors. 3. The most common phenotype ofmelanocytictumours responsible ytokeratin, an–, Vimintin+, S100+, HMB-45+, which involves the use of these markers together. 4. Some options mela- nomas (especially amelanotic) can significantly alter their immunophenotypes, making it difficult to verify these tumors and needs to be extended diagnostic panel of antibodies.
. brazzelli V, larizza d, Martinetti M, et al. halo nevus, rather than vitiligo, is a typical dermatologic finding of Turner’s syndrome: clinical, genetic, and immunogenetic study in 72 patients. J Am Acad dermatol 2004; 51: 354-358. 56. berman W, Willemze R, de graaf-Reitsma C, et al. Analysis of major histocompatibility antigens and the mononuclear cell infiltrate in halo nevi. J invest dermatol 1985; 85: 25–29. 57. Schmitt d, Ortonne JP, haftek M, et al. halo nevus and halo melanoma: immunocytochemical study of the inflammatory cell infiltrate. in: Ackerman, A.b. (ed.) Pathology of melanoma. new York: Masson 1981, pp 333–340. 58. bayer-garner ib, ivan d, Schwartz MR, et al. The immunopathology of regression in benign lichenoid keratosis, keratoacanthoma and halo nevus. Clin Med Res 2004; 2: 89-97. 59. Scolyer RA, Zhuang l, Palmer AA, et al. Combined naevus: a benign lesion frequently misdiagnosed both clinically and pathologically as melanoma. Pathology 2004; 36: 419-427. 60. Cooper Ph. deep penetrating (plexiform spindle cell) nevus. A frequent participant in combined nevus. J Cutan Pathol 1992;19:172-180. 61. Robson A, Morley-Quante M, hempel h, et al. deep penetrating naevus: clinicopathological study of 31 cases with further delineation of histological features allowing distinction from other pigmented benign melanocytic lesions and melanoma. histopathology 2003; 43: 529-537. 62. Calonje E, blessing k, glusak E, et al. blue naevi. in: leboit PE, burg g, Weedon d, Sarasin A (eds). World health Organization Classification ofTumours. Pathology and genetics of skin tumours. iARC Press, lyon 2006; pp: 95-99. 63. Asher R, Calonje E. dermal melanocytoses and variants. diagnostic histopathol 2008;14:38-47. 64. Seab JA, graham Jh, helwig Eb. deep penetrating nevus. Am J Surg Pathol 1989;13:39-44. 65. barnhill Rl, Mihm MC, Magro CM. Plexiform spindle cell naevus: a distinctive variant of plexiform melanocytic naevus. histopathology 1991;18:243-247. 66. barnhill Rl, barnhill M-A, berwick M, et al. The histological spectrum of pigmented spindle cell nevus: a review of 120 cases with emphasis on atypical variants. hum Pathol 1991; 22: 52-58. 67. ball nJ, golitz lE. Melanocytic nevi with focal atypical epithelioid cell components: a review of seventy-three cases. J Am Acad dermatol 1994;30:724-729. 68. high WA, Alanen kW, golitz lE. is melanocytic naevus with focal atypical epithelioid components (clonal nevus) a superficial variant of deep penetrating nevus? J Am Acad dermatol 2006;55:460-466. 69. Mehregan dA, Mehregan Ah. deep penetrating nevus. Arch dermatol 1993;129:328-331. 70. Mehregan dR, Mehregan dA, Mehregan Ah. Proliferating cell nuclar antigen staining in deep-penetrating nevi. J Am Acad dermatol 1995;33:685-687.
Macroscopically, the specimen from the let lower lobe was 4 x 2.5 x 1.5 cm and from the upper lobe was 4 x 1.8 x 1.5cm, both with cystic features on the cut surface (Figure 2). On microscopic examination, proliferating LAM cells, heterogeneous epithelioid and spindle-shaped immature muscle-like proliferating cells, were found in the cystic space of the lung parenchyma (Figure 3). An immunohistochemical stain was positive for contractile proteins (smooth muscle actin and desmin), the melanocytic marker HMB-45 (Figure 4), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and CD56 in the LAM cells. Pan cytokeratin, EMA, CEA, S-100 protein, chromogranin, and CD34 stains were negative. he Ki-67 proliferation index was 1%.
Objective: The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid-specific gene expression, thyroid enlargement and nodular development, but its clinical utility is still uncertain. In this study we aimed to investigate whether DREAM mRNA levels differ in different thyroid tumors and how this possible difference would allow the use of DREAM gene expression as molecular marker for diagnostic and/or prognosis purpose. Materials and methods: We quantified DREAM gene mRNA levels and investigated its mutational status, relating its expression and genetic changes to diagnostic and prognostic featuresof 200 thyroid tumors, being 101 malignant [99 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 2 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas] and 99 benign thyroid lesions [49 goiter and 50 follicular adenomas (FA)]. Results: Levels of mRNA of DREAM gene were higher in benign (0.7909 ± 0.6274 AU) than in malignant (0.3373 ± 0.6274 AU) thyroid lesions (p < 0.0001). DREAM gene expression was able to identify malignancy with 66.7% sensitivity, 85.4% specificity, 84.2% positive predictive value (PPV), 68.7% negative predictive value (NPV), and 75.3% accuracy. DREAM mRNA levels were also useful distinguishing the follicular lesions FA and FVPTC with 70.2% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 78.5% PPV, 64.1% NPV, and 71.6% accuracy. However, DREAM gene expression was neither associated with clinical featuresof tumor aggressiveness, nor with recurrence or survival. Six different genetic changes in non-coding regions of DREAM gene were also found, not related to DREAM gene expression or tumor features. Conclusion: We suggest that DREAM gene expression may help diagnose thyroid nodules, identifying malignancy and characterizing follicular-patterned thyroid lesions; however, it is not useful as a prognostic marker. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(2):205-11 Keywords
The extramedullary PCTs constitute a neoplastic proli- feration of plasma cells without bone marrow involvement. Cutaneous PCTs are uncommon and are usually benign (Ja- cobs et al 2002). Immunohistochemical markers such as CD79a (Schrenzel et al. 1998) and immunoglobulins (Platz et al. 1999) have been used as ancillaries in the diagnosis of this neoplasm. Variable immunohistochemical expression of the CD79a antigen has been found in PCTs, and positive staining CD79a was present in 56.2% to 80% of cases stu- died (Schrenzel et al. 1998, Ramos-Vara et al. 1998, Ramos- -Vara et al. 2007). The CBL also can be stained by CD79a and immunoglobulin markers. However, cutaneous PCTs and CBL can be distinguished by histomorphologic appe- arance and clinical course (Brunnert & Altman 1991). Cur- rently, the antibody MUM-1 has been indicated for speciic diagnosticof plasma cell tumours (Ramos-Vara et al. 2007). HCT is a benign neoplasm derived from Langerhans cells (Baines et al. 2008). The immunophenotypic markers of Langerhans cells include MHC-I, MHC-II, CD1a, CD1c, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD44, CD45, CD45RA, CD49d, ICAM-1 and E-cadherin (Baines et al. 2008, Ginn et al. 2007, Ramos- -Vara & Miller 2011). However, most of these antibodies must be used in fresh or frozen tissue, which is not often available to the veterinary. Only the CD45, CD45RA, CD11d, CD18 and E-cadherin antibodies can be used in formalin- -ixed, parafin-embedded tissues (Affolter & Moore 2002, Gross et al. 2006, Fulmer & Mauldin, 2007).
INTRODUCTION: Ovary is an important organ as it is concerned with the production of progeny. Ovarian tumours exhibit a wide variety of histological features. The histologic classification of ovarian tumours by World Health Organisation (WHO) is based on histogenic principles and the classification categorizes ovarian tumours with regard to their derivation from coelomic surface epithelial cells, germ cells, and mesenchyme (Stroma and Parenchyma). Surface epithelial tumours further grouped into serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional cell tumours, carcinosarcoma, and metastatic tumours. Certain non- neoplastic lesions of ovary frequently present as a pelvic mass and potentially mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Their proper recognition and classification is therefore important to allow appropriate therapy. 1
Results of measurements are presented in table 2 and 3. Examples of profilograms from the surface of bronze CuSn10 casting made in Gold Star XL plaster mould are presented in Figure 6. Analysis of the test results did not revealed a clear dependences between surface roughness of castings and methods of the preparation. Roughness values are random, independent on casting temperature and temperature and material of the molds. The one regularity that could be observed was that lower roughness parameter Ra showed test casts made of aluminum alloy AlSi11, next bronze casts CuSn10 and the higher value was observed for CuSn5Zn5Pb5 bronze.
The results of studies on the use of FeSi5%Mg magnesium alloy in modern cored wire injection method for production of nodular and vermicular graphite cast irons were described. The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process iron melted in an electric induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using a high-magnesium ferrosilicon alloy in cored wire (Mg recovery 47-70%) for the production of vermicular and nodular graphite cast irons at in at least 13 foundries. The results of calculations and experiments have indicated the length of the cored wire to be injected basing on the initial sulfur content and weight of the treated melt. The results of numerous trials have shown that the magnesium cored wire process can produce high quality nodular and vermicular graphite irons under the specific industrial conditions of the above mentioned foundries. It has also been proved that in the manufacture of nodular graphite iron, the cost of the nodulariser in the form of elastic cored wire is lower than the cost of the FeSiMg5 master alloys.
The article discusses the possibilities of using optical measurements for defining the geometric accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the rapid prototyping process. The tested gear wheel prototype was cast using an aluminum alloy. The casting mould was made by means of the three-dimensional print method (3DP) with the use of a Z510 Spectrum device. The aim of the tests was to determine the geometric accuracy of the cast made by the ZCast technology in the rapid prototyping process. The tests were conducted with the use of the coordinate optical measuring method and a GOM measuring device. The prototype measurements were made in the scanning mode. The results of the measurements, saved in the STL format with the use of the scanning device software, were compared with the gear wheel 3D-CAD nominal model. The measurements enabled the determination of the real accuracy of prototypes manufactured in casting moulds by means of the ZCast technology. The selection of the measuring method was also analyzed in terms of measurement accuracy and the RP technology precision.
The possibility of increasing the hardness of the copper- containing alloy by ageing has made it reasonable to choose cast steels with copper addition for castings working under corrosive-erosive conditions, such as elements of pump casing, impellers, connector pipes, guide vanes, etc . But the quantity of defected castings (due to hot cracking) and the difficulty with the copper-containing scrap management at piece production have resulted in the fact that Polish power industry still uses imported elements .
Water glass is an alternative binder for moulding and core sands with organic binders. It is inexp ensive, easily available and non-toxic. Besides the advantages of the sands combined with this binder, there are also some negative characteristics, such as: brittleness, a worse knock-out property and a more difficult recovery. On the other hand, it is known that the abilities of water glass as a binder of moulding and core sands are not fully utilized. This leads to the necessity of a deeper understanding of its physico-chemical properties, such as: wettability, viscosity, as well as cohesive and adhesive strength, which enable a modification of the binder in the aspect of the improvement of the utilitarian parameters of the sand. The analysis of the technological properties of the sands with water glass shows that it is advisable to improve the strength p roperties of the sands by improving the cohesive and adhesive characteristics of the binder.
The control program starts the cooling process in the 1. zone as soon as possible after filling the mold with the liquid metal, and at the latest at the beginning of crystallization of silumin, i.e. 330 C. Then, after the silumin crystallization is finished, the program begins with the cooling of the other zones, which will no longer supply the zone 1 with the liquid metal,, but instead accelerate the process of cooling of the entire cast. The program ends cooling of the chill after reaching the temperature of 60 C for casting. The program also contains a condition of water pulsation after temperature reduction by mold below 150 C and then 100 C. This condition reduces the amount of water in a mist along with the decreasing ability of the evaporation on the cooled wall of the pre-chill and thereby reduces the possibility of water gathering at the casting station.. Moreover, research shows that reducing the amount of water at this stage did not affect the cooling rate and the total time of casting. The cooling process ends when they reach the permanent molds temperature below 60 ° C.
As the multinomial model is non-linear, the marginal effect of the treatment in a DID model is not the marginal impact of the interaction between time and treatment, but the difference of the cross-differences, as described by Puhani (2012). The results of Table 7 (in terms of marginal effects) show that the BVJ has a significant effect on the probability studying and working at the same time, but not on the other outcome variables. The estimated marginal effects mean that the probability of a youngster studying and working increases by 4.2 percentage points with the BVJ, compared with a baseline of 30% in the control group in 2006. The estimated coefficients for the categories ‘studying only’ and ‘working only’ were negative but not statistically significant. It seems, therefore, that treated adolescents do not quit their jobs to study because of the program, but do both activities at the same time. This raises questions about the long run impacts of the program, since the quality of the night classes is notoriously low in Brazil.
ATND method consists in permanent measurement of temperature and electric voltage generated on probes during crystallization and phase transformations of solidified alloy. In course of the measurement there are measured generated voltage and temperature of tested piece. Run of the crystallization is
Both medical and neurological examinations were nor- mal in all patients. Almost all the patients (96%) with BRH underwent the following imaging studies: computed tomog- raphy, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography and/or transcranial Doppler. In 34.7% of these patients, the exami- nations showed focal narrowing of cerebral arteries (Table 3). A pharmacological or non pharmacological treatment was used by the majority of the patients. The most com- monly used drugs were nimodipine (48%) and migraine pro- phylactics (10%), which had a good therapeutic response. However, the most improved therapeutic response occurred in patients who avoided a hot bath (8/50; 16%).
This model, preached by any teacher of electrical engineering to his students on the various levels, was given like postulate. This article proposes an analytical justification to the equivalent diagram elements of single-phase transformer current, particularly to those of the central branch. The article is organized in three main sections. Section II begins by the calculation of active power consumed in a parallelepiped electromagnetic domain subjected to a variable flow. The result is applied to a shell form single-phase transformer. With open load test, the power consumption linked to the leakage inductance and resistance of the transformer winding is neglected in front of the consumption of the central branch . But it is not the case for a loaded transformer. The methods to determine resistances of the reels are indisputable. This article gives the expressions of the elements of the central branch in the model of Steinmetz starting from the powers and their site. It studies also the variation relation of the iron resistance and the iron reactance compared to the computed values with 220 V. Section 2 is dedicated to this calculation. Discussions and a comparison of results are described in Section 3. The final section is devoted to the article conclusion.
These groups of neoplasms present most commonly in early to mid-adulthood, although any age group may be affected and there is no sex predilection. The most frequent site of involvement is the lower extremity (40-50%). However, the other common sites of occurrence of these tumours are head and neck, trunk and upper extremity. (4) Unusual sites of involvement include the cranio-facial
In the work we assume that the first stage of solidification is the same for both modified and unmodified alloys. Thus, the same dendritic nucleation density is used in both cases. However, we should keep in mind that modifier may affect the dendritic structure formation. In the second stage of the solidification, the nucleation process unfolds in slightly different way, depending on the eutectic transformation mode. In such case nucleation phenomena depends on different densities and different algorithms, as explained in Part I. The authors of the series of papers [3, 6, 7] investigated solidification of modified and unmodified hypoeutectic alloys, and indicated that the difference in nucleation densities for eutectic structure must exists. In  McDonald et al. claim that the difference in nucleation density and the size of eutectic grains is “drastic”. It should be noted, that due to the fact that eutectic transformation modes are relatively new area of research, only limited experimental data is available. Keeping this in mind, in our approach we assumed that in the case of modified alloys the nucleation density for eutectic structure is the same as for the dendritic structure. In turn, for the second
The results of the investigations of the process of solidification of the bronze CuSn5Zn5Pb5-C (B555) and CuSn10-C (B10) in the hot plaster mould show in the work. For four temperatures of casting: 1200 ° C, 1180 ° C, 1160 ° C and 1140 ° C was conducted the investi- gation: the size of contraction cavity, the fulfillment of the mould cavity formative the casts of test slats about the thickness: 4 mm, 0,8 mm and 0,5 mm. It was conducted the investigation the processes sets in the arrangement the cast-mould and X-ray analysis phase XRD of compound coming into being in indirect layer created among mould and cast in the result of the thermal decomposition of the anhy- drite.
large precipitates in the size range of 100-200nm, present as single objects or as clusters, characterised by different shapes (oval and oblong), sizes and chemical compositions, fine-dispersed precipitates of carbides in the size range of