Top PDF Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary per- spective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related off- spring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on under- standing the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recog- nition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial—breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism fre- quently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.
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An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

An experimental test of condition-dependent male and female mate choice in zebra finches.

In mating systems with social monogamy and obligatory bi-parental care, such as found in many songbird species, male and female fitness depends on the combined parental investment. Hence, both sexes should gain from choosing mates in high rather than low condition. However, theory also predicts that an individual’s phenotypic quality can constrain choice, if low condition individuals cannot afford prolonged search efforts and/or face higher risk of rejection. In systems with mutual mate choice, the interaction between male and female condition should thus be a better predictor of choice than either factor in isolation. To address this prediction experimentally, we manipulated male and female condition and subsequently tested male and female mating preferences in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, a songbird species with mutual mate choice and obligatory bi-parental care. We experimentally altered phenotypic quality by manipulating the brood size in which the birds were reared. Patterns of association for high- or low-condition individuals of the opposite sex differed for male and female focal birds when tested in an 8-way choice arena. Females showed repeatable condition-assortative preferences for males matching their own rearing background. Male preferences were also repeatable, but not predicted by their own or females’ rearing background. In combination with a brief review of the literature on condition-dependent mate choice in the zebra finch we discuss whether the observed sex differences and between-studies differences arise because males and females differ in context sensitivity (e.g. male-male competition suppressing male mating preferences), sampling strategies or susceptibility to rearing conditions (e.g. sex-specific effect on physiology). While a picture emerges that juvenile and current state indeed affect preferences, the development and context-dependency of mutual state-dependent mate choice warrants further study.
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Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

Male foraging efficiency, but not male problem-solving performance, influences female mating preferences in zebra finches

would be better to cope with changing conditions, hence providing them and their offspring with better resources. Females could also gain indirect benefits when the cognitive traits are heritable (Croston et al., 2015). Supporting the idea that males with better cognitive skills are preferred as mates, two studies have demonstrated that males with better spatial learning abilities are more attractive to females in both meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) (Spritzer, Meikle & Solomon, 2005) and guppies (Poecilia reticulata) (Shohet & Watt, 2009). Also there is good evidence that birdsong, which is an indicator of brain development (Farrell, Kriengwatana & MacDougall-Shackleton, 2015), plays an important role in mate attraction (Searcy & Andersson, 1986; Nowicki, Searcy & Peters, 2002). Yet, relatively few studies except those concerning song learning in birds, have looked at how individuals assess the cognitive capacity of the opposite sex. Consequently, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions in other taxa or even in bird species in which song complexity is not a meaningful indicator of cognitive capacity (Boogert et al., 2011; Templeton, Laland & Boogert, 2014).
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Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

Early fasting is long lasting: differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches.

All experiments were started between 0800 and 1000 hours CEST. During the experimental period all subjects were kept in cages of three to four individuals. Subjects from the three treatments were randomly distributed among cages. Subjects were caged in stable social groups throughout the period during which the three experiments were conducted. All subjects in a cage were tested at the same time to reduce additional stress by social isolation. As a consequence we were not able to measure the mass of defecations for each individual separately. Therefore, 10 additional females not otherwise used in the experiments were tested in the same way as described above. However, they were caged individually so that we could measure the mass of defecations for the separate individuals. The body mass of these separated subjects prior to food deprivation was 11.87 g61.12 (mean6SD). These separated subjects lost an absolute body mass of 0.33 g60.10. This is a relative loss of 2.8%60.9 of their initial weight. The mean mass of droppings after the 3 h period of food restriction was 0.12 g60.10. This equals 40.9%630.8 of the absolute mass loss.
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Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

In the presence of females, male zebra finches reliably produce female-directed song as part of their courtship behavior [25]. Cages were set up for singing males to perch and sing towards a female, and into a microphone at the opposite end of the female’s cage. Cages were fit into acoustically isolated boxes supplied with fresh air and broad spectrum LED lights on a 12D/L timer. We used Audix TR40 microphones connected to an SM Pro Audio PR8-MK2 preamplifier, fed into a microcomputer with an Aardvark Direct Pro LX6 sound card running Sound Analysis Pro software. Singing was recorded and processed with the settings for zebra finch song. Four hrs after lights on, a female was added to the adjacent cage for a 2 hr recording session. At the termination of each session, the female was removed, males were weighed, and a blood sample was collected for measurement of BEC; sample processing was as above for the alcohol metabolic clearance study. The amount of liquid consumed over the previous 24 hrs was also measured. Thus, fluid intakes are reported over 24 hour periods and the BECs were point measurements made at the termination of each recording session. We then replenished food and drink, according to their treatment.
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Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

Two "common–garden" experiments were designed to compare larval growth and survival on some of the most common host plants and also on Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. All the material used for these experiments was collected at Can Liro. In the first experiment (April– June 1998), larvae hatching from 88 naturally laid eggs on Prunus spinosa, P. domestica, P. persica and Crataegus monogyna were randomly assigned to these four host plants, and larvae were reared in an environmental chamber maintained at a con- stant temperature of 24ºC under a photoperiod of 16L:8D. In the second experiment (April–May 2005), a total of 72 eggs were collected from the same host plants and the corresponding larvae were di- vided among P. spinosa (used as a control as a host plant known to be optimum for larval growth), C. franchetii and S. cantoniensis. Rearing took place in the same environmental chamber, under the same conditions.
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FRUIT CONSUMPTION IN PORTUGAL

FRUIT CONSUMPTION IN PORTUGAL

Under these topics this particular group has mixed feelings: 5 people stated that they consider smell to be important when buying however they do not consider it to be a crucial factor and do not considered it sufficient enough to justify an increase in fruits’ prices but the remaining 2 people had a different opinion. These 2 people considered fruit to be a bundle of criteria, smell being one of them and therefore they were willing to pay a little more for such attribute. They also mentioned that smell was the characteristic that changed the most over the years stating that fruit, today, does not smell like it did during their childhood. One of these two females stated that buying fruit that has it intrinsic smell was very rare and whenever she founds it, she does not even look at the price.
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Genetic parameters in female reproductive traits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Genetic parameters in female reproductive traits of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Phenotypes for spawning and multiple spawning were not good indicators of the genetic merit of female Nile tilapia. Moderate heritability estimates indicate large variation due to the environmental effects. However, the heritability estimate for spawning frequency was 0.53, which implied that the phenotype was a good indicator of the individual’s genotype and allowed the use of this trait as a selection criterion. The identification of the groups of females with the highest number of spawning can be a practical alternative to improve female reproductive performance by keeping only these animals with a higher spawning frequency. Another alternative would be the indirect selection for reproductive traits using the growth traits, taking into account that some studies have shown a positive genetic correlation between the harvest weight with traits such as spawning success (0.52) and egg numbers (0.51) (Trọng et al. 2013a, c).
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Gender separation increases somatic growth in females but does not affect lifespan in Nothobranchius furzeri.

Gender separation increases somatic growth in females but does not affect lifespan in Nothobranchius furzeri.

Gender separation does not only obviate reproduction, but also alters social structure. It directly reduces social stress for females through elimination of male harassment. In contrast to the situation for males, we did not observe female against female aggressions and female hierarchies have not been reported for Nothobranchius species. In contrast, because of steady rivalry among males intrasexual social stress is more pronounced in males. As reviewed by Neumann [33] Nothobranchius sp. is not rigorously territorial but males have a strict dominant hierarchy associated with bright and intense coloration of only few big and strong animals when kept in groups. Rivaling males display extensive impressing behaviour followed by physical attacks, eventually culminating in jaw biting until one animal surrenders. Hence, male intrasexual competition is costly and would not be expected to decrease significantly upon gender separation. Thus, disregard- Figure 3. Analysis of reproductive effort. (A) Eggs laid into spawning boxes per female per week were recorded in a female-only (n = 12) and a control female cohort (n = 6) over 5 weeks beginning at the age of 5 weeks. Presented as inset are eggs laid per female per week when the tank bottom was 100% covered with breeding substrate. (B) At the age of 14 weeks ovaries of 4 females from each group were dissected and weighed. In both groups animals were observed with one ovary of smaller size (controls: 1, females-only: 2). These were included in the analysis. (C) Number of eggs in the ovary was counted in both groups (number of ovaries = 4). For this analysis only normal sized ovaries were used. Box plots show median, interquartile range and total range by lines, boxes and whiskers, respectively.
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Two Stories about Rabbi Akiva and His Student and Their Sexual Experiences: on Bad Odors as a Sign of Sexual Promiscuity

Two Stories about Rabbi Akiva and His Student and Their Sexual Experiences: on Bad Odors as a Sign of Sexual Promiscuity

until evening. When evening came she ascended to the roof and saw him sitting at the head of the students like a military commander with Gabriel standing at his right. She said […] How can such a great man who seems like a king be tormented by a woman destined for hell upon her death? [She understood that] if he would only listen to her she could save both him and her from a fate of hell. When he came to her she said: My son, why would you give up a life in the world to come for one hour in the present world? He did not come to his senses until she said: My son, the body part that you like is the filthiest and most foul of all the parts [a gourd full of excrement and garbage] and no creature can smell it. He did not come to his senses until she caught him by his nose and drew him to that grave. Upon smelling, it became repulsive to him and he never married. A heavenly voice was heard to say: this woman and that man [is] (are promised) a place in the world to come." 18
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BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

involved in disperse ovipositions. This was detected in the present work for S. distinctum and S. pertinax that lay eggs in the same substrate. A number of Simulium ovipositions in the river “Riacho dos Padres” occurred according to category a), i.e., disperse eggs in small amounts and little gelatinous matrix. This phenomenon was observed before, without matrix, by Pegoraro (1993) when studied S. pertinax in laboratory conditions and observed that ovipositions were like the category a), however, without matrix. The same oviposition pattern was observed by Rodriguez-Pérez et al. (2003) for S. ochraceum, an important vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Neotropical regions. However, in the present work the majority of ovipositions were observed to occur as in category b) such as noticed in S. inaequale and S. subnigrum.
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Sensory marketing in health clubs: importance of the senses in acquisition, retention and cancellation of memberships

Sensory marketing in health clubs: importance of the senses in acquisition, retention and cancellation of memberships

Ratten (2016: 164) refers that “Marketing is an important and necessary strategic activity for sports organizations concerned about their communications technology and how to focus resources on the best markets to target.” Essentially, it concerns the sports environment and the organization's competencies, which will increase the value of the product or service to the customer. Several definitions, of sports marketing, have been developed over the years, among them from Shilbury, Quick and Westerbeek (1998: 13; Bühler, Nufer & Rennhak, 2006: 1) referring that: “Sport marketing is a social and managerial process by which the sport manager seeks to obtain what sporting organisations need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.” Another example was developed by Beech and Chadwick (2007: 4-5) referring that “it is an ongoing process through which contests with an uncertain outcome are staged creating opportunities for the simultaneous fulfilment of direct and indirect objectives amongst sport customers, sport businesses and other related individuals and organisations.”. The adjustment made to the sports marketing definition, is to whom it
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Morphology of eggs of Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and influences of temperature on development of first-stage larvae in the eggs

Morphology of eggs of Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and influences of temperature on development of first-stage larvae in the eggs

Most of the obtained eggs presented a single cell in their interior and some of them two. From the nine dogs in this study, eight had eggs containing only one cell at the moment of being collected in the urine, while only the last one had eggs containing two cells. Both sorts of eggs developed their embryo to larvae after incubation. At the eighth day of in- cubation at 26 °C, four to eight cells were visible (Figure 2). Mace and Anderson (1975) noticed that many embryonic eggs removed from the uterus of female parasites presented no larvae inside but two embryonic cells, while few presented a single cell in their interior; however only those containing two cells developed their embryo to larvae stage. Woodhead (1950) observed that most of the eggs removed from the ute- rus of female parasites hosted by M. vison presented two cells inside and remained in this status up to the moment they were exposed to oxygen.
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Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction.

Molecular vibration-sensing component in human olfaction.

Results of deuteration reaction. Each musk behaved differently during deuteration. Exaltone gave the highest yield and the fewest side products [a few percent, chiefly cyclopenta- decane and cyclopentadecanol, the latter easily removed by silica gel chromatography]. Exaltone is also powerful and easily detected at 1 mg level on the smell port of a smelling gas chromatograph [GC]. Exaltolide had low deuteration yields, always less than 50% and rather variable from reaction to reaction. Astrotone had good deuteration yields but required temperatures .250C to reliably exit the capture port of the GC, which is close to its decomposition temperature. Tonalid was fully deuterated only in 9 positions and yielded many side products.
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BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

T. arnobia rearing started with pupae collected in eucalyptus plantations and brought to the laboratory where they were placed in PVC (Poly Vinyl Chlorid) tubes with 200 mm diameter and 25 cm height. Adults of this insect were transferred to 38 x 41 x 45 cm wood boxes just after emergence with a corrugated A4 paper in the internal walls as oviposition site. One side of these boxes was constituted by a glass door to facilitate handling of insects. Adults of T. arnobia received a 10% honey solution in anesthetic type tubes and its egg masses were collected and maintained daily in an acclimatized room at 25 ± 3ºC, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and photophase of 12 hours. Eggs of T. arnobia were collected and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 x 1.2 cm) for hatching. Caterpillars were transferred to plastic cages (15 x 12 cm) with guava leaves (P. guajava) until pupation. This was repeated during 14 generations in an acclimatized room under the same conditions.
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The potential of Mythimna sequax Franclemont eggs for the production of Trichogramma spp. after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

The potential of Mythimna sequax Franclemont eggs for the production of Trichogramma spp. after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma Westwood are the most frequently used agents in programs of biological control of lepidopteran pests in several countries (PEREIRA et al., 2004). Their mass production is generally carried out using eggs of microlepidoptera, such as Anagasta kuehniella Zeller, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier and Corcyra cephalonica Staiton, as they have low production costs (PARRA, 1997). However, these hosts produce eggs of reduced size (CÔNSOLI; KITAJIMA; PARRA, 1999), which result in small and less vigorous parasitoids when compared to parasitoids from larger host eggs due to the greater availability of nutrients for the immature insects (BAI et al., 1992; SALT, 1941). Such factors as species, size and age of the host, as well as temperature and humidity, can affect the efficiency of Trichogramma parasitism under field conditions (DUROCHER- GRANGER et al., 2011; ZAMONER, 2005).
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Índice de conforto térmico, variáveis fisiológicas e desempenho de codornas alimentadas com redução proteica

Índice de conforto térmico, variáveis fisiológicas e desempenho de codornas alimentadas com redução proteica

Quail farming is a poultry activity in expansion, responsible for the generation of jobs and income at all levels of the production chain, and its main products are eggs and meat, which are source of animal protein with high biological value (Moura et al., 2010). Quail farming stands out for the precocity, high laying rate of the birds and the small size required for the production (Guimarães et al., 2014). In order to maximize yield, production and product quality, quails must be well fed and raised in appropriate, equipped installations, such as in automated air-conditioned facilities, allowing the strains of breeders to externalize their production to the maximum.
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Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

A total of 72 morphologically different colonies were visually grouped and isolated from a total of 46 egg mass samples, including 20 samples analyzed for A. cajennense from 4 sampling sites located in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and 26 comparative samples of egg masses from A. nitens, R. sanguineus and I. scapularis species. DNA sequence BLAST analyses grouped all iso- lates into a total of 17 bacterial types (named as “IsoAC1” to “IsoAC8”, “IsoAN1” to “IsoAN3”, “IsoRS1” and “IsoRS2”, “IsoIS1” to “IsoIS4”) belonging to eight bacte- rial genera (Table 1), distributed in 12 phylogroups of Firmicutes (Bacilli) (70% of A. cajenennse samples; ~47% of all samples), Gamma-proteobacteria (30% of A. cajennense samples; ~42% of all samples), Al- pha-proteobacteria (not in A. cajennense but in ~5,5% of all samples) and Actinobacteria (not in A. cajennense but in ~5,5% of all samples) after 16S rRNA gene sequence anal- yses (Figure 1). Curiously, most tick egg samples present a restricted culturable bacterial richness, especially A. cajennense samples which in some cases yielded isolation of a pure culture of the associated Staphylococcus sciuri by direct plating of its egg/PBS homogenates. Staphylococcus was the most frequent genus of bacteria associated with all tick species tested, occurring in 65% of the A. cajenennse samples and 45% of all tested egg/PBS homogenates, espe- cially the S. sciuri (Clade H), which occurred in tick eggs sampled in different states of Brazil, both from Cayenne ticks sampled in the cities of Rio do Ouro (Rio de Janeiro state) and Pouso Alto (Minas Gerais state), and from A. nitens obtained in Seropedica (Rio de Janeiro state). Staph- ylococcus spp. were also abundantly detected in a recent metagenomic assessment of bacteria in R. microplus, but S. sciuri was only found associated to adult ticks of this spe- cies (Andreotti et al., 2011). Similarly to the isolates cul- tured from A. cajennense eggs, these authors also detected S. aureus, other Staphylococcus spp., Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in R. microplus egg samples.
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Anatomia e  intracapsular de Neritina zebra  (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA, NERITIDAE)

Anatomia e intracapsular de Neritina zebra (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA, NERITIDAE)

The snail Neritina zebra is distributed in Suriname and along the coast of Brazil, from Pará to Cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro), where it lives in muddy bottoms of brackish water environments. The objectives of this study are to describe the spawning of N. zebra and to investigate its embryonic and larval development under laboratory conditions. Two samples were made in a mangrove area in the Estuary of the Ceará River (March 2007 and March 2008). In each of these periods, 40 specimens of N. zebra were collected manually, placed in plastic container and taken to the laboratory for further observations of the egg capsule deposition, and embryonic and larval development. In the laboratory, the collected animals were placed in 20 plastic boxes (400 mL), two in each box, and these were placed in an aquarium of 60 L. For the daily monitoring of the N. zebra development, a box was chosen in March 2007 and 12 in March 2008. Every day, a capsule was removed for observation in a stereoscopic and light microscope. The egg capsules have an oval format; the surface of the capsule in contact with substrate is flat, while the opposite surface is convex and covered by sand grains of different sizes. They also have a thin membrane surrounding the eggs and a small suture, next to one of its ends. Inside the capsules, the embryos and latter the larvae are immersed in a fluid (albuminous liquid or albumen). Neritina zebra has mixed development (spend part of development in the plankton and part in encapsulated nonplanktonic). N. zebra can be an amphidromous species, as others of the same genus, which inhabits environments with strong influence of freshwater, and has planktotrophic larvae.
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Reproductive potential of Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) in coastal waters of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and Uruguay (34º-39ºS)

Reproductive potential of Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) in coastal waters of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) and Uruguay (34º-39ºS)

As regards the reproductive characteristics, Pagrus pagrus is a protogynous species and gonadal development proceeds through three different ways. In the first way, immature fish (less than 3 years-old) develop the testicular tissue and the ovaries degenerate before sexual maturity (“primary males” type). In the second way, the development of the gonads is completed with maturation of the ovarian zone, and the fish function as females. In the last way, after a single, or possibly repeated spawnings, females change sex and function as males (“secondary males” type) (Fostier et al., 2000). Both in captivity and in the wild, red porgy first mature at 2 years old (Cotrina, Christiansen, 1994; Kokokiris et al., 1999). Macroscopic staging and gonadosomatic index data suggest that the main spawning season for red porgy in the BCE occurs between late spring and summer (Ciechomski, Cassia, 1974). Fecundity of this species has been shown to be indeterminate (Daniel, 2003). Estimation of fecundity is often difficult since most fish produce large numbers of small eggs; but it can be particularly challenging for indeterminate spawners like red porgy because fecundity is not fixed prior to the start of spawning, so oocyte counts for individual females do not accurately reflect annual fecundity. To estimate this variable in indeterminate species, the number of batches of eggs produced by a female during the reproductive season is multiplied by batch fecundity, which is the number of oocytes spawned in a single batch (Kjesbu, 2009). Typically, the number of batches is calculated as the product of spawning season duration in days and the spawning fraction (number of days between spawning events), which is estimated as the proportion of
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