Four nozzle types widely used in agriculture were tested: i) Teejet DG 11002 (Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, Il), a drift guard even flat fan nozzle, which we will refer to here as ‘DG-110’; ii)Teejet XR-11001 (Spray- ing Systems Co., Wheaton, Il), an extended range flat fan nozzle, hereafter referred to as ‘XR-110’; iii) Teejet TXA 8001 (Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, Il), a hol- low cone nozzle, to which we will refer in the text as ‘TXA-80’; and iv) Teejet TP-9501 E (Spraying Systems Co., Wheaton, Il), an even flat fan nozzle, hereafter re- ferred to simply as ‘TP-9501’. These nozzles are widely used in the greenhouse crop-production system in the South-East of Spain, but the methodology described in this paper could be applied to any nozzle at any operat- ing pressure. All four nozzles were tested at five pressure levels (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 MPa ) with three replica- tions for each pressure. This makes a total of 5 × 3 × 4 = 60 measurements. These data were obtained using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA).
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate different spraynozzles for land applications in high speed on the coverage and deposit in soybean plants pulverization. It was evaluated the AXI 110 04 plane jet nozzles operated at speed of 4.17m.s -1 (control), the grey APE and the AXI 110 08 plane jets, and the TD HiSpeed 110 06 and AXI TWIN 120 06 twin jets, at speed of 9.72m.s -1 . The application volume was fixed in 120L ha -1 . The application efficiency was evaluated by two different methods: analysisof the coverage area using fluorescent pigment and UV light and analysisof deposits through the recovery and quantification of FD&C N°1 brilliant blue marker by spectrophotometry. Both analyses were done in samples collected from top, middle and bottom parts of the plants. The spraynozzles showed differences in coverage and deposit pattern, so in the top part, the coverage was increased with smaller drops and the deposits were increased with medium drops. In the other parts of the plants, there were no statistical differences between the treatments for both coverage and deposits. The displacement speed did not influence the application efficiency for nozzles with the same drop pattern, and the obtained spray coverage and deposits at the medium and bottom parts of the plants were less than 50% of that found at the top of the soybean plants.
dose used for weed control in agricultural applications. Many drift reduction technologies (DRTs) are available for use, such as spray nozzle types, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants), and landscape modifications (Hoffmann et al., 2010). Spanoghe et al. (2007) have mentioned that the nozzle performance is likely to be strongly affected by liquid properties, and, therefore, by the addition of adjuvants. Similarly, the way in which an individual adjuvant acts depends on the nozzle type used, which makes it difficult to generalize the effect of adjuvants on the formation of sprays. Therefore, it is important to evaluate each application condition, considering that the results do not follow a standard. In this sense, few studies have been done on dicamba drift using DRTs, such as air- induction nozzles and drift retardant adjuvants.
The spray system was composed by a reservoir of 50 L of capacity, where the solution was stored and pressured by a hydraulic pump of piston JP 42 model manufactured by Agricultural Machines Jacto S/A (Máquinas Agrícolas Jacto S/A). The system also had a spray boom, installed at the initial third of the tunnel, 2.0 m away from the hive and at height of 0.6m from the tunnel floor, provided with three nozzles spaced apart every 0.5 m, anti-drip valves and nozzles, of caps, sealing rings and filters (mesh number 80 for the nozzle AXI 110015 model and mesh number 50 for the nozzle AXI 11002 model). The system also presented an analogue manometer Wika brand with maximum scale of 828 kPa (120 psi) and divisions of 35 kPa (5 psi). The control of the solution flow was carried out manually through a mechanical valve and the utilized mechanical pressure regulator was the VAR model, manufactured by Jacto Agricultural Machines S/A (Máquinas Agrícolas Jacto S/A), also utilized to switch the system on and off.
kompleksowych badań jako ci pracy rozpylaczy rolniczych oraz walidacja tych metod.””The study of methods and equipment for complex testing of work quality ofagriculturalnozzles and validation of these methods. ” was developed. This device is fully automatic and allows to determine such parameters of the nozzles as: specific discharge, regularity of sprayed liquid stream, stream asymmetry and spray angle with assumed pressure of the test (Parafiniuk, 2011b) Together with the device a computer program was
The experiment was conducted at field level from January to May 2014 at the Experimental Station of the Seeds Company - Agricultural Research and Planning, located in the municipality of Água Santa - RS, with the following geographical coordinates: Latitude S 28°10’, Longitude W 52° 02’and altitude of 650 m above sea level. The site is located in the physiographic region of the Middle Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and is characterized by humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with soil classified as Humid Dystrophic Red Latosol (Streck et al., 2008).
The comparative analysisofspray deposition showed statistical differences between cultivars (Table 2). All of the treatments corresponding to the AI flat fan nozzle with air-induced propulsion and the largest volumes of the double flat fan TJ nozzle and hollow cone nozzle had the highest deposits on the CD 216 cultivar (Table 2). The differences in deposition between cultivars in this stage of soybeans cannot be explained by different degrees of development or growth of the plants, as suggested by Gazziero et al. (2006), who found smaller deposits on more developed plants with more foliage, because the DM of the cultivars CD 208 and CD 216 was 0.82 and 0.81 g plant −1 . Deposition on the CD
The subject of the analysis was the influence of working parameters (working pressure and working speed) on drop tracks size and changes in flow rate level from flat fan nozzle. New nozzles and nozzles after laboratory wear were tested. The influence ofnozzles wear on drop tracks size was examined. It was found that increase in liquid flow rate results in higher values of mean diameter of drop track. Increase in working pressure or working speed cause decrease in drop tracks size and reduce merging of drops on spray surface. Increase in wear degree was followed by increased coverage rate. This phenomenon is especially dangerous when using nozzles with considerable wear degree for agriculturalspray since this poses ecological threat to environment.
Online Advertising Industry is one of the most promising revenue generating Industry. With the popularity of Web as information hub and evolution of Online Business Industry Search Engine have emerged as a most popular Advertising vehicle. Search Advertising Strategies have also captured mind of Indian advertisers and are getting popular in Indian Industry. The important reason behind its popularity is that it is a contextual based advertising and it has revenue generating options for the websites which host their ads. However, Search Engine faces leadership challenge in restricting spamming activities. Much research is required to combat such unethical practices that have adversarial affect on Online Business Industry. While analyzing the role of Search Engine in Indian business industry it has been observed that India has not mined this valuable resource completely. The basic reason is unawareness among the population. According to E- marketer daily (2005) Internet use is still uncommon in India. Many consumers do not use Internet and are dependent on traditional methods. India currently has an Internet penetration rate of less than 5% despite the existence of millions of Web users in its cities. This is the major hurdle to the use of Search Engine. To score high in Online Business Search Engine is the best medium and India needs to learn mining this valuable tool completely to get an edge in global Online Industry.
The results of studies on the use of FeSi5%Mg magnesium alloy in modern cored wire injection method for production of nodular and vermicular graphite cast irons were described. The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process The injection of Mg cored wire length is a treatment method which can be used to process iron melted in an electric induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using a high-magnesium ferrosilicon alloy in cored wire (Mg recovery 47-70%) for the production of vermicular and nodular graphite cast irons at in at least 13 foundries. The results of calculations and experiments have indicated the length of the cored wire to be injected basing on the initial sulfur content and weight of the treated melt. The results of numerous trials have shown that the magnesium cored wire process can produce high quality nodular and vermicular graphite irons under the specific industrial conditions of the above mentioned foundries. It has also been proved that in the manufacture of nodular graphite iron, the cost of the nodulariser in the form of elastic cored wire is lower than the cost of the FeSiMg5 master alloys.
In order to define a clear link between agriculture expenditures and agricultural results, the correlation analysis is carried out in the paper. Results of correlation analysis confirmed the existence of a strong positive interdependence between all the observed agricultural results (Gross value added of the agricultural industry, Output of the agricultural industry, Animal and Crop output output) and the EAGF expenditures, and the existence of a moderate positive correlation between the observed agricultural results and the EAFRD expenditures. On that basis, we conclude that the EU funds play a very important role in the agricultural and rural development in the European Union member countries. Based on cluster analysis, we have concluded that there is considerable heterogeneity of the EU countries when it comes to the amount of used resources from the EU funds, but also when it comes to agricultural results. Even 20 out of the 27 analyzed countries are located in cluster 1, cluster with the lowest performance. On the basis of this we conclude that a more balanced approach when it comes to using resources from the EU funds is needed, which would lead to a more balanced agricultural and rural development of the member countries.
Suppose that the subunit denoted 1 of bainitic ferrite forms without diffusion, but any excess carbon is soon rejected into the residual austenite. Consequently, all the subunits denoted 1 were formed at the early stage of transformation from austenite whose carbon concentration is initially identical to that of bulk alloy (region of upper bainite). The subunits denoted 2 and 3 were formed from enriched austenite as a consequence of carbon redistribution occurring after the growth event (region of lower bainite). The transition between these two regions is not sharply defined. There is then the possibility of the reaction beginning with the growth of upper bainite but decomposing to lower bainite from the enriched austenite at the later stages of reaction. This explains why both upper and lower bainite sometimes can be found in the same temperature.
A microencapsulação e nanoencapsulação por spray drying é uma tecnologia inovadora que tem sido empregue na elaboração de novos produtos. O óleo de coco virgem, contém uma grande quantidade de ácidoláurico e ácidos graxos de cadeia curta, que são usados como antioxidantes, antibacterianos, antivírus e no aumento da imunidade humana. Esse trabalho foi feito com o objetivo de caracterizar a nanoencapsulação e microencapsulação de óleo de coco virgem por meio de secagem por atomização via spray drying. Foram avaliadas as variáveisconcentração de sólidos totais, concentração de óleo em relação aos sólidos e temperatura de secagem, por meio de um delineamento experimental 23. Foram utilizados: 20 a 30% de sólidos totais usando isolado proteico de soja com maltodextrina, em uma proporção 1:2, concentração de óleo de coco virgem de 25 a 50% com relação aos sólidos totais, temperatura de secagem de 160 e 180 °C e como emulsificante éster de sacarose a 0,5%. Foram caracterizadas as emulsões e microcápsulas pelas propriedades: Estabilidade da emulsão, microscopia, higroscopicidade, umidade, atividade de água, densidade aparente, óleo retido na emulsão e na microcápsula, óleo superficial, eficiência de encapsulação, retenção de óleo e morfologia. Os critérios para a seleção do melhor processo de microencapsulação foram a retenção de óleo e o baixo teor de óleo em relação aos sólidos. Asanálises morfológicas mostraram melhores volumes esféricos com menores fissuras ou rachaduras aparentes, lisas e de menor tamanhos (2,5 a 20 μm de diâmetro) tiveram microcápsulas com menores concentrações de sólidos totais na menor temperatura.
Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass of the batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.
Capital is one of the obstacles for cooperative in Indonesia, because generally cooperatives are unable to make up their own capital in large numbers (Soedjono, 1997). Cooperative capital can be obtained from inside or outside the cooperative. Comparison between own capital (equity) and capital from outside (debt) is called Capital Structure (Sartono, 2001; Brigham E, F., 1988; Weston and Copeland, 1999). Hanel (1989) says that the cooperative capital resources is the same with other business entities, own capital (equity) and debt. This shows the capital contributions from owners and creditors. This understanding is based on the fact that in practice it is difficult for enterprises including cooperative to maintain the position of all equity financing, which all capital requirements are fulfilled by its own capital and to maintain all conditions of debt financing, which all funding needs are fulfilled by debt sources. Myers (1984) stated that the trade off theory is a capital structure model that assumes that the company's capital structure is a balance between the advantages of the loan use and the cost of financial distress with agency cost. From this model, it can be stated that a company tht does not use loan at all and a company that use
The reformist side. On the other side of the spectrum of interests we find a group of actors led by Great Britain, a traditional critic of CAP, sustained by countries such as Denmark, Sweden or Holland. According to these, the Common Agricultural Policy must be profoundly reformatted so that it would take into consideration the new economic conditions in Europe, conditions that imply a rООvaluationăofăthОăEU’săprioritiОs.ăThОrОforО,ă EuropО’să maină priorityă ină thОă nОwă contОxtă isă the amelioration of the economic competitiveness, including the agricultural area. This thing would be translated by the substantial decrease ofagricultural subsidies in favor of a more flexible financing system, based on contractual principles, in which eco- conditionality would be ameliorated and whichă woulНă focusă onă agriculturО’să multi- functionality. This group of countries sustains not only the decrease of subventions but also an obligatory modulation that would transfer more and more funds from the First Pile towards rural development and (co)financing precise and easily assessable projects. Finally, according to these, a strong rural development Second Pile, based on the eco-conditionality principle and oriented towards the market would contribute even better to the amelioration of the fight against climatic changes
The fractal nature of rainfall processes is an accepted fact, confirmed by numerous studies along the last decades. It can be cited Lovejoy and Mandelbrot (1985), Rodr´ıguez-Iturbe et al. (1989), Olsson et al. (1993), Hubert et al. (1993), Tessier et al. (1996), Harris et al. (1996), Veneziano et al. (1996), Svensson et al. (1996), Lima and Grassman (1999), Maz- zarella (1999), Mazzarella and Tranfaglia (2000), Sivaku- mar (2001a, b), Sivakumar et al. (2001), Salas et al. (2005) and Mart´ınez et al. (2007a), among many others. Multifrac- tality, chaotic behaviour, time persistence and predictability have been concepts considered by these authors and many variables closely related to rainfall regimes have been analy- sed. Rain intensity, annual amounts, precipitation linked to convective storms, rain gauge network design and episodes of dry spell lengths are some illustrative examples.
Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand proper- ties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.
The main features of the flow field inside a beam blank continuous casting mold have been assessed through mathematical and physical modeling techniques. Experimental techniques such as particle dis- persion through addition of dye and particle image velocimetry have been used in a physical model of the mold to assess the flow pattern. Different combinations of nozzle geometry and throughput have been employed and the experimental results have been analyzed. In the case of two tubular nozzles, which should ensure good thermal and flow symmetry, six vortices were observed in the mold, two near the web and two in each of the flanges. Increasing the flow rate of the fluid from 100 L/min to 150 L/min leads to a change from 0.74 m to 0.84 m in the jet penetration depth. However even a 67% increase of the nozzle cross section did not affect this parameter significantly. Experiments with one single tubular nozzle (53.2 mm inside diameter) were also carried out and the resulting flow asymmetry has been char- acterized. The difference in the fluid velocities at the filets could lead to unequal solid shell growth. The depth of jet penetration is larger than mold nominal length (0.8 m). Fluid flow structure as determined by PIV measurements and CFD simulations show a good agreement.
A dynamical system is defined by a set of variables describing the state of the system and the laws for which the values of these variables change with respect to time. Variables can be regarded as discrete-time variables where the state of the variable can be described by a distinct set of values, or continuous variables in which any real value can be used. The option of differential equations or difference equations depends upon the time and on the state of all variables. Furthermore, it can be deterministic where the time and variable states uniquely defines the state at next time point, or it can be stochastic where the time and variable state defines the probability of how the variable values changes over time. The goal when dealing with a dynamical system is to describe and analyze the behavior of the individual variables and also of the complete system, and