O fenômeno da fala é bastante complexo e cada vez que um falante a produz, ele apresenta características pessoais, tornando a sua fala um fator individualizante. A análise acústica da voz ajuda a identificar estes traços pessoais do falante, pelo uso de resultados numéricos e gráficos. A fala é também o objeto de estudo da Fonética, que se divide em três áreas: Fisiológica, Acústica e Perceptual, tendo a Fonética Forense como um campo de estudo da fonética, oferecendo métodos e entendimento de análise linguística no contexto de investigação criminal em que envolva a fala. Uma das atividades da fonética forense é a identificação de falantes, e a frequência fundamental (F0) é um parâmetro promissor nessa área devido ao fato de que a maioria dos disfarces a afeta diretamente. A idade e o sexo também possuem influência, pois diferenças fisiológicas para ambos os sexos e entre idades podem ser encontradas quando analisada a F0 separadamente, como o uso de pitch alto ou baixo, por exemplo. Neste estudo, analisamos a F0 comparando a voz normal e disfarçada de 50 participantes, homens e mulheres em duas faixas etárias, bem como investigamos quais disfarces foram mais utilizados nos diferentes grupos. Usamos dados de percepção, acústicos e numéricos para observar as mudanças e aplicamos o protocolo VPAS (LAVER, 1980), adaptado ao português brasileiro (CAMARGO; MADUREIRA, 2008) para nos ajudar na classificação dos parâmetros de voz, ou qualidade vocal, utilizados no disfarce. O objetivo desse estudo foi instrucional. Buscamos aprender como lidar com esta nova área da lingüística: a fonética forense. Os resultados parciais indicam que a maioria dos participantes aumentou a F0 e que esta escolha por aumentar a F0 ocorreu com mais frequência entre os homens e a diminuição da F0 entre mulheres. Com relação à idade relacionada aos tipos de disfarce, nós não encontramos diferenças muito significativa a não ser que os participantes mais jovens optaram por baixar a F0 e os mais adultos optaram por aumentar a F0.
With the advent of neural networks however, more and more problems are solved by simply feeding large amounts of ’raw data’ (e.g. images, sound signals, stock market index ranges) to a neural network. This approach, however, is not feasible in fingerprint classification, which are highly susceptible to noise and elastic distortions. Therefore, it is desirable to extract features from the images that are invariant to such distortions. During training the classification network learns the association and significance of features. An attempt has been made previously to study fuzzy logic and artificial neural network techniques in fingerprint identification. (Mohamed, Nyongesa and Siddiqi 2002).
however, there are higher occurrences involving cyclists with 25-49 years for all cities, which may be due to the potential majority of cyclists in this age interval, but it cannot be confirmed due to the lack of data. Concerning pedestrians, most occurrences involve the extended-age group 18-49 years in Aveiro, while in Lisbon and Porto 65+ years group clearly dominates. The developed MLR model for each city with pedestrian or cyclist as the response variable revealed that VRU genderandage, as well as weather conditions, are statistically significant variables for all models, meaning that a predictive model should take into consideration these variables.
Conceptualizing an exercise program according to exercisers motives seems to be crucial. Thus, adequate and validated scale assessing motives for physical activity is necessary. This study aimed to translate and validate the Exercise Motives Inventory – 2 (EMI-2), a scale assessing fourteen motives for regular physical activity in Portuguese exercisers. In addition, comparison of motives between groups were made according to gender, age, and fitness activity. For scale validation, data from two independent samples were collected: calibration (n = 820; female = 499) and validation (n = 733; female = 451) participants. For scale reliability and mean difference analysis, data from a new sample was collected (n = 515; female = 342). Results showed that data did not fit the original 51-item model. After reviewing item loadings, two items were eliminated, since they presented factor loadings below acceptable. Hence, the revised model encompassing 49-item had an adequate fit. Convergent and discriminant validity was achieved in the revised model, displaying acceptable construct validity. In addition, invariance criteria were respected between female and male Portuguese exercisers. Regarding mean comparison analysis, differences were found be- tween gender, and across ageand fitness activities. Nevertheless, in overall the majority of exercisers indicated “general health” and “physiological” motives as the most valued. The EMI-2 is a reliable scale assessing motives in Portuguese exercisers. This study suggests that exercise programs should be conceptualized considering motives, but also gender, age, and fitness activity.
The individual-level survey data used in this study come from the second wave of the European Social Survey (ESS), which is a large-scale quantitative survey administered in 2004/5 across Europe. The 24 countries that are included in the analysis are shown in the Appendix in Table A1. Several countries are not included that were in the original ESS (Turkey, Ukraine) due to large fertility behaviour differences or lack of comparable variables. As Table A1 shows, several of the indices also miss indicators for some of the countries, which are then not included in the analysis for that particular index. In each country of the ESS, a representative random probability sample was drawn with strict quality controls employed to ensure that all national samples met the requirements. The 2004/5 wave of the ESS contained a module on family, work, and well-being comprising of information on family life and fertility intentions, making this questionnaire particularly suitable. The total sample consisted of 49,066 respondents, which was reduced to examine fertility intentions for those of reproductive ageand living with a partner, discussed in detail shortly. The descriptive statistics are not shown here due to space limitations, but are available upon request.
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardio- vascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4%) and 121 males (31.6%) of European (89.2%), Japanese (3.3%), Middle Eastern (1.81%), and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%). There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These sub- jects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%), hypertension (83.7%), diabetes (63.3%), obesity (41.23%), dementia (8.0%), depression (20.0%), and neoplasia (10.8%). Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japa- nese population.
leverage, I find strongly significant positive coefficients both for TLTA and TLMTA, indicating that the higher the leverage of a company, the more likely is this company to file or be delisted for bankruptcy. Excess returns and firm size relative to the S&P500 also exhibit statistically significant negative coefficients (at a 1% level) in both models, indicating that the higher the excess returns and firm size, the lower is the likelihood of a firm filing or being delisted for bankruptcy. In comparison with the results by Campbell et al. (2008), I would expect the sign of the coefficient of RSIZE to change to positive upon the inclusion of PRICE, due to the correlation between market capitalization and price per share. However, since price per share does not display a negative coefficient as expected, it seems natural that RSIZE does not compensate for this either, contrary to what happens to in their paper. SIGMA displays the expected coefficient sign, but no significance in either model. I believe this might happen due to the low frequencyof the data used to calculate this variable. Finally, both cash and short- term investment (CASHMTA) and market-to-book (MB) display coefficients with the opposite signs to what I would expect from the paper by Campbell et al. (2008), but both with no statistical significance. The negative coefficient for MB seems to indicate that the market anticipates the filings and delisting for bankruptcy, since the lower is this ratio, the higher is the probability of a firm filing or being delisted for bankruptcy.
Baback Moghaddam and Ming-Hsuan  developed an appearance based method to classify gender from facial images using nonlinear SVMs and compared their performance with traditional classifiers and modern techniques Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks and large ensemble- RBF classifiers, the difference in classification performance with low-resolution and the corresponding higher resolution images is one percent. Ara V. Nefian and Monson H. Hayes  described an EHMM for face detection and recognition using DCT coefficients. Zehang Sun et al.,  proposed gender classification from frontal facial images using genetic feature subset selection. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to represent each image as a feature vector in a low- dimensional space. Genetic algorithms select a subset of features from the low-dimensional representation by disregarding certain eigenvectors that do not seem to encode important gender information. Bayes, Neural Network, SVM, and LDA classifiers are used and compared using Genetic Algorithm feature subset selection.
Germline genetics, genderand hormonal-signaling pathways are all well described modifiers of cancer risk and progression. Although an improved understanding of how germline genetic variants interact with other cancer risk factors may allow better prevention and treatment of human cancer, measuring and quantifying these interactions is challenging. In other areas of research, Information Theory has been used to quantitatively describe similar multivariate interactions. We implemented a novel information-theoretic analysis to measure the joint effect of a high frequency germline genetic variant of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway (MDM2 SNP309 T/G) andgender on clinical cancer phenotypes. This analysis quantitatively describes synergistic interactions among gender, the MDM2 SNP309 locus, and the ageof onset of tumorigenesis in p53 mutation carriers. These results offer a molecular and genetic basis for the observed sexual dimorphism of cancer risk in p53 mutation carriers and a model is proposed that suggests a novel cancer prevention strategy for p53 mutation carriers.
The KIDSCREEN-10 scale allows to differentiate groups; Low results refer to feelings of sadness, dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction with family life, peers and school life, and high results indicate the opposite: feelings of happiness, well- adjusted and satisfied with family, school and peer group. The instrument results in a global value, where a one-dimensional measure represents the overall value of the complete versions of KIDSCREEN (KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27), suitable for large and epidemiological studies (The KIDSCREEN Group Europe, 2006). The Portuguese version presents good metric properties and the confirmatory factor analysis has an adjusted model (Matos, Gaspar and Simões, 2012). In order to measure satisfaction with social support, the Social Support Satisfaction scale (Ribeiro, 1999) was used. The scale is composed of 15 affirmative phrases for self- filling. The subjects mark the level with which they agree with the affirmation (if applicable to the individual), on a Likert scale ranging from "Totally Agree" to "Totally Disagree". The 15 items are distributed among four dimensions or factors, generated empirically, to measure the following aspects related to Satisfaction with Social Support: "Satisfaction with Friendships", "Intimacy", "Family Satisfaction" and "Social Activity". The Social Support Satisfaction Scale (Ribeiro, 1999) was translated and adapted for Portuguese children and adolescents by Gaspar, Ribeiro, Matos, Leal e Ferreira (2009) and obtained an internal consistency of α = 0.77.
This report describes a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of hepatitis C antibod- ies (anti-HCV) in Tamboara, a small community in the northwest area from Paraná State, south of Brazil with a high rate of accumulated detection for HCV. Eight hundred and six- teen residents (17.87% from all the population), independently of the ageand time liv- ing in Tamboara were included in this study by an epidemiologic questionnaire and by testing for anti-HCV. The rapid immuno-chromatographic test was applied for detec- tion of HCV antibodies. The anti-HCV prevalence by rapid test was 4.28%. The me- dian age for positive and negative test was 60.49 ± 14.14 and 41.67 ± 20.25, respectively (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, only familial history of hepatitis (p = 0.001; OR = 6.41; CI 95% = 2.08-19.78) andage (p = 0.007; OR 1.06;95% CI = 1.02-1.10) showed statistical significance for positive anti-HCV. The rapid test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92.7% respectively, with an accuracy of 95.8% (95% CI = 91-100). These findings demon- strated a high prevalence of anti-HCV in Tamboara. The familial history of hepatitis was a significant risk factor to the infection and HCV rapid test showed to be accurate and feasible for epidemiological survey.
Additionally, to the segregation across professions, there is also the segregation within firms because men and women tend to be employed at different levels of the hierarchy than men. Across Fortune 500 companies, women make up roughly half of the mid-level managerial roles, on the executive level, they make up 14.3 per cent and hold 3.8 per cent of CEO positions. The reasons suggested by scholars trying to explain the scarcity of women at the top are diverse. One reason may be that women are still newcomers to those positions and that it takes time to move up through the ranks, while other explanations suggest that there are hidden barriers to career advancement, the so-called glass-ceiling (Blau & Kahn, 2017). There seems to be evidence that there are inequalities when it comes to promotions, where men are favoured above female candidates and are more likely to receive promotions even if the level of qualification is the same (Addison, Ozturk, & Wang, 2014). Studies have shown that in the corporate world, the higher representation of women in the top is positively correlated to higher wages and representation of women at the lower and middle levels. Research suggesting that there may be discrimination and that it reduces once women are promoted to top positions (Bell, 2005; Shin, 2012).
different experimental tests designed to examine fearfulness and sociabless . The our results proved highly significant differences among sires in learning ability of their descendants measured by the time of leaving the maze, similarly to the work of Arave et al. . The entire adaptability of the population through the sires can be important. Studies of comparative intelligence can answer some questions about the role of particular learning abilities in the survival of a species. The dairy cattle can probably be preconditioned to stressful situations. If such preconditioning to psychological stresses is to be economically achieved, farm animals must have the abilities to learn and remember.
for the age groups corresponding to Groups I and II. This result can be explained by the presence of different ages distributed into the groups. In sum, one can find that there was a gradual increase in the mean values for both male and female patients regarding antero-posterior diameter, as shown in figures 5 and 6, except the latero- lateral diameter in the former as there was a decrease in the mean value observed in Group III (Figure 6). Nevertheless, due to these overlaps, we recommend the use of the opening diameter of incisor foremen with caution as a method for age estimation and, if possible, in association with other parameters [3,23].
Abstract: In recent years more and more studies have shown that, the low frequency field strength (particularly magnetic, 50 / 60Hz) are a major risk factor; according to some specialists - even more important as the radiation field. As a result, the personnel serving equipment and facilities such as: electric generators, synchronous, the motors, the inverters or power transformers is subjected continually to intense fields, in their vicinity, with possible harmful effects in the long term by affecting metabolism cell, respectively, the biological mechanisms.
Prospective memory, defined as memory for activities to be performed in the future, is a real- world memory task (Kliegel et al., 2001). This research aimed to identify if consumers’ experience in grocery shopping could have an impact in one’s prospective memory. In particular, to what extent would ageandfrequencyof shopping influence memory performance. An online survey was conducted where, among other questions, participants had to write 10 products they would like to purchase next time they went to the grocery store and, after a 10- minute interval, try to recall the previously written products. Prospective memory requires the execution of a previously formed intention that causes our brain to recall the action in the future (Kvavilashvili & Ellis, 1996). In this particular case, the survey focused on time-based rather than event-based intentions, since the intended action (remember the products) had to be executed after a period of time has passed (Kliegel et al., 2001). Furthermore, since there were no obvious external cues to trigger remembering, respondents had to self-initiate PM function on their own – remembering to remember (Einstein & McDaniel, 1990).
Balance performance is strongly associated with balance confidence in older people (Hatch, Gill-Body and Portney, 2003) and a low balance confidence restricts participation in daily life (Maki, 1997; Lach, 2005; Rand, Miller, Yiu and Eng, 2011). As factors related with the physical and public environments are the most common cause of falls (30 to 50% of falls) in older people (WHO, 2007), it seems essential to modify the environments where people live and socialise at the same time we encourage people to be physically active, if we want to start preventing falls and promoting people’s health and well being. This research showed that balance confidence did not necessarily decrease with age, i.e., the age group of 60-69 years old was less confident than the group of 70 and 79 years old and more confident than the group of +80 years old. These results might be explained by the fact that this age group (60-69 years old) was composed of people that were still working and active in many daily life activities. It is known that performing activities of daily living increases risk of falling in older people and hence, affects their balance (WHO, 2007). Moreover, this age group is living a period of transition between adult and older people (Logan, 1992) and the social perception is that older people fall (WHO, 2007). They are often tired and frail, which is a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event, increasing the risk of falls (Clegg, Young, Iliff, Rikkert and Rockwood, 2013). Often, this age group presents more fear of falling in workplaces/groundwork, commercial area/services or in outdoors (INSA, 2011). Conversely, when people were all retired (70-79 years old), their confidence on balance increased to then decline due to ageand general physical impairment (80+ years old). Older people usually are afraid of being hurt or hospitalised, not being able to get up after a fall, being social embarrassed, loosing of independence and having to move from their house (WHO, 2007). People who are fearful of falling also tend to lack confidence in their ability to prevent or manage falls, which increases the risk of falling (WHO, 2007). Additionally, people with 80+ have more comorbidities and are physically weaker (Christensen, Doblhammer, Rau and Vaupel, 2009), and therefore less confident in their balance. However, this age group is especially afraid of falling at home (INSA, 2011).
lt is important to underline that lhe second moment of European integration and, therefore, of supranational regional construction for overcoming the incapacity with which States confronted themselves did not lay in Economic, either, but on security. ln the two wars of the twentieth century, the European states ali but exhausted themselves and, failing the incapacity of the United Nations to obtain the appropriate instruments to assure its constitutional promise to abolish war and to be an effective guarantor of world security, it become necessary to forge in Europe a second region, a security region. One that, given European fragility, required, naturally a wider scope, opening to the major part of the Westem World: NATO. As the San Francisco Convention promise of World government or, at least, of world security faded away, it became necessary to forge an altemative. At the foundations of the UN Charter laid the aspiration that the anned forces of States would know a destiny little greater than that which the medieval instruments of force underwent in the transition to modemity. The aspiration was that just as counties, duchies, abbeys, free cities and feudal lords, in general, lost to the emerging States their military might, allowing the new sovereigns to claim no less than a monopoly over the legitimate use of force, both within their midst and across their borders, so too the United Nations would possess a parallel monopoly worldwide.
During 1 st January 2004 – 31 st December 2006, 3672 subjects were registered as unemployed at the National Agency for Employment for Gorj County, belonging to the ISCED 5 educational level. The minimum duration of unemployment was 0 days, the maximum 974 days, with an average of 135 days and a median of 158 days. From 3672 registered subjects, 2093 are women and 1578 men (57%, respectively 43%). Median duration of unemployment for women is 121 days and for men is 154 days. 43.6% of ISCED unemployed subjects belong to the age group 22-24 years, 29.1% to the 25-34 years group, 13.5% belong to the 35-44 age group, 11.4% belong to the 45-54 age group and 2.1% belong to the 55-64 age group. As we can notice, the high number of young persons registered as unemployed show the difficulties of young graduates to find a job after finishing school, on the labor market of our county. From 3672 registered subjects, 6.9% are college graduates and 92.1% are university graduates. Median duration of unemployment for college graduates is 86 days, and median duration for unemployment for university graduates is 140 days.