and haloperidol, a drug that blocks dopamine receptors, are both known to induce catalepsy in rodents. Nitric oxide has been shown to influence dopaminergic transmission in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the extract obtained from leaves of Ginkgobiloba tree EGb 761 on catalepsy induced by haloperidol or by L-NOARG. Albino Swiss mice (35-45 g, N = 8-12) received by gavage a single or repeated oral dose (twice a day for 4 days) of EGb 761 followed by ip injection of haloperidol or L- NOARG. After the treatments, the animals were submitted to behav- ioral evaluation using the catalepsy test. Acute treatment with 80 mg/ kg EGb did not modify the catalepsy induced by L-NOARG but, the dose of 40 mg/kg significantly enhanced haloperidol-induced cata- lepsy measured at the 10th min of the test. After repeated treatment with 80 mg/kg EGb 761, a significant increase in the cataleptic effect produced by both haloperidol and L-NOARG was observed. These data show that repeated EGb 761 administration increases the effects of drugs that modify motor behavior in mice. Since the catalepsy test has predictive value regarding extrapyramidal effects, the possibility of pharmacological interactions between haloperidol and Ginkgobiloba extracts should be further investigated in clinical studies. Correspondence
effects of ginkgo have been done using a standardized Ginkgobilobaleafextract called EGb 761 (Germany). EGb 761 is standardized to contain 24% flavones glycosides and 6% terpene lactones, but this preparation also contains a variety of other constituents including organic acids and sugars. This extract has several effects, including: [a] increases the blood flow, [b] acts as platelet activating factor antagonism, [c] prevents the membrane against the damages caused by free radicals and [d] treats the memory and concentration deficits (Pietta, 1999; Rotblatt et al., 2002; Simões et al., 2007).
Since oxidative damage has been impli- cated in the etiology of diabetic complica- tions (6), we thought that G. bilobaextract (EGb 761) may improve the maternal and fetal-placental results in experimental dia- betic pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of G. biloba treatment on maternal reproductive perfor- mance and on the maternal and fetal liver antioxidant systems in streptozotocin-in- duced diabetic rats.
According to what was presented above, the use of guinea-pig is justifiable with the objective in this research of verifying the otoprotector effect of drugs that have already been largely used in the clinical practice with other purposes, as the Ginkgobilobaextract (EGB 761) is. Concerning the cochlear damages caused by the organophosphate – methami- dophos, using harmful doses to the outer hair cells, we evaluated the anatomical changes through the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) comparing the
solution (NaCl 0.9 %), and 300 mg of Nectandra membranacea was placed in a container with 10 mL of NaCl 0.9 %, to obtain an aqueous preparation of 30 mg/mL (Moreno et al., 2007a). A commercial solution of Ginkgobilobaextract (EGb 761, China Jiangsu Medicines and Health Products Lot GB 001128, w/w, Galena, RJ, Brazil) containing 24% of flavonoids was prepared in NaCl 0.9%. Saline preparations containing 40 mg/mL were obtained for labeling of blood constituents, as also 400 mg/mL of the commercial extract were prepared for use in biodistribution and morphometry studies. A commercial preparation of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa, Peel passion fruit flour (PFE), was obtained from A.S.S. Neto´s Alimentos LTDA., RJ, Brazil, (Lot 0001415). In the preparation of the extract, 500 mg of the flour was diluted to 10 mL in NaCl 0.9% to obtain a solution of 50 mg/mL.
We were particularly interested in G. biloba tree species because standard Ginkgobiloba L. leafextract (EGb 761) has been one of the best-selling medicinal products worldwide due to its antioxidant activity. Memory improvement, decrease of cerebral insufficiency, increase of cerebral blood flow and circulation, and beneficial effects in patients of Alzheimer's disease are some of the effects of GBE, which can be explained by its antioxidant activity [39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 64]. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of EGb 761 in protecting against age- related processes such as increase of oxidative stress, brain mitochondrial dysfunction  and chronic age-dependent neurological disorders [66, 67]. Moreover, its antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects in S. cerevisiae cells were previously investigated and confirmed in our laboratory . The analyses of DNA (microarrays) made possible the discrimination of genes regulated by G. biloba L. leafextract [68, 69], however, the mechanisms of its action are still unclear. Recently, a set of genes, modulated by EGb761 extract have been identified , some of them are involved cell cycle regulation. Thus to investigate such activity, the budding index approach used to identify yeast cells with phases of the cell cycle was applied with an extract from the leaves of G. biloba tree species. Results suggest that GBE protects cells from H 2 O 2 ,
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that short-term GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obese rats. G. biloba also enhanced insulin sensitivity, IRS-1, and Akt phosphorylation while it reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle compared to nontreated obese rats. It is noteworthy that such effects were observed in rats that had been fed a hyperlipidic diet. Taking into consideration that most obese people resist adhering to a program of nutritional reeducation, GbE therapy might be very helpful for avoiding the development of comorbidities in those patients. These findings suggest that G. biloba might be an efficient therapy to prevent and/or treat obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment, and war- rants additional studies to better understand the complex mechanisms involved in GbE hypoglycemic effects.
parameters of female rats treated with the plants. The control group received physiological solution 0.9%. The treatments were administered by oral gavage, twice/day, during fifteen consecutive days. After this period, male (n=18) and female rats (n=18) were sacrificed and the gonads collected, weighed and processed for microscopic evaluation. Another females (n=18) were matted with not treated males for evaluation of fertility and pregnancy outcome. The results indicated that the male and feminine reproductive organs weight was not affected by treatments. The gonadal structure of male and female rats showed same histologic pattern in the three experimental groups. The pre-gestational treatment with the extracts not promoted alterations in the reproductive performance of dams and in the fetal parameters. It was concluded that the extract of P. ginseng or G. biloba not presented reproductive toxicity in the male and female rats.
about the effect of the medicinal plants (Thuya occidentalis, Nicotiana tabacum, Peumus boldus, Maytenus ilicifolia) on the labeling of RBC (6,7,8, 9,10). We have studied the effect of Ginkgobilobaextract on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m.
The extract of Ginkgobiloba (EGb) contains 24% of flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, myricetin, among others). Studies have reported that in vitro quercetin and kaempferol stimulate the osteoprogenitor cell in the bone marrow, the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, as well as the inhibition of the osteoclast function (Smith and Luo, 2004). In previous studies, we showed that GC reduced the percentage of the femoral trabecular bone, and the EGb was effective in increasing the bone mineral content of rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) (Lucinda et al., 2010). Recently, we also demonstrated that in the alveolar mandibular bone, EGb reduced the Bax expression and increased the Bcl-2 expression by osteoblasts in rats with GIO suggesting a decrease of apoptosis of these cells (Lucinda et al., 2013). Therefore, not only did our study related the anti-apoptotic properties of EGb, but also Qiao et al., 2014 demonstrated that EGb exhibits a significant protective effect anti-apoptotic in rat myocardium cells, related to the down-regulation of Bax, cyt-c and caspase-3.
The search for efficient and alternative therapies for the asthma control is an important factor to the improvement of life quality in asthmatic patients. The effects of Ginkgobilobaextract (Ginkgobiloba L.) in the response of asthmatics to the maintenance treatment for persistent moderate asthma were studied in a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: “Effect of the aqueous extract of Ginkgobiloba L., Ginkgoaceae, in induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats.” The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 20 day treatment with extract of Ginkgobiloba (EGb) in glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. 36 rats were divided into six groups (n=6): control, osteoporosis, positive control, EGb1 (14 mg EGb/kg/day), EGb2 (28 mg EGb/kg/day) and EGb3 (56 mg EGb/kg/day). Treatments were conducted for twenty days, after osteoporosis was induced. Following euthanasia the femur and mandible of all animals were removed. The left mandible was radiographed to evaluate the cortical and the periodontal bone support (PBS). The histomorphometric analysis was performed on the right mandible and the right femur. The control group was compared with the osteoporosis group (Student’s t-test). The other groups were analyzed through ANOVA test followed by Dunnett post-hoc test. There was a signiicantly reduction in the mesial PBS, in the percentage of the alveolar bone (PAB) of the mandible and percentage of the trabecular bone (PTB) of the femur in the osteoporosis group. There was an increase in the mesial PBS in the positive control group, EGb2 and EGb3. The PAB of the mandible and the PTB of the femur increased in the EGb2 and EGb3 groups. The EGb in the 28 mg/kg and 56 mg/kg doses were effective to increase the mesial PBS, the PAB of the mandible and the PTB of the femur.
(Baliutyte et al., 2012). However, no correlation was provided between extract effect and its constituents. It is known that the main biological effects of the extract of G. biloba are produced by the terpenoids present in its constitution. Furthermore, as EGb is a mixture of its constituents, the final pharmacological response of EGb would be result of complex interaction between the constituents probably by synergism action. Thus, we decided to compare the electrocardiographic effects of the extract with those presented by their major constituents on guinea pig isolated heart.
The present results indicate that the anti-tumoral pro- perties of Tamoxifen (TAM) were slightly modified by co-treatment with Ginkgobilobaextract (GbE) in a DMBA-induced model of mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Similar to the findings of previous in vitro, animal and human cohort studies, we found that oral treatment with TAM induced an anti- tumoral effect characterized by significant mammary tumor regression [6,8,11,23,27,28]. We detected signifi- cant reductions in mammary tumor volume, in pro- portion of living tumor tissue, and in frequency of proliferating cells as indicated by PCNA staining in all TAM-treated groups (G1, G2 and G3). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kDa molecule that acts as a DNA polymerase co-factor during chromosome replication and is easily detected during S-phase of the cell cycle . Therefore, PCNA is widely used as a reliable cell proliferation biomarker in experimental models of chemical carcinogenesis, including models of rat mammary carcinogenesis [24,29,30]. In the present study, the reduced PCNA LI% observed in TAM-treated rats can be explained by the ability of TAM to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent cell proliferation in Table 1 General parameters in the experimental groups after 4 weeks of treatment 1
ABSTRACT: Ginkgobiloba L. cutting using three substrates. Ginkgobiloba is an arboreal and deciduous species, the foliage of which becomes yellowish in the autumn, before leaf drop, increasing its value for gardening. Cutting is a method of vegetative propagation based on the capacity of cells to recover the cell division process, originating roots in cuttings detached from branches of stock plants. This study aimed to verify the influence of different substrates, as well as the application of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in Ginkgobiloba cutting rooting. In the winter of 2005, branches were collected and sent to the Macropropagation Lab, where cuttings of 10-12cm length were made without leaves. The treatments with plant growth regulator (T) were T1- 0 mg L -1 IBA solution, T2- 4000 mg L -1 IBA solution, T3- 8000 mg L -1 IBA
A solution containing 24% of a commercial Ginkgobilobaextract (China Jiangsu Medicines and Health Products Lot GB 001128, w/w) was prepared in 0.9% NaCl. From this solution (crude extract), saline dilutions containing 40 and 400 mg/mL of the commercial extract were prepared. These preparations were administrated to female Wistar rats (n = 5) during 6 days (intragastric via). The control group received a solution of 0.9% NaCl. Tc-99m, as 99m TcO - 4 Na, (0.3 mL, 7.4
P esticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. Objective: This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgobilobaextract may have in pro- tecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos). Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline solution, pes- ticide, and ginkgobiloba alone or combined for seven consecutive days. Then their cochleas were removed and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Results: Pesticide-exposed guinea pigs had morphological alterations in their cochleas and injuries in the three turns analyzed through electron microscopy. Injury intensity varied according to the dosages of the agents given to the test subjects. Guinea pigs treated with pesticide and ginkgobiloba maintained the architecture of their outer hair cells in all cochlear turns. Conclusion: The antioxidant properties found in the ginkgobilobaextract protected guinea pigs from pesticide ototoxicity.
The highly conserved miR156/SPL interaction model has been found in evolutionarily dis- tant species, including liverwort, angiosperms, and gymnosperms [11, 14, 61]. SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes play crucial roles in plant developmental phase transition, floral meristem identity, leaf morphology, and sporogenesis initiation [62–64]. MiR156 regulates both juvenile-to-adult phase transition and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition by repressing the expression of SPLs. A sufficient amount of miR156 is necessary to promote the juvenile phase; for example, overexpression of miR156 in Arabidopsis was re- ported to prolong the juvenile phase and even delay flowering time [65–67], while the overex- pression of the miR156-resistant SPL transgenes (rSPL3, rSPL4, rSPL5) was found to result in early flowering [65, 68, 69]. The miR172-targeted AP2/AP2-like transcription factors were also reported to control juvenile-to-adult transition and the transition to flowering [70, 71]. Thus, miR172 and miR156 seem to regulate transitions that oppose each other, perhaps because miR156-targeted SPLs directly regulate the AP2-like floral repressors and are indirectly regu- lated by binding to miR172 [65, 72]. Compared with NL, gbi-miR156c was significantly re- duced in EL, and miR172 a/b were found to be up-regulated. The expression levels of these miRNAs and the opposite expression patterns of the target SBP genes (Unigene14670) and AP2 (CL731. Contig1) were validated by RT-qPCR. Similar to the juvenile-to-adult/ vegeta- tive-to-reproductive phase transition, the sequential activity of miR156c and miR172 may be involved in the normal to epiphyllous ovule leaves transition.
In the current, study we evaluated the whole right tibias with DEXA, which is currently the method of first choice for measuring BMD (Ralston 2005). The higher dose of EGb was effective in recovering the BMD of the tibia as well as the alendronate, a drug that is widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Trivedi et al. (2009) reported an increase of the BMD in ovariectomized rats treated with EGb. The authors based their results in the improvement of the osteoblasts function and number, which was confirmed by the increase in the osteogenic genes and osteocalcin. We also believe that the EGb has an important role in increasing osteoblast function and number, once in our previous results the extract reduced the
of cultivation; (H) multiple shoots in nodal segment; (I) isolated shoot by nodal segment and in the multiplication process; and (J) multiple shoots differentiated in nodal segment [plantas-matrizes adultas de Ginkgobiloba cultivadas em casa de vegetação e in vitro: (A) plantas matrizes exibindo brotos curtos e longos, emitidos durante a estação de crescimento; (B) estruturas portadoras de microesporângios; (C) segmento nodal lenhoso (D) segmentos nodais herbáceos; (E) indução e multiplicação in vitro de brotos formados a partir de gemas axilares em segmentos nodais herbáceos, cultivados em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 500 mg L -1 de caseína hidrolisada, aos 15 dias; (F)