Top PDF George Eliot and the scientific method

George Eliot and the scientific method

George Eliot and the scientific method

Sua reprodução total ou parcial é permitida exclusivamente para fins acadêmicos e científicos, desde que na reprodução figure a identificação do autor, título, instituição e ano do traba[r]

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A method for the identification of collaboration in large scientific databases

A method for the identification of collaboration in large scientific databases

Resumo: The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improve the understanding of the collaboration process between researchers. Additionally, it has helped to understand how scientific productions by researchers and research groups evolve. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task, given the high computational cost of the prevalent methods. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaborations in large scientific databases, namely, ISColl – Identification of Scientific Collaboration. Unlike methods that use techniques such as exhaustive comparisons of publication pairs, the proposed method produces satisfactory results with a low computational cost, thus providing an interesting alternative for the modelling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed technique, tests were conducted using scientific publications data registered in the Lattes Platform of CNPq, with the obtained results yielding excellent accuracy during the identification of scientific collaborations.
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Diderot, Mathematics and the Idea of a Scientific Revolution

Diderot, Mathematics and the Idea of a Scientific Revolution

Mathematics is considered therefore as a way of talking about an aspect of the real without exhausting the possible enunciations in relation to the multiplicity of the other aspects. Practicing such reductionism makes mathematicians proficient, but to pretend that it stands for the totality of the reality is their biggest mistake, as Diderot reminds us when blurring the boundaries between scientific clairvoyance and metaphysical obscurity: “There is perhaps one certain method of falling into error in metaphysics, and that is, not sufficiently to simplify the subject under investigation; and an infallible secret for obtaining incorrect results in applied mathematics is to suppose objects less compounded than they usually are.” (Diderot 1999, 160) The Letter ends, thus, with a dramatic sequence around the extension of our ignorance, despite the apogee of the cultivation of mathematics: “For what do we know? What of the nature of matter? Nothing. What of the nature of spirit and thought? Still less. What of the nature of movement, space and duration? Absolutely nothing. What of the truths of geometry? Ask any honest mathematicians, and they will own to you that all their propositions are identical, and that so many volumes upon the circle (for example) are nothing but repetitions by a hundred different methods that it is a figure where all the lines drawn from the centre to the circumference are equal.” (Diderot 1999, 190)
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PREACHER AS A CHARACTER IN THE CREATIVE WORK OF LEO TOLSTOY AND GEORGE ELIOT

PREACHER AS A CHARACTER IN THE CREATIVE WORK OF LEO TOLSTOY AND GEORGE ELIOT

Abstract. h e article analyzes characters of clergymen and the process of creating a specii c type of a preacher in Leo Tolstoy’s works. h e researcher tries to prove that this process was strongly inl uenced by Tolstoy’s close attention to the preacher characters in George Eliot’s works. h is can be proved by Tolstoy’s letters, diary and notes in the books from the writer’s personal library. h e main features of Tolstoy’s preacher character are demonstrated by the example of Prince Nekhlyudov (Resurrection). Proclaiming evangelical truth, he is not a member of any confession; he does not promulgate his views, but he proves his case by his actions and his way of life. He rejects earthly comfort and goods and voluntarily becomes integrated into people’s life. Having walked his way of repentance of former sins, he cultivates the ability to forgive and have mercy. George Eliot also accents these features in the key characters of her books, analyzed in this article (Janet’s repentance, Adam Bede and Felix Holt, the Radical). Eliot’s version of preaching becomes a certain guide for Tolstoy in the process of shaping a new type of character in his late works.
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Scientific provocation as a method for stimulating the participation of distance learning students

Scientific provocation as a method for stimulating the participation of distance learning students

The scientific-provocation model is suitable for the event-oriented model. It could be applied by assigning a case, describing real situation, a case, describing a hypothetic situation or a case, based on insufficient or even incorrect information. An example of a case, based on a real situation, can be the description of the crisis with the cleanness in Sofia. The students, studying law, finance, public administration or other discipline, including in its subject local management, could be given the question is it correct the government to support the capital in solving the problem with finding a place for bailment of wastes or is it correct the budget to support Sofia financially in implementing new technologies for bailment of wastes and is it possible some of the incomes from the corporate taxes to be ceded for solving that problem. The provocation here is in the social opinion, coming from a lot of politicians’ speeches that can incline students from the correct answer.
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GEORGE PÓLYA AND THE HEURISTIC TRADITION

GEORGE PÓLYA AND THE HEURISTIC TRADITION

To be sure, Central Europe was perplexed by the secrets of the mind and its workings, and the processes of understanding/knowing, intuition/perception, intelligence/intellect came to be recognized as central issues in the sciences and humanities of German-speaking Europe. In 1935 Karl Duncker of the University of Berlin provided a summary of the psychology of productive thinking. 5 To those trained by the German literature on the subject, including several generations of Hungarian scientists and scholars, the plethora of work done on productive thinking in German provided copious introductions to the theory of knowledge, the biology of talent, and the philosophy of problem solving. Much of the interest in the theory of knowledge and of knowing was generated in Vienna, where philosophers such as Professors Ernst Mach and Ludwig Boltzmann contributed significantly to the development of a scientific interpretation of the workings of the mind. Mach‘s main concern was the relationship between everyday thinking and scientific reasoning. 6 Franz Brentano and his students Kasimir Twardowski and Christian von Ehrenfels were active in the field of phenomenology and knowledge and played an important role in the philosophical study of the language. 7 From Vienna these new ideas and trends quickly spread to Budapest.
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SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTIVITY: IMPACTS ON STANDARDIZATION AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION

SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTIVITY: IMPACTS ON STANDARDIZATION AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION

The aim of this work is to analyze the new trends on standardization of academic publications, thesis and dissertations. The scope of the study is the Biological Sciences of The State University of Campinas from 1999 to 2005. Taking into consideration the importance of standardization to make scientific communication effective, it emphasizes the need to create more elaborated rules in order to help researchers, permitting them to attend both evaluation criteria of scientific production and quality requirements of publications. The use of the qualitative method, through interviews with the coordinators of graduate courses and librarians of the major studied brought some thinking about the librarian role, national organizations of standardization responsibility and also a brief comment on the legislation of Brazilian scientific dissemination.
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O bildungsroman feminino na literatura vitoriana: uma análise comparatista entre Jane Eyre, de Charlotte Brontë e The Mill on the Floss, de George Eliot

O bildungsroman feminino na literatura vitoriana: uma análise comparatista entre Jane Eyre, de Charlotte Brontë e The Mill on the Floss, de George Eliot

Semelhante à Jane Eyre, Maggie Tulliver também recebe uma educação baseada nos valores patriarcais. Ela é educada em casa e é apresentada como a mais inteligente da família por ser muito imaginativa e também por saber ler. O pai ainda comenta que gostaria que o irmão dela, Tom, tivesse o mesmo interesse e aptidões para os estudos. Vale ressaltar que nesse aspecto, a protagonista de The Mill on the Floss não recebe apoio das personagens femininas do romance, nem mesmo de sua mãe.

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Description of the application method in technical and scientific work on insecticides

Description of the application method in technical and scientific work on insecticides

available for consultation and there is specific work on the development and operation of spray nozzles, the information on the spray droplet spectrum and the correct nozzle set-up in relation to the target is essential because each type of spray nozzle has its own characteristics, as noted by Matthews (2002). The most worrying aspect is the lack of information on the droplet size formed by the spray nozzles. Despite technological advances in the development of spray nozzles and international efforts to standardize them, seeking methods of application that are more technical, accurate, and safe in terms of the environment and human health and economical for phytosanitary products (reduction of potential drift), progress continues to be merely a trend, as affirmed by Matthews (2004). This lack of real progress is highlighted by the fact that 173 (86.5%) of the 200 studies evaluated did not contain this information.
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The theme of education through conflict in the early novels of George Eliot

The theme of education through conflict in the early novels of George Eliot

His pride is made more.evident in his relationship with the Countess. The Countess Czerlaski and her brother, Mr. Bridmain are described as two foreigners, although they are British. They are really foreigners to the small community of Shepperton, and as such they are not accepted by it. The only persons with whom the Countess has any social intercourse are the Bartons. The Countess intends to leave this place, since it does not offer the opportunity for a good marriage, the thing the Countess has been looking forward to. Ironically, there is some plot inter­ twining, that results in her brother's marriage with the Countess's maid, which makes the Countess leave the house and go to live in the Barton's house, becoming a burden to their lives. The Countess's egoism and unconcern becomes evident in the period she stays there. But the decision to turn her out does not come from the Bartons. Go s ­ sip and the Countess's small egoisms prompt the maid to tell her that she is contributing to Milly's (Mrs. Barton's) sickness and giving opportunity for gossip.
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Building new probability distributions: the composition method and a computer based method

Building new probability distributions: the composition method and a computer based method

denotes the cdf of the random variable T . In their paper, the authors provided several examples of choices for T and W . The class of distributions proposed in this chapter comes by taking W (u) = u and T as a beta-exponential variate (Nadarajah and Kotz, 2006). This investigation is mainly motivated by two reasons. First, families from the beta-G class of distributions have a good performance in many applications. Among the papers with real data applications of the beta-G, we cite: Nadarajah and Gupta (2004), Nadarajah and Kotz (2004), Fischer and Vaughan (2010), Paranaíba et al. (2011) and Cordeiro et al. (2012). The extra parameter may improve further the usefulness of these families. Second, the generated class is a combination of the beta- G and Lehmann type II classes of distributions. This class appears very briefly in Alzaatreh et al. (2013) but is not discussed in enough details and was only used in a few examples of their work. Its ability to outperform several other classes, as shown later in this paper, makes a solid reason for further investigations.
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The Challenge of . The Development, Measurement, and  of Scientific  :: Brapci ::

The Challenge of . The Development, Measurement, and of Scientific :: Brapci ::

Portanto, compatibilizar as premissas conceituais da cienciometria com a visão moderna de ciência praticada pela nova sociologia da ciência constitui-se, de fato, em um grande desafio[r]

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Transnational scientific mobility. Perspectives from the North and the South

Transnational scientific mobility. Perspectives from the North and the South

3) Civility defines commitment to dialogue and non-violence. Departing from these three fundamental features — globality, plurality and civility — this study approaches cosmopolitanism as espousing open-ended and welcoming dispositions. Hannerz (1996: 104) pro- posed a classical definition of cosmopolitanism as an “orientation, a willingness to engage with the other ... intellectual and aesthetic open- ness toward divergent cultural experiences, a search for contrasts rather than uniformity”. Calcutt, Woodward & Skrbis (2009: 172) draw on this definition and suggested that “cosmopolitanism includes Kantian uni- versalism, cross-cultural competence, and either a willingness to toler- ate or engage with otherness”. The idea that “willingness to engage with the other” leads to better societal-wide outcomes is central in a very influential work conducted by Florida (2002, 2005) on global com- petition for talent. Skrbis & Woodward (2007: 730) point out a central di- mension of cosmopolitanism adding that “cosmopolitans espouse a broadly defined disposition of ‘openness’toward others, people, things and experiences whose origin is non-local”. Cosmopolitan values are viewed as pertaining to meta-culture and ‘lying beyond culture, custom and community’ (Rapport, 2012:102) and having an emancipating and civilising role globally (Linklater, 2012). These definitions of cosmopoli- tan values and attitudes formed a foundation for designing a pilot study to test the theoretical promises of cosmopolitanism.
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Extensive communication and the format of the online scientific journal

Extensive communication and the format of the online scientific journal

The attempt to measure characteristics, at the start qualitative, represents a challenge to the social sciences. The tables developed in this work demonstrate that it is possible to set rules for the partial understanding of a phenomenon when its configuration is not certain, in this case, the electronic format of a specific of publication. The pointers that had disclosed the characteristics of the electronic format were built from the grouping of specific variables, dimensioning the qualitative characteristics. Before that, however, it was necessary to analyze the profile of the electronic journals, drawing the the profile of the general results of these variables, in order to uniting them in a coherent way in order to understand the Interactivity, the Hypertextuality and the Hypermedia. When establishing a relation between the three characteristics of the electronic format, observing the one, observing the grouping by platform, it is concluded that the direct relation between them is non-existent. Or either, most interactive groups are not necessarily those that have the most hipertextual potential. The hipermediation does not have a determinant action for interactivity, meaning a farther resource of communication in a differentiated dimension.
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Chegar a Casa: Safo, Stevenson, Eliot, Larkin

Chegar a Casa: Safo, Stevenson, Eliot, Larkin

N as notas finais ao seu poema The Waste Land , T. S. Eliot afirma ter-se inspirado em Safo para o episódio da dactilógrafa que chega a casa após mais um dia de trabalho. Cremos que a asserção é par - cia l mente verdadeira, na medida em que nos permite traçar uma pequena genealogia entre quatro autores relativamente ao uso que fazem da imagem de um “regresso a casa”. Notaremos, por igual, as continuidades e os desvios. O poema de Safo a que Eliot se reporta é, aparentemente, uma confusão entre dois textos da autora grega: “This may not appear as exact as Sappho’s lines, but I had in mind the ‘longshore’ or ‘dory’ fisherman, who returns at nightfall” (Eliot 45). O pescador a que Eliot alude vaga - men te é Pélagon, sobre cujo cadáver o pai, Meniscas, deposita os instru - men tos de trabalho de uma vida no mar. 1 O regresso a casa ao fim da tarde
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The technological innovation and the scientific advance: the chemistry under perspective.

The technological innovation and the scientific advance: the chemistry under perspective.

Neste novo modelo, não se requer mais o domínio de uma tecnologia me- cânica, mas antes uma tecnologia de informações, o que exige mais do que fornecer educação apenas, devendo-se primei[r]

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A Vida Social dos Instrumentos Musicais de Eliot Bates

A Vida Social dos Instrumentos Musicais de Eliot Bates

This paper presents a review on the article The Social Life of Musical Instru- ments by Eliot Bates (2012). Bates makes a reflection about organology, criticizes the old classificatory systems, comments on important works about organology and proposes a new paradigm based on the Actor-Network Theory

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GEORGE POPESCU

GEORGE POPESCU

Este foi o começo de uma amizade profunda e a descoberta de uma poesia atormentada e bela, que habita o coração da baixa modernidade. Da obra extensa e variada de George Popescu, apresentamos esta breve antologia, toda ela constituída de poemas inéditos em português.

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Torricelli, steam power, and the technological drift of the Scientific Revolution.

Torricelli, steam power, and the technological drift of the Scientific Revolution.

Em linha com a hipótese de Merton, a Royal Society era uma instituição im- pregnada de valores puritanos. Suas sementes se encontravam no chamado Círcu- lo de Hartlib, composto de indivíduos reformistas alinhados aos interesses do Par- lamento. Embora formalmente instituída no ambiente conciliatório dos primeiros anos da Restauração, a Sociedade nunca perdeu sua inclinação puritana. Vários de seus membros mais ilustres no período, como Boyle e Newton, eram adeptos da doutrina. Desta forma, os laços entre ciência e progresso material foram ainda mais reforçados no seio da Sociedade (Jacob, 1988: 73-75; Merton, 1984: 173- 181). Há um vínculo estreito entre a preferência pelo conhecimento experimental- mente demonstrável e o desejo de utilizar o conhecimento assim adquirido para o bem-estar da humanidade. De modo bastante ilustrativo, Hooke assim qualifica o estudo das propriedades do ar: “highly usefull and absolutely necessary to the well being of the mankind”. 1
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