Top PDF Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

There is currently little information addressing how the fungal component of larval diet might be altered as Hawaiian Drosophila species switch from one plant host to another. The wealth of information on the cactophilic Drosophila system’s strong affiliations between the flies, the host plants, and the microbiotic community [15] provides a useful model for elucidating interactions between the endemic Hawaiian Drosophila, microbes, and host plants. The Hawaiian system is much more complex in terms of habitat diversity, species numbers, and numbers of interactions, but several scenarios can be proposed and tested once surveys of these taxa are made. The simplest scenario is that larval diet is primarily composed of a single, generalist fungus, found on all host plants (Table 1). Other fungal taxa may or may not be present in the system but would not have significant impacts on larval development. Such a scenario is seen in the cactophilic Drosophila repleta species group where the genus Pichia is widely used in the clade [13]. Pichia has also been recorded from some Hawaiian systems [36] and may play a similar role in this archipelago. An alternate hypothesis is that a small, core set of generalist fungi may serve the nutritional needs of the larvae, but that not all are required for larval viability in all substrates as long as a certain threshold number of core taxa are present (Table 1). Other fungal taxa within the system would not be tightly associated or play a role in larval development. This ‘‘threshold’’ scenario differs from the simple ‘‘one fungus’’ scenario by allowing for a more diverse fungal flora and for combinations of Drosophila symbionts. A third, and more complicated situation, would involve non-overlapping sets of fungi adapted to each host plant, some of which play a nutritional role for Drosophila, some of which do not (Table 1). This last scenario would require a high degree of discrimination by females when selecting a given substrate for oviposition and a correspondingly high variance in substrate quality with respect to larval nutrition.
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Exploring fungal diversity: Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Sirosporium and Zasmidium on Brazilian plants

Exploring fungal diversity: Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Sirosporium and Zasmidium on Brazilian plants

Abstract Although the genus Pseudocercospora has a worldwide distribution, it is especially diverse in tropical and subtropical countries. Species of this genus are associated with a wide range of plant species, including several economically relevant hosts. Preliminary studies of cercosporoid fungi from Brazil allocated most taxa to Cerco- spora, but with the progressive refinement of the taxonomy of cercosporoid fungi, many species were relocated to or described in Pseudocercospora . Initially, species identification relied mostly on morphological features, and thus no cultures were preserved for later phylogenetic comparisons. In this study, a total of 27 Pseudocercospora spp. were collected, cultured, and subjected to a multigene analysis. Four genomic regions (LSU, ITS, tef1 and actA ) were amplified and sequenced. A multigene Bayesian analysis was performed on the combined ITS, actA and tef1 sequence alignment. Our results based on DNA phylogeny, integrated with ecology, morphology and cultural characteristics revealed a rich diversity of Pseudocercospora species in Brazil. Twelve taxa were newly described, namely P. aeschynomenicola, P. diplusodonii, P. emmotunicola, P. manihotii, P. perae, P. planaltinensis, P. pothomorphes, P. sennae-multijugae, P. solani-pseudocapsicicola, P. vassobiae, P. wulffiae and P. xylopiae. Ad- ditionally, eight epitype specimens were designated, three species newly reported, and several new host records linked to known Pseudocercospora spp.
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Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

Diversity of Cultivated Fungi Associated with Conventional and Transgenic Sugarcane and the Interaction between Endophytic Trichoderma virens and the Host Plant.

On the other hand, the rhizosphere is influenced by root exudates and is intensely colonized by microbial communities [26], which have direct effects on plant growth and nutrient avail- ability or protecting against pathogens [27, 28]. Several rhizosphere fungi degrade toxic com- pounds, such as xenobiotic and aromatic molecules, and are essential for the survival of plants in contaminated soils [29]. Other fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, a nonpathogenic strain, can suppress pathogenic strains [30]. Many fungi, such as members of the Trichoderma genus, can inhibit phytopathogens and act as a biological control [31]. Among these, Trichoderma virens has been reported to be aggressive mycoparasite [32, 33], able to parasitize not only hyphae but also fungal resistance structures [32, 33, 34]. In addition to its mycoparasitic activ- ity, it can also produce extracellular chitinase [35] and several antibiotics and can induce the production of plant fitoalexins [36]. T. virens has been considered a versatile and effective bio- logical control agent. Moreover, T. virens has been reported to be a plant endophyte [37], able to asymptomatically colonize the host plant and occupy the same niche as phytopathogens. In addition, Trichoderma spp. strains have been used to promote plant growth [31,38,39] and show a great potential for agricultural use.
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Arq. Bras. Oftalmol.  vol.80 número3

Arq. Bras. Oftalmol. vol.80 número3

Three weeks after her irst admission, the patient returned with a VA of 1.6 on the logMAR scale, difuse corneal edema, and 4+ anterior chamber cells. We performed explantation of the intraocular lens and capsular bag, and sent them for microbiologic examination. Because the clinical course was suggestive of fungal endophthalmitis, 0.1 mg of voriconazole was injected into the vitreous cavity. Parenteral antifungal therapy (200 mg of luconazole daily) was initiated, and hepatic and renal functions were monitored during treatment. The patient consented to testing for human immunodeiciency virus (negative); her history and the indings of routine blood tests and an internal medicine exam failed to identify any cause of immune dei- ciency. The patient’s VA slowly increased to 0.9 on the logMAR scale with aphakic correction, and she was discharged with instructions to continue oral luconazole therapy.
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Effects of eating disorders on oral fungal diversity

Effects of eating disorders on oral fungal diversity

The control group contained 59 individuals, matched to the ED group by age (⫾2 years; 18-57 years, median 26 years), sex, and oral conditions (use of dentures or orthodontic devices, smoking, and Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth index). These healthy volunteers were selected from patients treated at São José dos Campos Dental School. Patients with diabetes mellitus or other systemic diseases, pregnant women, total denture users, and individuals prescribed with antibiotics, antifungals, or oral rinses in the preceding 45 days were excluded. Patient data were collected from the medical records. General oral health status examinations and anamnesis were performed under dental office conditions by the same researcher. The research of oral conditions com- monly described among ED patients included the clin- ical diagnosis of perimolysis (classic dental erosion especially on the palatal face of the anterior and pos- terior teeth), oral ulcerations (that can be caused by the rapid ingestion of food or by the force of regurgitation in these patients), caries (clinically visible decayed teeth), gingivitis, 12 gingival recession (exposure in the dental roots caused by a loss of gum tissue and/or retraction of the gingival margin from the crown of the teeth), sialoadenosis (a noninflammatory enlargement of the salivary glands caused by a peripheral autonomic neuropathy, which is responsible for disordered metab- olism and secretion, resulting in acinar enlargement and functional impairment), erosion (irreversible loss of enamel and dentine from the tooth due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin 1,9 ), and candidiasis. 1,9
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DEVELOPMENT OF PIGEON PEA INOCULATED WITH RHIZOBIUM ISOLATED FROM COWPEA TRAP HOST PLANTS

DEVELOPMENT OF PIGEON PEA INOCULATED WITH RHIZOBIUM ISOLATED FROM COWPEA TRAP HOST PLANTS

The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments and four replications, for a total of 28 plots. The treatments consisted of inoculation with four Rhizobium strains [MT8, MT15 (Rhizobium tropici), MT16, and MT23 (R. leguminosarum)], isolated from cowpea trap host plants (BRS Novaera cultivar) and deposited in the Environment Laboratory of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso and inoculation with a commercial inoculant recommended for pigeon pea (comprising a combination of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains BR 2801 and BR 2003). Two controls were used, one absolute (with neither inoculation nor nitrogen fertilization) and one without inoculation but with urea as a nitrogen (50 mg dm -3 ) source.
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Hurricane-driven patterns of clonality in an ecosystem engineer: the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis.

Hurricane-driven patterns of clonality in an ecosystem engineer: the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis.

It is important to note, however, that two sites sampled on the leeward coast of Curac¸ao had high levels of clonal structure despite being in an area with low hurricane incidence. One explanation for the occurrence of high levels of clonal structure at these two sites is that Hurricane Lenny passed within 200 miles of the island in 1999. The hurricane travelled on an unusual eastward path and 3–6 m high waves were reported to have pounded the leeward coast of Curac¸ao for 24 hours causing widespread damage to the reefs [73]. The effects of Lenny may be reflected in the clonal structure observed at the two sites in Curac¸ao. Furthermore, Curac¸ao receives relatively fewer sexually generated larvae as it has less potential upstream donor populations, and colonies grow so large, due to the absence of frequent hurricanes, that they fall apart and create clones (Vermeij pers. obs.). Both of these factors may have contributed to the unexpectedly high levels of clonal structure observed at the two sites in Curac¸ao. Here, genet density was higher than predicted based on colony density (Fig. 7). Removal of these two sites from the analysis strengthens our findings, with hurricane incidence alone then explaining 53% (p = 0.001) of the variation in genotypic diversity.
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Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), their hosts and parasitoids in southern Amapá State, Brazil

Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae), their hosts and parasitoids in southern Amapá State, Brazil

Plant species considered to be economically relevant to the State of Amapá, such as hog plum (Spondias mombin), ingá-cipó (Inga edulis), guava (Psidium guajava), and abiu (Pouteria caimito), had widely variable infestation rates by fruit flies across different locations in the State. For example, if compared with the data reported by Silva et al. (2010), the infestation rates observed in this work in guava were lower than those reported for the municipalities of Macapá (406.25 puparia/kg), Porto Grande (446.71 puparia/kg) and Mazagão (536.00 puparia/kg). In ingá-cipó and abiu, the rates reported here were lower than those reported for Mazagão (152.72 and 195.33 puparia/kg, respectively). On the other hand, the infestation rate in hog plum (58.0 puparia/kg in Laranjal do Jari) was lower than the rate reported in Macapá (141.8 puparia/kg) by Silva et al. (2005). Ten species of seven plant families were not infested by Anastrepha (Table 3). However, among these species, cashew (Anacardium occidentale), biribá (Rollinia mucosa), ajuru (Chrysobalanus icaco), muruci (Byrsonima crassifolia), jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus), star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and orange (Citrus sinensis) have already been reported as hosts of A. striata in Amapá. Anastrepha striata is the most abundant and polyphagous tephritid species in the State (25 hosts in 16 botanical families), with a clear preference for Myrtaceae (Silva et al. 2011).
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Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) diversity in Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon - a preliminary study

Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) diversity in Tapada da Ajuda, Lisbon - a preliminary study

Hoverflies are holometabolic insects, whose adults are pollinators feeding on nectar and pollen. Frequently, they are confused with wasps, bees and bumblebees. In the larval stage, some of them prey other insects, specially aphids (Hemiptera), and others are saprophagous. For this reason, they are important biological control agents. In this study, we carried out the prospection and specific identification of hoverflies in four habitats in Tapada da Ajuda (olive grove, a field of Apiaceae, herbaceous vegetation near Lagoa Branca and plum orchard), between March and May 2017. Hoverfly adults were mostly captured with an entomologic net, but also with jar and plastic bags. A preliminary evaluation on the importance of ecologic infrastructure fava bean inter-row in the plum orchard was also performed. For this purpose, we observed fava plants and plum trees, collecting eggs, larvae and pupae of hoverflies that we reared in the laboratory until the emergence of the adult of hoverfly or parasitoid. A total of 12 species were identified, being the most frequent and abundant Episyrphus balteatus and Sphaerophoria scripta. Species richness was higher in the Apiaceae field although this habitat was sampled only during the last fortnight of the study. In the hoverfly immature collected in the plum orchard we detected hymenopteran parasitoids belonging to Diplazontinae and Pteromalidae.
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Breastfeeding is associated with children’s dietary diversity in Brazil

Breastfeeding is associated with children’s dietary diversity in Brazil

food consumption patterns in Brazilian children aged 6-24 months and to assess differences betwe- en breastfed children who do not consume non -human milks, breastfed children who consume non-human milks, and non-breastfed children. This study used data from the Brazilian Natio- nal Demographic and Health Survey (2006). The food consumption patterns of 1,455 children were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. One indicator adopted in this study was the he- althy diverse diet. The association between breas- tfeeding and food consumption was tested using multivariate Poisson regression. At the interview, 15.8% of the children were breastfed without con- suming non-human milk, 30.7% consumed bre- ast milk in conjunction with non-human milk, and 53% were not breastfed anymore. Over half consumed the recommended foods, 78% consu- med foods rich in sugar, fat, and salt, and only 3.4% were on a healthy diverse diet. The breas- tfed children who did not consume non-human milks were almost five times more likely to be on a healthy diverse diet and were 19% less likely to consume foods rich in sugar, fat, and salt than the breastfed children who also consumed non-hu- man milks and the non-breastfed children. Key words Food consumption, Breastfeeding, Non-human milk, Healthy diet.
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Influence of the virus LbFV and of Wolbachia in a host-parasitoid interaction.

Influence of the virus LbFV and of Wolbachia in a host-parasitoid interaction.

In conclusion, our data confirm that symbionts in hosts and parasitoids contribute to variation in extremely important phenotypes such as resistance and virulence, in addition to classical nuclear factors [42,52]. Results also encourage a reconsideration of the cost-benefit balance of LbFV infection for L. boulardi. A virus-induced increase in L. boulardi’s virulence might depict an ongoing evolution towards a mutualistic association between the virus and the parasitoid, similar to what is believed to have occurred between ancestral polydnaviruses and their wasp carriers [15]. From the host side, we again demonstrated, but only for wAu strain, that Wolbachia might not only be a reproductive parasite in arthropods, but may as well contribute to variation of traits involved in host-parasitoid interactions. Because symbionts benefit from vertical transmission, they produce heritable variation on which natural selection can act and directly contribute to the adaptation of their host. As such, there is a crucial need to view infections by so-called parasites in a broader ecological context by considering several life-history traits of their hosts and their interactions with other species within the community [53]. More generally, we should also take symbionts into account as a potential force shaping this community [54].
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Benefits Associated with the Interaction of Endophytic Bacteria and Plants

Benefits Associated with the Interaction of Endophytic Bacteria and Plants

The endophytic bacteria belong to a larger group of microorganisms that have their life-cycle partly or entirely inside the plant and are located in intra and inter-cellular spaces or in the vascular tissue. These bacteria can be found colonizing aerial parts or roots. This review aims to analyze the colonization strategies of endophytic bacteria through interaction with plants, as well as to highlight the metabolic influence of these organisms in plant tissues, which result in physiological and biochemical changes. Depending on the different mechanisms used internally to colonize a plant, these microorganisms are called obligate, facultative, or passive endophytes. Phytostimulation, biofertilization and biological control are mechanisms that result in the development of the plant through the production of plant hormones, bioavailability of nutrients and antagonistic action to phytopathogens, respectively. The association between endophytic bacteria and plants features important benefits such as significant increases in growth, plant biomass, length of roots, dry matter production, and grain yield. Studies show that there is a great diversity of endophytic bacteria colonizing plant structures that result in several benefits to the host plant.
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Host range and specificity of the Drosophila C virus.

Host range and specificity of the Drosophila C virus.

Since in our study several DCV isolates were separated from each other by more mutations than from the published isolate, the date of divergence of DCV isolates identified in our laboratory may be similar to the time of split from the EB isolate. Thus, the divergence observed among the DCV isolates might predate the arrival of these isolates in our laboratory and is unlikely be due to recent mutations. Nonetheless, the absence of host specificity and spatial structure in our data strongly suggests that the isolates we detected are lab-specific epidemics, for example originating from cross-infections with previously infected lab strains. Interestingly, Johnson and Christian [22] found geographical clustering among DCV haplotypes in D. melanogaster using PCR-RFLP, but we failed to find any clustering of our samples with respect to their geographical origin (see Figure 1). However, since some of our fly strains have been maintained as lab stocks for a considerable amount of time, we cannot rule out that existing geographic patterns have been erased by cross-infections in our laboratory, a possibility also raised by Johnson and Christian [22].
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Óleos essenciais de Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima e Cordia verbenacea reduz o progresso da ferrugem asiática da soja

Óleos essenciais de Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima e Cordia verbenacea reduz o progresso da ferrugem asiática da soja

ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of essential oils derived from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea for controlling Asian soybean rust. The inhibitory activities of the essential oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 2%) on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores were investigated using in vitro assays. The curative and eradicating properties of the oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 0.5%) were studied under greenhouse conditions using the P. pachyrhizi- susceptible soybean cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the effects of the essential oils on the morphology of the P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The treatment with the essential oils at all concentrations tested led to the total inhibition of spore germination in vitro. The curative application of the essential oils reduced the disease severity, expressed as the area under the disease-progress curves, by 33 to 41%, whereas the commercial fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole) employed as a positive control reduced the severity by 61%. The treatment of infected plants with the essential oils resulted in morphological alterations in the fungal structures that were similar to those produced by the commercial fungicide, namely, a shrivelling of the urediniospores, appressoria, germ tubes and paraphyses.
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Genetic diversity in Mexican Creole pigs with candidate genes associated with productive characters

Genetic diversity in Mexican Creole pigs with candidate genes associated with productive characters

Abstract – The aim of this study was to compare the genetic variability and diversity, and genetic distances between Mexican Creole pigs – Pelón Mexicano (CPM) and Cuinos (CC) – with the commercial breed Yorkshire for the candidate genes CAST, DECR1, HAL, HFABP4, LEP, LIPE, MCR4, MYOG, RN and CHX, using the PCR-RFLP technique. One hundred eighty pigs (59 CPM, 65 CC and 56 Yorkshire) were evaluated. Gene and genotypic frequencies, heterozygosity, genetic distances and filogenetic trees between breed groups were analyzed. In the comparison among the three breeds, the allelic and genotypic frequencies were different for CAST, DECR1, HFABP4, LEP, MCR4 and CHX. For LIPE, CC pigs were similar to Yorkshire; while for MYOG, the CPM were similar to Yorkshire breeds. There were no differences in the genic and genotypic frequencies for HAL and RN genes between Creole and Yorkshire populations. The Yorkshire breed had higher favorable allele frequency for CAST, LIPE, MCR4 and MYOG, smaller for DECR1, HFABP4, and for CHX, and moderate for LEP genes. The heterozygosity average for all genes was higher in CPM (0.42±0.05) and similar in both the CC (0.33±0.06) and Yorkshire (0.35±0.05) breeds. In the estimation of genetic distances considering all genes, the CC breed are more distant from the Yorshire pigs.
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The role of specialists vs. generalists in ecosystem processes under environmental stress

The role of specialists vs. generalists in ecosystem processes under environmental stress

In low order forested streams, where insufficient sunlight penetrates through the canopies, plant litter from the riparian vegetation constitutes the major source of energy for freshwater organisms (Webster & Benfield 1986). The decomposition of this material is a key process in freshwater ecosystems and its main drivers are aquatic microbial decomposers and invertebrate shredders (Gessner, Chauvet & Dobson 1999). Fungi, particularly aquatic hyphomycetes, seem to play a major role in organic matter turnover and constitute a significant link in detrital food webs between plant-litter and stream invertebrates (Graça 2001; Pascoal, Cássio & Marcotegui 2005). Fungal activity enhances leaf nutritional value and palatability to shredder consumption (Suberkropp 1998b). Some studies have supported that fungal diversity is important for litter decomposition in freshwaters (Bärlocher & Corkum 2003; Duarte et al. 2006) and the variability of this process is lower when diversity is higher (Dang, Chauvet & Gessner 2005; Pascoal et al. 2010). However, anthropogenic stress might change diversity, composition and activity of aquatic hyphomycete communities and consequently affect detrital-based food webs. Human activities and population growth are threatening biodiversity and altering ecosystems at a worldwide scale (Vitousek et al. 1997). In particular, the widespread and extensive use of antifungal formulations, which include agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals, may affect microbial decomposer communities. The input of fungicides into freshwaters, from various sources (agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, industrial additives), is exposing freshwater ecosystem to enormous pressure. We focused our study on the impacts of fungicides on freshwater biota because these chemicals pose a major threat to the aquatic microbial community that can upscale to higher trophic levels, affecting ecosystem processes (Montuelle et al. 2010; Rasmussen et al. 2012).
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Adições à micobiota associada à planta invasora Dolichandra unguis-cati no Brasil e no Paraguai com particular referência aos fungos fitopatogênicos para o controle biológico

Adições à micobiota associada à planta invasora Dolichandra unguis-cati no Brasil e no Paraguai com particular referência aos fungos fitopatogênicos para o controle biológico

Abstract: A survey of fungi associated with the invasive plant Dolichandra unguis-cati was conducted in Brazil and Paraguay aiming at finding potential biological control agents for use in classical introductions in areas of the world where it has become a noxious invader. Fourteen fungal species were collected, identified, described and illustrated, including: two rust fungi (Uropyxis rickiana and Prospodium macfadyenae), three coelomycetes (Colletotrichum dematium, Colletotrichum karsii and Phoma sp.nov.), seven hyphomycetes (Alternaria alternata, Cercospora rodmanii, Cercospora appi, Pseudocercospora unguis-cati., Passalora sp. nov (Mycovelliosella-like)., Passalora unguis-cati., Ramulariopis sp. nov. and Myrothecium roridum). Four among these fungi represented new taxa which are described herein whereas ten are new adition to the mycobiota of D. unguis-cati in Brazil, and eleven are new reports for Paraguay. Observations of damage in the field and preliminary inoculation studies indicated that Prospodium macfadyenae, Uropyxis rickiana and Passalora sp.nov. have the greatestpote ncial for use in classical biological control. Koch‟s postulates were performed with most culturable fungal species but typical disease symtoms were obtained only for inoculations involving Alternaria tenuissima, Colletotrichum dematium, Myrothecium roridum and Passalora sp. nov. Uropyxis rickiana was seen causing large gall symptoms on stems and, under controlled conditions caused rust symptoms on the two forms of cat‟s claws found in Australia.
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Plant kin recognition enhances abundance of symbiotic microbial partner.

Plant kin recognition enhances abundance of symbiotic microbial partner.

Four weeks after transplantation, plants were harvested above- and belowground. Leaves and stems for each plant were dried to constant mass at 37.8uC and weighed. A sample of roots and soil was taken from the bottom 2 cm of the pot. Half of this sample was used for fungal quantification and measurement of root lesions and the other half was washed for root biomass estimation. The rest of the roots in the pot were washed clean of substrate, dried and separated into fine roots (,1 mm) and coarse roots (.1 mm). Root biomass was quantified as the total from both plants in each pot since it was not possible to identify roots from either plant. Due to the destructive nature of washing roots, root morphological traits were not measured. Mycorrhizal fungi were quantified as percent of the root colonized by arbuscules, vesicles and hyphae. Soil hyphal length was not measured for this experiment because there was not enough time for sufficient soil hyphal colonization. Fungal colonization data used for analysis was the average of two samples taken from each pot. No AMF were found in the un- inoculated pots, confirming that our soil did not contain mycorrhizal fungi and there was no cross-contamination across treatments.
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THE PATTERN OF IMMUNE CELL INFILTRATION IN CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: INVOLVEMENT OF MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY PROTEIN-1 ALPHACCL3 AND FUNGI PERSISTENCE

THE PATTERN OF IMMUNE CELL INFILTRATION IN CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: INVOLVEMENT OF MACROPHAGE INFLAMMATORY PROTEIN-1 ALPHACCL3 AND FUNGI PERSISTENCE

production by in vitro macrophages (unpublished results). Despite their association with fungal population, iNOS-positive cells showed a predominantly moderate expression associated with macrophage and multinucleated giant cells, even when fungi were observed inside these cells. On the other hand, expression of SOD, which converts superoxide radicals into less damaging hydrogen peroxide reactive oxygen intermediates, was intense in most cases and, in accordance with this finding, we observed an increase in the phagocytic ability and H 2 O 2 production of Fonsecaea pedrosoi-infected macrophages (unpublished results). In fact, the activity of SOD enzyme has been shown to be increased following infection by intracellular pathogens 12 and may
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Colletotrichum Isolates Related to Anthracnose of Cashew Trees in Brazil: Morphological and Molecular Description Using LSU rDNA Sequences

Colletotrichum Isolates Related to Anthracnose of Cashew Trees in Brazil: Morphological and Molecular Description Using LSU rDNA Sequences

Thirty six isolates of Colletotrichum from cashew and associated host plants were obtained from various locations in NE Brazil (Table 1). All the strains were subcultured on cornmeal agar (CMA) to ensure the purity (O'Connell et al., 1985). Spores were produced by subculturing the isolates in 100 ml of Colletotrichum medium (CM) (Mathur et al., 1950) dispensed in flasks (250 ml), for seven days, and the spore suspensions were obtained by adding ca. 20 ml sterile distilled deionized water (SDW) to these cultures, and shaking. Then, single-spore cultures were produced from all the isolates prior to experimental use. The same procedure was carried out using reference strains from the Long Ashton Research Station-UK (LARS) collection, chosen as representatives of different morphological groups, with emphasis on those with straight conidia/spores that infected distinct hosts [C. capsici (LARS 141) and G. cingulata (LARS 238) from Vigna unguiculata; C. lindemuthianum (LARS 009) from Phaseolus vulgaris; C. acutatum (LARS 058) from Musa nana; C. malvarum (LARS 076) from Sida spinosa; C. trifolii (LARS 164) and C. destructivum (LARS 202) from Medicago sativa; C. orbiculare (LARS 414) from Cucumis sativus; and C. gloeosporioides from Stylosanthes scabra (LARS 167), S. sp (LARS 189), Mangifera indica (LARS 501) and Cucumis melo (LARS 781)].
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