Theforestproductsindustry in North America is increasingly losing its share in its domestic markets. The pressure of low cost manufacturing combined with a slowing economy has painfully caused many mills to close and many workers to lose their jobs in recent years. We ask ourselves whether theforestproductsindustry will be able to survive these gloomy times and what, if any are the factors that would drive thefuture of theforestproductsindustry. Opening our minds to global markets beyond domestic consumption, targeting products towards changing demographic structure and resulting change in consumer tastes, developing and marketingproducts with the environmental conscious consumer in mind, product innovations, efficient management of the supply chain, and trade practices and policies will be some of themarketingdrivers in theforestproductsindustry in the new era.
81 have a future-oriented mentality when thinking about the planet and generations to come. At the same time, the purchasing power is higher in these countries, and people prefer to buy a pair of shoes with a story associated, that is natural, biodegradable or recycled and uses sustainable and eco-friendly materials, even if it is necessary to pay a little bit more for these eco-friendly products. In fact, marketing studies show that income is positively correlated with environmental sensitivity. This situation can be justified by the fact that people with a higher income level can more easily accept the marginal increase in the costs associated with supporting “green causes” and buying green products (Straughan and Roberts, 1999). Having this in mind, and using the country of origin (Portugal), which means producing quality footwear, these footwear companies end up investing in green marketing strategies to be part of that market and extend the range of customers. Such countries, where the ecological factor is more important seem to be, according to people interviewed: Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, and England. Apart from Europe, Canada and the United States of America show interest in eco-friendly footwear as well, according to the interviews.
From a pure accounting and financial point of view, intangibles includes patents, copyrights, brand names, customer lists, import quotas, computer software, marketing rights, specialized know-how, trade names, and other specific rights that typically can be conveyed by an owner without necessarily also transferring related physical assets (IASC, 2000). Thus, intangibles are, in essence, resources that have no physical substance but are identifiable, controlled by an entity with an expected future economic benefits. Broadly, those assets are measured at cost (purchase cost, including taxes and import duties, less any trade discount and rebates, plus any directly attributable expenditure incurred in their preparation for effective operation or costs incurred in the development phase) or subsequently measured at fair value if this value is determined on a reliable basis. In many cases, intangibles cannot be recognized by accounting rules, once they cannot comply with the accounting norms (v.g. internally generated software, brands and trademarks). However, companies should report their intangibles in separate classes as: 1. Brand names; 2. Licenses and franchises; 3. Mastheads and publishing lists; 4. Computer software; 5. Copyrights, patents and other industrial rights, service and operating right; 6. Recipes, formulae, models, designs and prototypes; and 7. Intangibles under development) as a complement of the information quality and comprehensiveness (Epstein and Mirza, 2005).
Even though the literature of platforms suggests that there is a positive feedback loop effect between platform installed base and complement variety due to the network effects principle (ARTHUR, 1989; KATZ and SHAPIRO, 1986), it is not clear if this effect also happens between platform installed base and complement quality. Indeed, complement attributes, such as complement quality, in some content-delivery platforms are vital for the value creation and adoption of such platforms (SONG et al., 2018; STEINER et al., 2016). However, the investigation of what factors impact the quality of complementary products of platforms is scarce in the literature. The contribution of this study is to empirically assess if there is a reverse causation effect between platform installed base and complement quality as well as to investigate the impact of platform technical architecture performance and platform maturity on complement quality in the context video game consoles industry. Data contains information about exclusive game titles and platforms numbers released in the seventh video game console generation in the U.S. market from November 2005 to November 2013. Results suggest that platform installed base positively affect game quality but there is no significant effect in the opposite direction, indicating that there is no feedback loop effect between those two variables. In addition, there is strong evidence suggesting that platforms with more advanced technical architecture present higher game quality compared to their rival platforms. Finally, results suggest that platform maturity has a negative impact on game quality. These findings are important for practitioners and researchers in the field, shedding new light on what impacts the quality of complements in the video game platform industry and elucidating the path for future research in the field.
There are indications that the NTFPs sector is growing faster than the timber industry, and it is expected to grow more in thefuture. This rapid growth is linked to the fact that NTFPs are important items of cross-border trade in the humid forest zone of West and Central Africa (Malleson, 2001). Outcomes from NTFPs trade in local, regional and international markets contributes significantly to rural livelihoods. They further contribute to rural livelihood by providing critical supplies of food during seasons when agricultural crops fail or are otherwise scarce (Rai and Uhl, 2004). Aside these, NTFPs contributes a significant portion of daily food consumption in rural households. Because uses of forest are inevitable among the rural populace considering the role its play in their survival, it becomes necessary to adapt a pattern of use that does not comprise forest conservation drive. Therefore, the harvest and sale of NTFPs by rural communities is suggested as a possible solution to the often observed conflict between forest use and forest conservation.
One factor where an injection mould tool takes lot of time and capital to be produced is because of the complexity of designs and the limitations of the manufacturing process currently used. With the exposure to this industry I have identified a zone where AM can be used. The client who is a person who sends the article or the part for which the mould is produced, is not usually a single part, it is co related to other parts and needs to mount or assemble properly to make the complete part a successful one. In the injection mould tool industry it is more than common for the client to send versions which are different once the production starts which leads to a huge increase in the cost of the mould. This can be avoided in my opinion with the help of 3d printers and to check the assembly of various components which form the main part before the production starts, so that the client can make the required corrections to the part and saves a lot of capital on the tool.
turn periods less than 10 years) is projected to decrease in the Volta River, whereas the trend for higher return periods (or more extreme) floods is not consistent from sta- tion to station. Moreover, Jung et al. (2012) and Kunstmann and Jung (2005) found an increase in runoff in September when flows in the Volta are typically the highest (see Fig. 1a). For the Senegal, Gambia and Sassandra Rivers, on the other hand, high
To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
This gap persists for several reasons. First, biological invasions, like other global change aspects, are a complex and context-de- pendent phenomenon; so far limited data availability severely con- strained the development of general predictive models, especially because of the need to consider large areas, long time periods and a large number of alien species across many taxonomic groups and habitat types. Second, impacts caused by alien species on bio- diversity (Blackburn et al., 2014) and human livelihoods (Bacher et al., 2018) differ markedly among invaded regions, and variations in perceptions, values and interests provide additional context and further complicate the assessment and projection of impacts (Essl et al., 2017). This context dependency largely affects and com- plicates coordinated management efforts of biological invasions across regions and scales (Crowley, Hinchliffe, & MacDonald, 2017; Epanchin-Niell et al., 2010). Finally, in most cases, there are large un- certainties about how a given alien species (or group of alien species) will respond in range and abundance to particular changes in the environment or human activities, and how such changes in distribu- tion will affect interactions with resident biota and human activities that may ultimately translate into impacts (Hui & Richardson, 2019). Consequently, quantitative projections of how biological inva- sions may unfold in the decades to come under alternative trajec- tories of environmental change are missing (IPBES, 2016; Lenzner et al., 2019).
Time series analysis for trend formulation was applied in this paper (C. Morris, 1996, Keča Lj., 2014). The basis of this research is the mar- keting concept which includes: the consumer, an integrated marketing program and the profit from satisfied customer needs (Kotler F. et al., 2007). Two different questionnaires were used in the research. Thus, primary data were obtained for a statistical analysis. Directed interview is character- ized by simplicity and convenience for further sta- tistical processing (GA Churchill, 1991). This type of interview proved to be good for this kind of research, because it has pre-prepared questions, as well as variants of alternative responses. An additional part of the survey included telephone interviews with computer support (Computer As- sisted Telephone Interviewing ) - CATI (Growes and Mathiowetz, 1984).
Focusing on individual perceptions, Aggelidis and Chatzoglou (2009) set out to develop and test a modified version of the TAM model and they considered other models presented in the literature based on the Hospital Information Systems (HIS). On the main data collection phase, 341 users of these systems from the main public hospitals of the East Macedonia and Thrace region answered the survey. The results showed that perceived usefulness, ease of use, social influence, attitude, facilitat- ing conditions, self-efficacy (individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to experience positive effects than individuals with lower self-efficacy) and, indirectly, training, significantly impact the behavior intention of the people in accepting tech- nologies in healthcare organizations.
- marketing interactiv, care pune în centrul preocup ărilor sale capacitatea personalului firmei de a presta servicii c ătre cumpărători, atât în ceea ce prive şte calitatea de ordin tehnic a acestora, care include aportul produsului oferit în cadrul pachetului de servicii la satisfac ţia primită de consumator dar şi rezultatul final al consum ării serviciului în sine: a fost sau nu o reu şită, a avut efectul scontat, s-a realizat scopul propus, etc., cât şi senzaţia pe care o prime şte consumatorul odată cu serviciul: i s-a acordat aten ţie, personalul s-a ar ătat interesat de dorinţele sale, a inspirat încredere, credibilitate, s-a realizat în final fidelizarea clientului? În fond personalul de contact este cel care d ă imaginea firmei, de calitatea prestaţiei sale la prima vedere cu clientul şi pe parcursul prest ării serviciului depinzând imaginea general ă percepută de client. Marketingul interactiv realizeaz ă, deci, leg ătura între marketingul intern, reprezentat prin angaja ţii firmei şi marketingul extern, reprezentat prin cump ărători.
In thefuture, the most successful companies will have a strong grasp of shortening the product life cycle; continue innovation, better brand image, and higher effectiveness in the value chain. The use of sustainability concept and its integration into all constituent parts of the business strategy add new pillars to themarketing success. The approach of sustainability is “the end-to-end approach” that considers a wider range of activities and makes the cross-functional cooperation compulsory from the supply to the disposal of the product. Many and strong impacts has the use of sustainability on the PLC. While the tradi- tional approach of the PLC aims at capturing quick wins, easy implementation and has a control scope, the sustainable life cycle approach comprise all the links of the supply chain and measures the company’s total environmental impact (Kearny, 2010). Therefore, the scarcity of natural resources and the government regulations around producer’s responsibility on environment protection have an impact on all the links of the supply chain that means supply, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal. The company continues its sustainability pledges into business targets. This way, the sustainability becomes a transformation driver aligning the company behind a single high moralizing goal and it can address its total impact on the environment.
Undoubtedly that there is no top field whose progress is not influenced by the performances of the used materials nowadays. The material is a “living organism” that is an integrated part of the human society and represents one of the main factors in its development. The knowledge and rational use of the materials is an inexhaustible source of technical progress. Therefore, there is no surprise that this field is enjoying the economic interest, and especially the scientific one, materialized by the efforts allocated to researches .
This significant incidence of intra-industry trade (IIT), originally identified within the European Economic Community by scholars such as Verdoorn (1960), Balassa (1966) and Grubel (1967), has then become the most distinctive feature of the European integration process. Since these seminal analyses, many works (see Grubel and Lloyd, 1975, among others) have deepened the comprehension of this phenomenon and provided insights of the related methodological issues. Recently, two amendments to the original conceptual and empirical framework have gained ground: a) the overcoming of the original opposition between specialisation and IIT; b) the need for detailed bilateral trade data, in order to properly assess the incidence of IIT, without incurring in biases due to the overlapping at theindustry level or to geographical aggregation.
SOA is potentially being stretched beyond its limits. What was initially an approach for asynchronous document- based message exchanges now has performance, availability, reliability, security, and other expectations of traditional distributed systems. To solve this problem, multiple specifications and standards have been proposed and created, middleware products are becoming more robust, and the community has started to embrace terms such as event-driven SOA and real-time SOA. Therefore, the loosely coupled, stateless, standards-based nature of the relationship between service consumers and service providers in service-oriented systems is changing, so as to meet these new requirements. In addition, global enterprises and the emerging market of third-party services that are being made available through the Cloud are placing new expectations on service-oriented system architecture and design.
this effect was mediated by species losses. A relatively high ecological plasticity can be observed in several medium to large-bodied mammal species, for instance, by partially altering their diets, activity patterns or ranging behaviour to adjust to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation (Onderdonk & Chapman 2000; Jepsen & Topping 2004). For example, jaguars and pumas depend on forest habitats, but can often venture out into open areas particularly at night, and 465
In the case of small properties, the impact goes beyond feedback, and “negative criticisms can be particularly crushing” (Sachs, 2015). Danny Kornfeld was cited by Teixeira & Kornfeld (2013) “When you’ve got a few small hotels and there is strong competition from a brand in the same market, the only way you can really compete against their million dollar marketing budgets is with positive reviews”. This is so impactful that hotel owners often respond personally, pay strong attention to the communication and even ask for guests to tell them how was the experience prior to sharing it with 5 million people. “Aiming to tackle the issue of bad experiences, TripAdvisor rate experiences considering recency together with rate and amount of reviews. This is because a property may take a review as feedback, and improve overtime.” (Jorge, M., personal communication, September 19, 2015). The web platform ends up impacting guest services and off-line communications. In the executive interview, some examples of hotel-guest interaction involving TA were mentioned and are as hotel employees who ask for reviews, internal communication strategies or e-mails sent to guests after the trip (Jorge, M., personal communication, September 19, 2015) and other examples were stated by Teixeira & Kornfeld (2013) such as door hangers, certificates and reminder cards handed out during check out to invite guests writing a review”.
Delphi is a prospective (also called foresight) method, a systematic interactive technique for obtaining information from a panel of independent experts without the need to meet face-to- face, in order to facilitate an efficient group dynamic process (Erpicum, 2016; von der Gracht, 2012). It is used to help identify issues, set goals and priorities, clarify positions and differences across groups, and identify solutions (Wolf & Kruger, 2010). As it is a procedure to identify statements (topics) that are relevant for thefuture, it reduces the tacit and complex knowledge to a single statement and makes it possible to make a judgment (Cuhls, 2004). One of the main applications of the Delphi technique is screening the items in operations research problems and of MCDM techniques (Habibi et al., 2014).
The article discusses the possibilities of using optical measurements for defining the geometric accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the rapid prototyping process. The tested gear wheel prototype was cast using an aluminum alloy. The casting mould was made by means of the three-dimensional print method (3DP) with the use of a Z510 Spectrum device. The aim of the tests was to determine the geometric accuracy of the cast made by the ZCast technology in the rapid prototyping process. The tests were conducted with the use of the coordinate optical measuring method and a GOM measuring device. The prototype measurements were made in the scanning mode. The results of the measurements, saved in the STL format with the use of the scanning device software, were compared with the gear wheel 3D-CAD nominal model. The measurements enabled the determination of the real accuracy of prototypes manufactured in casting moulds by means of the ZCast technology. The selection of the measuring method was also analyzed in terms of measurement accuracy and the RP technology precision.