Top PDF The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

With prevalence estimates for at least parts of 29 of the 33 endemic countries in Africa and for 20.6% of all districts in these countries, the Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT) represents the most comprehensive resource on the geographical distribution of trachoma and an important planning tool for efforts to finalise the global trachoma map. Based on the current data and population estimates, an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa that are confirmed to be trachoma endemic (TF prevalence greater than 5% in children) and a further 155 million in areas of Africa suspected to be endemic. This corresponds to 98 million people who live in areas of Africa where the prevalence of active trachoma is known to be greater than 10% and currently require access to the SAFE strategy including annual MDA with azithromycin, and a further 31 million people where treatment may need to be targeted at the subdistrict level (Table 3). Summary data collated for this project are a useful advocacy and planning tool, but change as new data become available and estimates can be refined. Iterations of these data have been used at the global level by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication [21] and the International Coalition for Trachoma Control [22]. The online GAT provides an open access platform for all partners to assess what survey data are already available within Africa and the population at risk of trachoma, but also a means to identify gaps in data where further surveys are required and rapidly assess progress in mapping as these activities are scaled up. This resource assists national programmes in planning interventions and provides visualisation of areas where cross- border transmission could be a concern, as well as providing an effective tool to advocate within a country for additional mapping. Trachoma endemic countries are concentrated in east and west sub-Saharan Africa, north Africa and a few endemic countries in central sub-Saharan Africa (Figure 3). Variation in risk of trachoma both within and between countries has been linked to socioeconomic factors that are associated with transmission through hygienic behaviours and sanitation, as well as varying climatic conditions [23–26]. Current data from the GAT confirm that countries with the highest burden of active trachoma and trichiasis remain in the Sahel and Savannah areas of Africa. Well established control programmes in several west and north African countries are likely to have had an impact on the burden of trachoma in the last decade, with successes in control activities documented in Burkina Faso, The Gambia [27], Ghana [28,29], Mali [30–32], Mauritania [33] and Morocco and highlighted by comparison of current and historical maps available on the GAT website (www.trachomaatlas.org). The Gambia, Ghana and Morocco have now reported achievement of trachoma elimination targets and trachoma is believed to be no longer a public health concern in these countries.
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Geographical Distribution of Biomphalaria Snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Geographical Distribution of Biomphalaria Snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Brazil is an endemic focus of schistosomiasis mansoni with over 6 million people infected (Rey 1991). The current national prevalence of schisto- somiasis in Brazil indicates that it is still consid- ered an important endemic parasitosis (Katz & Peixoto 2000). The endemic areas are located in the states of Maranhão, Pará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In Minas Gerais, the endemic areas are located in the mesoregions of Norte de Minas, Campo das Vertentes, Oeste de Minas, Je- quitinhonha, Vale do Mucuri, Vale do Rio Doce, Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Zona da Mata and Central Mineira.
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Saúde debate  vol.40 número110

Saúde debate vol.40 número110

ABSTRACT This paper examines the profile of physical health resources available in Brazil so to support the debate of the reorganization of the health service network, using as example the case of highly complex trauma. Data were retrieved from the 2013 version of the National Register of Health Establishments. Quantitative failure and poor geographical distribution were identified in the provision of large hospitals and beds in intensive care units, as well as the eight structures required by the Ministry of Health to licensing establishments to operate high complexity trauma. The acquisition of one structure by the establishments that already carry the seven other ones would increase from 30 to 80 the number of municipalities offering high complexity trauma care.
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ABSTRACT Lepidocolaptes angustirostris is a South American woodcreeper that inhabits predominantly

ABSTRACT Lepidocolaptes angustirostris is a South American woodcreeper that inhabits predominantly

One of the most debated points in taxonomy is the dichotomy “splitting vs lumping” of taxa with in- traspecific variation and uncertain taxonomic position; the need to describe all the diversity present in biologi- cal groups faces the absence of strong and verifiable ev- idence about the limits of these divisions. In cases like as L. angustirostris the situation is similar: the pheno- typic variation exists, but evidence was not found that allow the delimitation of the populations identified as diagnosable units. Additionally, geographic barriers (frequently used in ornithology to delimit subspecific lineages) in the distribution of Narrow-billed Wood- creeper are absent or seem not to affect the gene flow among the populations. For these reasons, contrary to the cited literature, the subspecific rank was dismissed and only one valid taxonomic unit is proposed here. Literature about L. angustirostris used the subspecific rank to describe the differences in the ventral/dorsal plumage (see Marantz et al., 2003; Ridgely & Tudor, 2009). Undertail coverts coloration, plumage pattern of crown, and tone of color in dorsal and ventral sides has been used to sort this taxon in at least eight sub- species recognized. Despite finding these variations, their distribution along the sampled individuals can- not identify clear patterns of differentiation among populations. A possible cause is the scarce compara- tive analysis of additional samples from intermediate regions of the geographical distribution of the taxon, in a more comprehensive analysis of the total variation before describing new taxa. Early descriptions were based on very restricted samples, putting aside other samples from the same location or adjacent areas. In this study, more than one ventral plumage pattern was identified in the same localities (e.g., localities from the central Brazil [Goiás], and in the boundaries of southern Brazil and Paraguay), rejecting a possible de- limitation among populations. In a recent study about morphological variation in Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Lopes & Gonzaga, 2014), a similar conclusion was proposed; the recognition of the three subspecies in the Cinnamon Tanager were based individuals from distant populations (scarce sampling), and intermedi- ate stages were not included in these descriptions.
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Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

were pig iron, steel scrap, Fe-75%Si, Fe-80%V and Fe-80%Nb and Fe-80%Mn-8%N. The metal was preheated at 1500 o C and then poured into sand mould to get normalized Y-shaped castings. Spheroidizing and inoculation process was made in gating system using Fe-Si-5%Mg alloy, and Foundrysil inoculant containing 0,5 % Ce in amounts 1,0 % and 0,8 % with relation to bath weight, respectively. One of the purpose of our research is to develop a method of nanoparticles synthesis in ferritic matrix of ductile cast iron, which are supposed to increase its strength without affecting notably its ductility.
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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Typical temperatures for the process of crystallization and melting of the ZRE1 alloy, i.e. temperature of the beginning and the end of crystallization, and melting point for intermetallic phase and the Mg (α) solid solution were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The tests were performed on the SETSYS thermal analyser manufactured by Setaram, using the TG-DTA head. The systems allows measurements of heat flow during phase changes related to melting and crystallization of tested alloys. The measurement of the temperature of the beginning and the end of the change were made with the method of two tangents’ intersection (“one set point”). The conditions of the experiment are given in table 2, and the DTA curves for the ZRE1 alloy during heating and cooling are shown in figure 2.
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Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

Quality is defined as the degree of excellence or superiority that an organization’s product possesses (Khan, 2005:28). Consumers judge or perceive the quality of the products and it also called perception of quality, because perception of quality derived from the analysis of consumers on product quality (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:605). Customer perceived value of product quality is a consumer opinion as ability of the product who suitable with expectation of consumer (Terenggana et al., 2013:326). Perception of quality is formed on consumers can be affected by several things including past experience, education, purchasing and consumer community (Yaseen et al., 2011:834), and perception of quality is important in improving the quality of products in the view of consumers (Parrol et al., 2013:603). Since knowledge and consumer needs change time by time, it taken an understanding related consumer perception of quality in evaluated to be known how big influence on purchase intention (Sanyal & Datta, 2011:607). Reviewing consumer behavior in foods, in previous research is often studied through perception of quality (Carrasco et al., 2012:1414). On last studied, perceived quality is the consumer’s judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Meanwhile perceived quality is the judgment a consumer of product which refers to the physical characteristics of the product, and is related more to engineering and food technology (Carrasco et al., 2012). Several things that concern on perception of quality, first are spoke on the advantages related to the assessment of consumer products and the second on the technology applied to products that are both better than similar products. That matter is a critical element for consumer decision making, consequently, consumers will compare the
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

multiple synchronous and/or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, lungs, and head and neck region (i.e. oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx). 90% of the tumours in head and neck are squamous cell carcinomas, and at least 75% of them are attributable to the combination of tobacco and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of OSCC may be as high as 50.1 for those who are both heavy smokers and heavy drinkers in comparison to people who neither drink nor smoke. 13 It has been estimated
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Estimating diarrheal illness and deaths attributable to Shigellae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among older children, adolescents, and adults in South Asia and Africa.

Estimating diarrheal illness and deaths attributable to Shigellae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among older children, adolescents, and adults in South Asia and Africa.

Methods: We employed two distinct methodological approaches to estimate the burden of diarrhea due to Shigellae and ETEC among persons $5 years of age in the WHO regions of South Asia (SEAR) and Africa (AFR). Under method 1, we conducted a systematic review to identify the median proportion of total deaths due to diarrhea and then applied this figure to the number of all-cause deaths that occurred in 2010 among this age group. To estimate the total number of diarrhea deaths attributable to Shigellae and ETEC, we subsequently applied previously published estimates of the median percentage of diarrhea hospitalizations due to Shigellae and ETEC to the estimated number of diarrhea deaths. For method 2, we applied previously published incidence rates to 2010 population figures and estimated the total number of episodes due to Shigellae and ETEC using published estimates of the average proportion of pathogen-positive outpatients from studies of .4 pathogens. We then estimated the number of pathogen-specific deaths by determining the number of hospitalized patients and applying the case-fatality rate.
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Alcohol consumption in the African context: contributions to a public health approach to policy decisions

Alcohol consumption in the African context: contributions to a public health approach to policy decisions

115 Previous research on alcohol policies in low-and middle income countries has pointed to the value of introducing policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off- premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age (Cook et al., 2014). In our understanding however, such efforts in this area are unlikely to be fruitful if not accompanied by strong political commitment in changing the policy environment. For example, to reduce availability in many African countries, important efforts are needed to bring unlicensed outlets into the regulated market; however this implies providing appropriate mechanisms and resources to those agencies tasked with monitoring and enforcing availability regulations. Evidence also indicates that establishing a low maximum legal BAC limit and strong, consistent enforcement can reduce traffic injuries and fatalities (Shults et al., 2001); however, our study shows that approximately 60% of the countries either had a legal BAC limit above 0.05 g/dl or did not have any established BAC limit for driving. Establishing or lowering a national legal BAC limit for drivers is therefore an important policy measure, given the large proportion of the alcohol-related burden of disease for Africa caused by unintentional injuries, including road traffic crashes (Roerecke et al., 2008). At the same time, while implementation of such measures is important, considerable efforts should be spent in enforcing them once they have been established.
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CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

Let us suppose that such a scenario is true. We must at the very begin- ning note that God, when He brings about the existence of x and its essential parts, determines the range and kind of its possible accidental properties as well as its substantial changes. For example, a table cannot sing and a hu- man cannot ly (like a bird can). Thus if x belongs to a kind K (x is K), then no other contingent being (substance) can bring it about that x is F, if F is incompatible with K. But if it is true for any substance x that x is F or x is not F, meaning that x is determinate in every respect and F is not essential for x, then it must be the case that if God brought about the existence of x, then he brought about that x is F or (non-F). If x has been created by God, then x must be determinate in every respect, since x is a substance. Therefore x is F or x is non-F. It is also impossible that any non-essential properties of x could be (directly and totally) caused by other created substances, because every other substance distinct from x has to have all its own properties, in- cluding all its accidental properties. It must be so because every substance to be a substance must have all its properties both essential and accidental. Thus it is not possible that any substance created by God (ex nihilo) could bring about the existence of any accidental properties of any other substan- ce because all its properties (parts or constituents) are determined directly (intimately) and totally by God.
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Customer value begins to emerge in the 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one of the most significant factors in the success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences of the perceived value of the site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature of the perceived value. In the online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
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Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

The existence of trace metals in aquatic environments has led to serious concerns about their influence on plant and animal life [2]. Geo-accumulation index is the quantitative measure of the degree of pollution in aquatic sediment. It consists of seven grades ranging from unpolluted to very extremely polluted and the Pollution load index is a quick tool in order to compare the pollution status of different places, the pollution load index is use to determine the pollution severity and its variation along the different sample stations [3]. Heavy metals are chemical elements having atomic weights between 63.546 and 200.590 and a specific gravity that is 5 times greater than that of water. They exist in water in colloidal, particulate and dissolved phases with their occurrence in water bodies being either of natural origin (e.g. eroded minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism extruded products) or of anthropogenic origin(that is; solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents, harbour channel dredging) [4]. Furthermore, trace toxic metals are not easily removed from the environment nor are readily detoxified or degraded by metabolic activities in the body of the organism, thereby resulting in accumulation [5, 6]. Research has been that, they are no studies on sedimentology and geochemistry of the sediment in Ona River. To provide baseline information and also enlightened the people of the area about the immediate effect of the water body studied, they is need to determine trace metals pollution in sediment using pollution load index and Geo-accumulation Index. This study reports the levels of __________________________
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Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Influence of tungsten and titanium on the structure of chromium cast iron

Studies were conducted using a T-01M Tester with a ball-on- disc system, designed to evaluate the tribological properties of materials used for parts of machinery and equipment constituting the friction pairs. With this device it is possible to determine the wear resistance and friction coefficient of the material in sliding pairs, depending on the sliding velocity, surface pressure, presence and type of lubricant, contamination and other factors. The study was conducted in accordance with the methods set out in the ASTM G99 and DIN 50324 standards.
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White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

and grey eutectics are equal. It can be thought that the system will try to choose the eutectic which has - the minimum undercooling (or the maximum growth rate), i.e. grey as long as the growth rate is less than V c and white for faster velocities. In

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Zoonosis y enfermedades transmisibles comunes al hombre y a los animales: Volumen I

Zoonosis y enfermedades transmisibles comunes al hombre y a los animales: Volumen I

Diagnosis: In man, a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis based on symptoms and his- tory should always be confirmed in the laboratory. Isolation and typing of the causal agent is definitive and may also indicate the source of the infection. Blood or marrow from the sternum or ileal crest taken while the patient is febrile is cultured in appro- priate media. Culture material may also be taken from lymph nodes, cerebrospinal fluid, and abscesses. It is recommended that the cultures be repeated several times, especially in enzootic areas of B. abortus. Due to the widespread use of antibiotics before diagnosis in febrile patients, bacteriologic examinations, particularly of blood, often yield negative results, and serologic tests become increasingly necessary. The serum agglutination test, preferably in tubes, is the simplest and most widely used procedure. A high titer (more than 100 international units, IU) and increasing titers in repeated serum samples provide a good basis for diagnosis. Cross-reactions in serum agglutination have been observed in cases of cholera or tularemia (or as a result of vaccination against these diseases) and in infections caused by Yersinia ente- rocolitica 0:9, as well as Escherichia coli 0:157 and 0:116, Salmonella serotypes of Kauffmann-White group N, and Pseudomonas maltophila (Corbel et al., 1984). The serum agglutination test reveals both M and G immunoglobulins. It is generally accepted that in an active stage of brucellosis IgG is always present. Thus, when low serum agglutination titers are found, tests to detect the presence of IgG must be per- formed, such as the 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) and complement fixation (CF) test (in man, IgGs fix complement but often lack agglutinating power). These tests are of spe- cial interest in chronic brucellosis, where active infection may continue even though agglutination titers return to low levels. The intradermal test with noncellular aller- gens is useful for epidemiological studies, but not for clinical diagnosis.
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Criterion for selection the optimal physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate powder used in investment casting process

Criterion for selection the optimal physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate powder used in investment casting process

The effect of modification of the surface layer of the castings made from superalloys: Inconel 713C, René 77 and MAR-M 509 was investigated on the cross sections of the castings. The reduction of grain size of invested alloys after modification was obtained independently from the kind of used cobalt aluminate (Fig. 6.). The measurements of the average surface area of grain cross section of γ matrix in the cross section of casting revealed the differences in the size of grains up to the type of modifier. From Figure 6 one can see that the most coarse grain structure characterize the nonmodified castings. The finest macrostructure characterizes the samples which were modified by 5% of Mason Color and Remet powders with higher contamination of cobalt: 39.43%, 34.79
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Nigeria SMEs P articipation in  E lectronic  E conomy:  Problems and the  W ay  F orward

Nigeria SMEs P articipation in E lectronic E conomy: Problems and the W ay F orward

Firms need to attract attention to their products and services. This could prove to be quite a task for the typical Nigeria firm, with a practically unknown brand name and weak advertising dollars. Goldstein and O’Connor (2001) state that “even the best e-marketing strategy does not substitute for traditional media. Indeed, such advertising is normally viewed as an unavoidable sunk cost to establish brand name recognition.” Small firms by themselves will be unable to afford the advertising sunk cost that is necessary for effective market penetration. By engaging in a cooperative effort in marketing, using a Web portal and sharing advertising cost, firms may better penetrate the on-line market. Nigeria government needs to encourage and recognize innovative applications of ICTs and help in instituting mechanisms to spread best practices. Government should create a national demonstration and help desks to assist SMEs in ICTs choice, implementation and maintenance. If possible, provide motivation to encourage SMEs’ use of ICTs through various mechanisms, facilitate, support and encourage e-commerce applications through establishing appropriate frameworks, removing hurdles and leading by example. There is need for education and training. Education institutions in Nigeria should Institute compulsory courses in information and communications technology as early as possible into the curriculum. They should also encourage local hardware shops to collect- refurbish and roll-out computers that are gathering dust in most offices to high schools and elementary schools, at least where there is electricity, so that students will get exposure at an early age.Education administrators must ensure that tertiary education curriculum reflects changes in the global environment, expand tertiary level information and communications technology education, establish specialized institutions (like the Egyptian Information technology and South African software development institute) to prepare young cadres for the information economy in collaboration with the local private sector and other international institutions.In addition, they should also encourage, recognize, accredit and certify private institutions involved in high level ICTs training, set requirements and (social) obligations for organizations to provide ICTs skills to their staff and provide incentive and motivation.
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The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

The influence of the arc plasma treatment on the structure and microhardness C120U carbon tool steel

After arc plasma electric treatment on the cross section of the surface layer was distinguished two areas with the different microstructure were observed in respect to the parent material. The first area – remelted zone (RZ) and second area – heat affected zone (HAZ). Optical microscopic images of a single track are presented on Fig. 2. The influence of current intensity of the electric arc plasma on the dimensions of RZ and HAZ are shown in Table 2. With increased current intensity (for fixed speed rate of source = 0,2 m/min) the depth of the RZ increased too.
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Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Keywords: Application of Information Technology to the Foundry Industry: Solidification Process: Numerical Tcchniqucs: Sensitivity Analysis; Borzndary Elcmcnt Mcthod.. Introd[r]

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