Top PDF Growth, water consumption and basil production in the hydroponic system under salinity

Growth, water consumption and basil production in the hydroponic system under salinity

Growth, water consumption and basil production in the hydroponic system under salinity

The growth and yield data were collected at 18 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT). Two plants of each plot were selected for the evaluation of plant height (cm), measured with a tape measure from the base to the apex, stem diameter (mm) with the aid of a digital caliper and the number of leaves by direct counting manually. Also destructive evaluations were carried out and the root length (cm) was measured using a measuring tape, root volume with the aid of a graduated measuring cylinder in mL, the leaf area (cm²) by means of a portable meter (CID Bio- Science, Washington, United State of America, CI-202 model) and the dry matter mass of the plant organs (g) through a forced ventilation oven at 65 °C for a period of 72 h and thereafter the mass of the dry matter was determined by weighing on a scale.
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CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF BASIL PLANTS CULTIVATED IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM USING TREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF BASIL PLANTS CULTIVATED IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM USING TREATED DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

It is essential to choose the appropriate irrigation system with reuse water to reduce the risk of human and environmental contamination, considering the possible adverse effects of these water systems in the soil and water by increasing soil salinity and contaminating water bodies. Wastewater is used in closed systems, including hydroponic systems, to grow medicinal, ornamental, and food plant species because it has an adequate amount of nutrients and reduces the risk of contamination (Santos Júnior et al., 2014; Cuba et al., 2015; Albuquerque Júnior et al., 2016). The increased interest in hydroponics and wastewater underscores the need to further investigate the development and management of crops to establish criteria on plant density and arrangement in each cultivation system and the quality of the water used for preparing the nutrient solution.
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Sweet pepper production in substrate in response to salinity, nutrient solution management and training system

Sweet pepper production in substrate in response to salinity, nutrient solution management and training system

& Klapaki, 2000). While attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programs have very limited success (Rozema & Flowers, 2008), most growers still rely on crop management practices to ameliorate salinity problems. Some studies have indicated that the use of saline water requires the improvement of irrigation management in order to maintain salt levels in the root zone below the threshold values (Oster, 1994; Rubio et al., 2010a). Although a decrease in the concentration of the NS could help to reduce salt levels in the root zone. Studies about zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) and salvia (Salvia splendens F.) have shown that decreasing the NS concentration reduces fruit yield and growth (Rouphael & Colla, 2009; Kang & van Lersel, 2004). Coincidentally, a decrease in nutrient uptake was observed by decreasing the concentration of nutrient in the irrigation solution. One interesting possibility is the increase of irrigation frequency when the concentration of the NS is reduced in order to synchronize nutrients and water uptakes by the plant with the supply of nutrients and water by the irrigation system (Klaring, 2001).
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Activity of antioxidative enzymes in watercress and Chinese cabbage plants grown under hydroponic system with brackish water

Activity of antioxidative enzymes in watercress and Chinese cabbage plants grown under hydroponic system with brackish water

An alternative technique to use underground brackish waters is the hydroponic cultivation system (Santos et al., 2010). This technique consists of substituting soil for an aqueous solution containing only mineral elements defined as essential for plants (Silva et al., 2016). In hydroponic cultivation system, nutrients supplementation through water, results in reduced losses that normally occur when growing in soil (volatilization, leaching and fixation), besides having advantages of lower use of water and higher efficiency in its use. Besides, there will be better use of area, higher productivity, reduced vegetative cycle, as well as possibility to control the disposal into environment (Ferreira et al., 2017; Santos et al. 2010). Thus, direct contact of the saline effluent with environment is suppressed, avoiding salinity in adjacent areas.
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Production of rocket under salt stress in hydroponic systems

Production of rocket under salt stress in hydroponic systems

I n northeastern Brazil, salt-affected soils occupy an area of approximately 9.1 million hectars (Fageria et al., 2010), and the water in wells drilled to capture groundwater is generally low flow and present high salt levels. One of the most viable alternatives for the use of saline soils and brackish waters is the use of tolerant plant varieties (Flowers, 2004). The use of hydroponic techniques associated with the tolerant varieties greatly increases the efficiency of water use. Salinity is an abiotic factor that causes stress in plants, limiting their growth and productivity (Munns & Tester, 2008). Environmental stress
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Crop coefficient and water consumption of eggplant in no-tillage system and conventional soil preparation

Crop coefficient and water consumption of eggplant in no-tillage system and conventional soil preparation

For the production parameters evaluated, they did not reveal any significant differences after the analysis of variance. Assuming a density of 10,204 plants ha -1 , the commercial productivity of the eggplant, considering only the fruit within the standard commercial size and defect-free, grown on the conventional plot, was 45.84 Mg ha -1 , an equal amount to the conventional system. The total productivity was 47.42 and 47.91 Mg ha -1 respectively in the NT and CT system, being this production superior to that found by CASTRO et al. (2004). The authors have cultivated eggplant under organic management in different cropping systems (monoculture and intercropped with legumes) getting close to the national average productivity of 25Mg ha -1 in the conventional cultivation.
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Growth and production of tomato fertilized with ash and castor cake and under varying water depths, cultivated in organic potponics

Growth and production of tomato fertilized with ash and castor cake and under varying water depths, cultivated in organic potponics

The applied irrigation depths were equal to 135, 165, 191, and 213 mm, respectively, for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Aiming for a greater yield of tomato plants in a protected environment, Santana, Vieira, Barreto, and Cruz (2010) and Macêdo and Alvarenga (2005) applied irrigation depths varying from 372 to 802 mm and from 158.1 to 399.2 mm, respectively. Also in a protected environment and producing tomatoes in pots, Silva et al. (2013) applied irrigation depths ranging from 180 to 828 mm. In the present study, the lower values of applied irrigation depth are essentially due to the cultivation system in pots and in a protected environment and due to the irrigation method, in which water is locally applied, associated with the adequate management of the irrigation system with an automatic device for irrigation. All these factors contributed to the lower water consumption during the productive process.
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Does seed size affect the germination rate and seedling growth of peanut under salinity and water stress?

Does seed size affect the germination rate and seedling growth of peanut under salinity and water stress?

stress was due to an increase of the external osmotic pressure, what adversely affects the water absorption by seeds. According to Bewley et al. (2013), it is necessary that the seeds reach an adequate level of hydration during the imbibition phase, in order to occur the reactivation of seed metabolic processes and growth of the embryonic axis. Seeds exposed to drought or saline stress require more time to adjust the internal osmotic potential in accordance with the external environment (Munns & Tester 2008). A highly negative osmotic pressure may affect the seed water uptake, making germination not possible (Soares et al. 2015). Additionally, the osmotic stress affects the starch synthesis reactions and energy production process (adenosine triphosphate - ATP) through seed respiration (Bewley et al. 2013), resulting in a reduced germination speed index and thus in the delay of the germination time. The most common responses of plants to the reduction of osmotic potential are a delay in the initial germination and a reduction in the germination rate (Mut & Akay 2010, Soares et al. 2015, Steiner et al. 2017).
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Water and fertilizers use efficiency in two hydroponic systems for tomato production

Water and fertilizers use efficiency in two hydroponic systems for tomato production

Climate change and the increasing human population worldwide challenge sustainable growth and food security. Hence, there is a dire need to save water and fertilizers and to maintain or increase food production. To satisfy that need, basic and technical questions must be answered, and novel information has to be generated. Thus, this study was carried out in order to determine the use efficiency of water and fertilizers applied in a closed hydroponic system and compare it with an open system during a tomato production cycle.
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Influence of the NK ratio on the production and quality of cucumber in hydroponic system

Influence of the NK ratio on the production and quality of cucumber in hydroponic system

Irrigation was carried out with deionized water until seed germination, and then with nutrient solution until 30 days after germination, when plants were transplanted. Plants in the hydroponic growing beds were irrigated with the solutions for vegetative growth, and, after 21 days, the solutions were replaced by solutions for fruit setting. At 45 and 60 days after transplanting, the fresh weight, length, diameter, volume and firmness of the fruit were evaluated, and, at 45 days after transplanting, the macronutrient concentrations in the leaves were determined. The use of different N:K ratios during fruit setting influenced the cucumber production. The ratio of 1.0:1.7 N: K (w/w), with 10% of N in the form of ammonia, is recommended for the whole cycle.
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Growth, production and yield of common bean under water replacement levels

Growth, production and yield of common bean under water replacement levels

of 98%. Lima et al. (2011) report that micro-sprinkler irrigation is more suitable for the bean crop, because it reduces losses caused by the Bean Golden Mosaic Virus. Soil water content in the root zone (W, mm) was obtained by measurements of volumetric soil water content every 30 min by sensors using the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique (CS616, Campbell Scientific), connected to a CR1000 data acquisition system. The probes were positioned vertically in the soil, 0.15 m away from the plants and inside the central rows, in at 0-0.30 m depth, according to the methodology recommended by Rocha et al. (2014).
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Production, water consumption and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage grown hydroponically in brackish water

Production, water consumption and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage grown hydroponically in brackish water

being used to prepare the nutrient solution and to make up the volume lost through evapotranspiration. The results showed that with the exception of the treatment at the lowest salinity, there was a tendency to increased electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution with the increasing salinity of the water; that the pH of the nutrient solution remained within the normal range throughout the cycle; that with the increasing salinity of the solution there was a reduction in all growth and production variables under analysis, in water consumption, and in leaf N, K, Ca and Mg, and an increase in leaf concentrations of Na and Cl. It is possible to use brackish water for the production of Chinese cabbage when grown hydroponically as an alternative for those producers who have an available supply of brackish water and a restricted supply of fresh water, however with a reduction in productivity. Key words: Brassica pekinensis L.. Nutrient solution. Salinity. Mineral nutrition.
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Amaranth, quinoa, and millet growth and development under different water regimes in the Brazilian Cerrado

Amaranth, quinoa, and millet growth and development under different water regimes in the Brazilian Cerrado

Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., is an alternative for agricultural diversification and soil protection (Spehar & Trecenti, 2011). It is a traditional crop in Africa and wide adopted in India, with adaptation to locations under abiotic stresses (The world…, 1996). Despite millet’s rusticity, its genetic improvement has provided that under favorable conditions its production increases have favored the expansion of cultivation in Brazil (Pereira Filho, 2009). Jimenez et al. (2008) compared millet and quinoa as cover plants, and the first one stood out for its root system, even in a simulating treatment of compacted soil. Water stress can affect plants by reducing the plant height, relative growth rate, cell growth, photosynthetic rate, and the respiration activation (Hýsková et al., 2014). Cultivated plants have several mechanisms of adaptation to water deficit, but the responses are complex and adaptation is attributed to the ability of plants to control water losses by transpiration, which depends on the stomatal
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MINERAL NUTRITION OF CRISPHEAD LETTUCE GROWN IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM WITH BRACKISH WATER

MINERAL NUTRITION OF CRISPHEAD LETTUCE GROWN IN A HYDROPONIC SYSTEM WITH BRACKISH WATER

ABSTRACT - Water availability in the Brazilian semiarid is restricted and often the only water source available has high salt concentrations. Hydroponics allows using these waters for production of various crops, including vegetables, however, the water salinity can cause nutritional disorders. Thus, two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, to evaluate the effects of salinity on the mineral nutrition of crisphead lettuce, cultivar Taina, in a hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique), using brackish water in the nutrient solution, which was prepared by adding NaCl to the local water (0.2 dS m -1 ). A randomized blocks experimental design was used in
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FRUIT YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SWEET PEPPER GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS IN HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

FRUIT YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SWEET PEPPER GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS IN HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

ABSTRACT - Irrigation with brackish water is common in the semiarid region of the Brazilian Northeast, potentiating the process of salinization of the soil in these areas. The hydroponic system stands out as an important strategy for crop management in semiarid regions, since crops show greater tolerance to the salt stress under hydroponic conditions, which minimize the effects of soil salinization. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the growth, fruit yield and mineral nutrition of sweet pepper in hydroponic system, using brackish water and coconut fiber substrate. The experiment was conducted in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil (8°3'15''S, 34°52'53''W). A randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement with five replications was used, consisting of five water salinity levels of the nutrient solution (2.0; 3.5; 4.5; 5.5 and 6.5 dS m -1 ) and two sweet pepper cultivars (Bruno and Rubia). The increasing
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Response of four woody species to salinity and water deficit in initial growth phase

Response of four woody species to salinity and water deficit in initial growth phase

water regimes (with and without water restriction). Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot dry matter, root dry matter and total dry matter were measured. For all the studied variables, there was statistical significance for the factors species (A) and salinity (B), individually. However, water deficit (Factor C) and the interaction among factors (A x B x C) did not cause any statistical effect. The 50% reduction in water replacement for the four species studied was not enough to cause significant damage to plant growth, with a mean reduction in dry matter production lower than 10%. It was observed that the tolerance index found varied according to the imposition of the stresses, being caused mainly by salinity. Based on shoot dry matter production, the species Neem behaved as moderately tolerant, while the other species were moderately sensitive to salinity. The applied water deficit was not enough to intensify the effects of the salt stress under the conditions of the present study.
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Tomato production in hydroponic system using different agrofilms as greenhouse cover

Tomato production in hydroponic system using different agrofilms as greenhouse cover

Protected cultivation has increased over the years. More studies on the benefits of using photoselective agrofilms are necessary. The choice of material to cover the greenhouse is a decisive factor for crop development and production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diffuser and blue-colored agrofilms on the production of different tomato cultivars of indeterminate growth habit under NFT hydroponic system. A completely randomized design in a 2x3 factorial scheme (two environments and three cultivars) was used: two agrofilm types (blue and diffuser) and 3 cultivars (Monterrey, Arendell and Totalle). Each plot consisted of 30 plants per treatment, with four replicates. Commercial tomato seedlings of indeterminate growth habit grafted on rootstock cultivar (Shincheonggang) were used. During the experiment, the electrical conductivity, intensity of radiation inside the greenhouse, gas exchange, soluble solids, lycopene content, pH and fruit production were evaluated. We concluded that the amount of radiation transmitted through the diffuser favors an increase of about 18% in gas exchange, 12% in lycopene content and 9.4% in tomato crop production.
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WATER SALINITY AND BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER IN THE PRODUCTION OF EGGPLANT SEEDLINGS - DOI: 10.7127/rbai.v11n700666

WATER SALINITY AND BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER IN THE PRODUCTION OF EGGPLANT SEEDLINGS - DOI: 10.7127/rbai.v11n700666

Table 1. Analysis of variance for plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), leaf number (LN), total leaf area (TLA) and root length (RL), absolute and relative growth rate of plant height (AGRph and RGRph), stem diameter (AGRsd and GRGsd) and leaf area (AGRla and RGRla), dry matter of root (DMR), stem (DMS), leaf (DML) and total dry matter (TDM) of eggplant under effect of levels of electrical conductivity in irrigation water (ECw) as a function to the application of bovine biofertilizer (B).

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Physiological mechanisms in citrus hybrids under saline stress in hydroponic system

Physiological mechanisms in citrus hybrids under saline stress in hydroponic system

as citrus rootstocks [HTR - 069, HTR - 116, HTR - 127, LCR x TR - 001 and TSKC x (LCR x TR) - 040)], with three replications. The hybrids were grown in hydroponic system, using Leonard’s pots and Hoagland’s solution. The application of salinized solution was started at 90 days after sowing, when the gas exchange and PSII fluorescence were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 hours after imposition of treatments, in order to determine the time interval for beginning of salt stress by physiological aspects. The initial fluorescence, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were the variables that best described the perception of stress in this study. The hybrid TSKC x (LCR x TR) - 040 proved to be more tolerant to salinity, followed by hybrid HTR - 069. The hybrid LCR x TR - 001 was the most sensitive to salinity, due to damages in its PSII activity.
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Growth, production and water and nitrogen use efficiency of maize under water depths and nitrogen fertilization

Growth, production and water and nitrogen use efficiency of maize under water depths and nitrogen fertilization

Differences in NUE as a function of doses of N and water depths are reported in the literature. For example, Pandey et al. (2000), in a study with the maize crop, found increasing linear trend of NUE as a function of the irrigation depth. In this case, the higher water availability in the soil favored better N use by plants, through the increase in N absorption under conditions of total water supply, compared to the 57% reduction in the irrigation. However, Chilundo et al. (2016) found higher NUE values under conditions of lower water availability in treatments with 25% reduction in drip system; in this case, N losses were associated with the highest irrigation depths, which were larger than the storage capacity.
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