Top PDF Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

In this study, we have tested the simplest possible model to describe the data in individual participants. In particular, the HG volume we have used is likely to contain primary and secondary areas: we have previously argued [29] that there are three functional areas in the HG that correspond to the three macaque ‘‘core’’ areas A1, R, and RT. Kaas and Hacket [26] have described a macaque scheme based on a pattern of connectivity that extends from core to belt to parabelt areas. The connectivity structure of the serial model that was selected as optimal in this study is consistent with such a scheme, if PT contains the homologues of belt areas. However, the detailed pattern of interconnections within the HG could not be assessed in this dataset, as three distinct functional areas in the HG were not demonstrated in all the individual participants. The extent to which the analysis may involve several different functional areas within the HG before analysis occurring in the PT therefore cannot be determined. Like the HG, the PT is a large anatomical area, corre- sponding to the cytoarchitectonic area Te 3.0 [30], within which there may be a number of functional subdivisions. Homology with the macaque becomes even more difficult than in the case of core areas. One possibility is that there may be ‘‘belt homologue’’ areas in the PT adjacent to the three ‘‘core’’ areas suggested in the HG. The connectivity between the HG and the PT identified in this analysis would then be broadly congruent with the core-to-belt projections that have been identified in the macaque [26]. Recording work in the macaque suggests that more anterior belt areas are critical for auditory object analysis, although the distinction between anterior and posterior auditory areas is not as marked as in the case of spatial analysis [31]. Connections to the STS are much more difficult to character- ise in terms of homology, especially in view of the existence of three temporal gyri in the human and two in the macaque. Human functional data for the STS demonstrate complex cognitive analysis, including voice processing [32] and the integration of auditory and visual object information [33]. Whether or not the macaque homology holds, however, the other human studies suggest a role for the STS in associative analysis, whereas the serial analysis we have demonstrated is also hierarchal: perceptual analysis in the earlier areas (HG
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Processing of hierarchical syntactic strusture in music

Processing of hierarchical syntactic strusture in music

It is highly unlikely that the behavioral and ERP effects ob- served in our study were due to local processing (e.g., due to the application of an n-gram model): in Bach chorales, harmonic n-grams obey a Zipf distribution, and even 4- and 5-gram models are extremely sparse (40). That is, very few sequences appear relatively frequently, whereas most remaining sequences appear rarely, or even only once. If the effects observed in the present study were due to local processing, then participants must have processed at least 9-grams (in BWV 302) or even 10-grams (in BWV 373). However, 9- and 10-grams will be unique, even in a very large corpus, and therefore they could have been detected only if participants heard and memorized the chorales before the experiment (which was not the case in our sample). Conse- quently, our data show that participants applied cognitive pro- cesses that are capable of dealing with nonlocal dependencies. This conclusion is substantiated by several observations. First, the local difference between original and modified versions at the beginning of the second phrase (after the fermata; see Fig. 1) evoked an early negative and a later positive ERP effect. These effects can be explained by the different transition prob- abilities, as well as by possible sensory differences, at this point of the sequences. The ERP effects, however, did not propagate to subsequent events. This was demonstrated by the ERPs of both penultimate chords and prefinal tonics, which did not show any significant ERP effect of modified compared with original ver- sions. Second, although penultimate chords and prefinal tonics did not evoke any significant ERP effects, the hierarchical ir- regularities at the end of the sequences evoked negative ERP effects. This finding shows that these ERP effects were not due to local or sensory processing or to reactivation of sensory memory traces. None of the negative effects evoked by irregular final chords was observable already before the onset of the final chord. If the ERP effects evoked on the final chords were simply due to such local or sensory factors, then they should have been observed even more strongly on previous chords (which was not the case). Par- ticularly, the observation that the prefinal tonic chords (which were acoustically comparable with the final chords) did not evoke any negative effect renders it highly unlikely that effects evoked by the final chords were simply due to auditory sensory memory pro- cesses. Third, the ERP effects evoked by the final chords did not simply reflect a cortical reactivation of a representation of key established by the first chords (41) because such reactivation should already have occurred during the processing of the prefinal tonic, or the penultimate chord.
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Impaired Processing in the Primary Auditory Cortex of an Animal Model of Autism

Impaired Processing in the Primary Auditory Cortex of an Animal Model of Autism

The valproic acid (VPA) model of autism translates to the animal the prenatal exposure of embryos to the antiepileptic drug VPA, which is shown to significantly increase the odds of autistic births in humans (Christianson et al., 1994; Rodier et al., 1997; Williams et al., 2001; Miyazaki et al., 2005; Christensen et al., 2013). In animals exposed to VPA in utero, several autistic-like behaviors tend to appear including reduced social interaction, reduced sensitivity to pain, increased sensitivity to tactile stimuli, diminished acoustic prepulse inhibition, memory impairment/improvement, prolonged repetitive behaviors, altered anxiety and fear behaviors and hyperactivity (Schneider and Przewlocki, 2005; Markram et al., 2008; Bambini-Junior et al., 2011; Brandão and Romcy- Pereira, Unpublished; Edalatmanesh et al., 2013; Kataoka et al., 2013; Kim and Bao, 2013). Electrophysiologically, it was also shown that rats prenatally exposed to VPA in utero display changes in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)- mediated currents and synaptic plasticity of cortical neurons. Neonatal and adolescent VPA rats show reduced excitability and increased cortical plasticity, whereas adult rats have lower NMDA-mediated currents and reduced cortical LTP (Rinaldi et al., 2007; Silva et al., 2009; Walcott et al., 2011; Martin and Manzoni, 2014). Pups seem to have a higher degree of neuronal connectivity between cortical neurons (Rinaldi et al., 2008). At the cellular level, VPA rats can show reduced number of parvalbumin inhibitory neurons in the somatosensory cortex, impoverished cortical dendritic arborization and reduced dendritic spine distribution (Gogolla et al., 2009; Mychasiuk et al., 2012).
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Language evolution and recursion : an empirical investigation of human hierarchical processing

Language evolution and recursion : an empirical investigation of human hierarchical processing

Recursion has been an phenomenon of interest for scholars in many fields (Chomsky, 2010; Corballis, 2007; Eglash, 1997; Hauser et al., 2002; Hofstadter, 1980; Mandelbrot, 1977; Penrose, 1989), and has been associated with the unbounded character of human creativity and generative capacity. However, little is known about its psychological nature and biological implementation. While hierarchies in several domains, such as in music, language, motor sequencing, problem solving, architecture, etc, can be described as being generated by recursive rules (Eglash, 1997, 1998; Eisenberg, 2008; Jackendoff & Lerdahl, 2006; Miller, 2009; Pulvermüller & Fadiga, 2010; Schiemenz, 2002), the human ability to represent hierarchical self-similarity in these different domains, that is, to what extent humans actually extract recursive principles while parsing recursive structures, remains mostly untested. Furthermore, while there have been some attempts to describe recursion as a cognitive module akin to an encapsulated system in the brain, (Chomsky, 1995, 2010), there is no empirical evidence currently either supporting or challenging this view. Although the place of recursion in the broader human and animal cognitive architectures has been a topic of intense discussion, unfortunately there is little empirical data available outside of language to support any of the different current claims (Corballis, 2007; Fitch, Hauser, & Chomsky, 2005; Gentner, Fenn, Margoliash, & Nusbaum, 2006; Hauser et al., 2002; Jackendoff & Pinker, 2005; Pinker & Jackendoff, 2005).
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Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr.  vol.68 número4

Arq. NeuroPsiquiatr. vol.68 número4

Initially, an anamnesis was performed with each par- ticipant to obtain personal data related to the history of the disease (MS), use of medications and hearing devel- opment. Information gathered during the anamnesis was conirmed by neurologists. All participants of the RG un- derwent MRI and received interferon beta 1a drug treat- ment. Of the 25 subjects evaluated, besides the character- istic lesions of MS in the central semi-oval center, two had sclerotic plaques in the regions that generate the brainstem auditory evoked potentials. It was determined from the subjects’ medical histories that the average duration of dis- ease was four years and three months. Patients were evalu- ated for MS 12 outbreaks up until the time of data collection
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Speech-evoked Brainstem Auditory Responses and Auditory Processing Skills: A Correlation in Adults with Hearing Loss

Speech-evoked Brainstem Auditory Responses and Auditory Processing Skills: A Correlation in Adults with Hearing Loss

Conversely, all subjects showed normality in the MLD test (►Table 2). The main hypothesis for this fact is that the generating site for the selective attention skill is located in the lower brainstem. 4 It is thus clear, in the present study, that the speech-evoked ABR does not depend on these structures. Therefore, these subjects have a physiological alteration in the auditory pathway, as detected by the waves of the speech-evoked ABR, but they have normal responses in the behavioral test. Thus, they show a division of neural function in the brainstem. A recent study 23 sought to relate the results of 30 adult subjects with normal hearing, with complaints of difficulty in speech comprehension, in the MLD test and in the speech-evoked ABR. It also found a higher number of alterations in the electrophysiological assess- ment. Again, this fact shows the independence of the struc- tures of the auditory pathway.
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Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study

Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study

Adults from both genders, aged between 18 and 40 years, were recruited via an advertisement in local community (São Paulo city). All the participants were assessed by the same headache specialist, at out-patient Division of Investigation and Treatment of Headaches (DITH), at the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). They were divided into two groups according to the Inter- national Headache Classification (ICDH-3 beta) criteria [22], confirmed by a completed 30-day filled headache diary: migraine with aura group (MA) and migraine without aura group (MwA). The control group (CG) had no previous history of headaches in the year prior to the study, and no migraine headaches in their lifetime.
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Staggered spondaic word test in epileptic patients

Staggered spondaic word test in epileptic patients

All patients underwent pure tone audiom- etry and acoustic emittance measurements. Il- literate patients whose hearing thresholds were outside of normal limits and patients with brain lesions confirmed via imaging tests (computer- ized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) were excluded from the study group. The subjects thus selected underwent the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW) in Portu- guese, i.e. a staggered dichotic word test. SSW test results from normal populations studied by Santos (1993) 8 and Câmara (1998) 9 were

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Sociol. Antropol.  vol.5 número3

Sociol. Antropol. vol.5 número3

One of the first things that stands out in this preliminary and partial presen- tation of the two areas is how the crystallization of conceptual languages (some Indigenous, others anthropological) in the ethnographies of each one can either favour approximations or inhibit the perceptions of parallels on a more abstract level (one, therefore, distant from particular ethnographic tra- ditions). For instance, while the literature on the Upper Xingu has practically naturalized the use of the concept of ‘shame’ to refer to the ethic of social relations in the region (whether in inter-personal or inter-group relations), this concept can reappear under the banner of ‘respect’ in the Rio Negro (‘shame’ being absent from the local lexicon). Another example is the cate- gorical claim, of both the Xinguanos and their researchers, that ‘ritual takes the place of war’ – something which, although it is not explicitly said in the context of the Rio Negro, nor is it an issue in the ethnographies, is certainly applicable to the region. This seems to be the message of the origin myth of the ceremonial exchanges of the Barasana. Furthermore, the term ‘owner’ is common in the Upper Xingu, but practically absent from the Rio Negro. How- ever, the ‘owner’ position and the relations that it implies, which are salient in the ritual life of the Upper Xingu, would also be pertinent in the Rio Negro, above all in quotidian life, such as, for example, in the role of the ‘owners of the longhouse’ in the organization of cultivation, fishing and construction. These agents also act in the organization of feasts, but with the aid of other ritual specialists, such as chanters, dancers and shamans. In sum, themes that are important in the ethnology of one region drive us to inquire into their relevance for the other, and to shed light on the questions that, in the- ory, may not have held the same interest in each one. One of the challenges, then, is to relate these vast regional systems through the different narrative styles through which they have been described since the 1960’s, and to de- velop a conceptual language that can account for their differences and simi- larities without, thereby, remaining stuck within the terms of one ethno- graphic region.
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Treinamento auditivo acusticamente controlado em pacientes com neurofibromatose tipo 1

Treinamento auditivo acusticamente controlado em pacientes com neurofibromatose tipo 1

Introduction: Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show auditory processing deficits related to their overarching language impairment. Auditory training (AT) acoustically controlled may potentially alleviate these deficits through training-induced improvements in auditory processing (AP). Objectives: Verify the efficacy of AT in NF1 patients with auditory processing disorder (APD) and verify the maintenance of auditory skills trained one year after the end of the intervention in this population. Methods: To assess the efficacy of AT on auditory function in individual with NF1, auditory behavioral tests performance (speech in noise - SN, staggered spondaic word - SSW, duration patterns - DP and gaps in noise - GIN) were collected from 2 groups (G1 – individuals with NF1 and G2 – individuals without NF1) who completed 8-week AT program and were revaluated after 12- weeks from the initial assessment. The G1 was revaluated after one-year that finish the AT to prove the maintenance of auditory training. This group was called G3. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test to compare inter-group differences before and after training and the Wilcoxon test to verify intra-group differences. Statistical significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05. Results: The groups G1, G2 and G3 were composed of 22, 11 and 13 individuals, respectively. All participants presented normal auditory peripheral hearing, but altered central AP. The comparison between the evaluations made before and after the AT pointed a statistically significant result for SN right ear (RE) (p = 0.000), SN left ear (LE) (p = 0.004), SSW RE (p = 0.001), SSW LE (p = 0.000), GIN RE (p = 0.027) and GIN RE (p = 0,038), suggesting improvement in auditory closure, figure-ground and temporal resolution abilities, respectively. No improvements were observed in PD humming (p = 0.073) and PD labeling (p = 0.572). Comparisons between G1 and G2 indicate that the groups were similar before the intervention and remained similar after AT, except for the DP humming test (p = 0.013). It was observed in G3 that trained auditory skills were maintained one year after the end of the AT. Conclusions: These results provide an indication of the efficacy of training in auditory closure, figure-ground and auditory resolution abilities, and that these benefits keep one year after the end of the AT.
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High-Field Functional Imaging of Pitch Processing in Auditory Cortex of the Cat.

High-Field Functional Imaging of Pitch Processing in Auditory Cortex of the Cat.

All stimuli were generated in MatLab (MathWorks) and presented at 85 dB SPL using in- house custom software (Microsoft Visual Studio) on a Dell laptop through an external Roland Corporation soundcard (24-bit/96kHz; Model UA-25EX) and Pyle Pro external amplifier (Model PCAU11) to MRI-compatible foam earphone inserts (Sensimetric Model S14). The narrowband Gaussian noise (NBN) stimulus was 400 ms in duration and covered a ¼ octave band centered at 10 kHz (48 dB/octave band pass filter, 10 ms linear onset/offset ramps). The IRN stimulus was generated by first creating a 1s Gaussian noise. This noise sample was then duplicated and added to itself following a 2.5ms delay. This delay-and-add process was repeated 16 times to create a stimulus with a perceivable pitch of 400 Hz. This process resulted in a 1040 ms stimulus that increased in amplitude gradually over the first 40 ms and decreased gradually over the last 40 ms. To correct for this, the first and last 320 ms were removed to cre- ate a 400 ms stimulus with equal amplitude across its entire duration. Finally, the IRN stimulus was band pass filtered to match the spectral range of the narrowband noise stimulus (a ¼ octave band centered at 10 kHz, 48 dB/octave filter) and 10 ms onset and offset ramps were applied. In addition, an IRNo stimulus was generated as described by Barker and colleagues [11]. In short, the IRN stimulus described above was sampled with a rectangular window with duration equal to the IRN delay (2.5 ms). A fast Fourier transform (FFT) was used to determine the phase and amplitude spectra of the sample and phase components were randomized. An inverse FFT was then used to regenerate the time representation. The analysis window was advanced by 2.5 ms and this process was repeated through the duration of the stimulus. The regenerated samples were concatenated (preserving onset times) to create a 400 ms IRNo stim- ulus with fine structure information (and resulting pitch percept) removed. The IRNo stimulus was band pass filtered to match the spectral range of the IRN and narrowband noise stimuli, and 10 ms linear onset and offset ramps were applied. This limited bandwidth minimized interference between the stimuli used in the current study and scanner noise, which is largest at lower frequencies, while ensuring stimuli were well within the normal range of feline hear- ing. Moreover, the pitch percept evoked by IRN stimuli is dependent upon temporal repetition rather than resolvable spectral content such that traditional spectral and temporal envelope models of pitch perception are unable to explain the perception of IRN pitch [21]. Thus, high- pass filtering has a minimal impact on the pitch percept of IRN stimuli. Each of the stimulus types (NBN, IRN, IRNo) were presented in bursts consisting of 30 repetitions of the 400 ms stimulus with a 100 ms interstimulus interval (ISI), for a total block duration of 15 s.
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Rev. CEFAC  vol.19 número1

Rev. CEFAC vol.19 número1

In Volume 19 (1), CEFAC - Speech, Language, Hearing Sciences and Education Journal presents 14 articles from the Southeast, South and Northeast regions of Brazil, as well as 1 article from Chile, totaling 15 research publications with their regional characteristics, in different specialties of Speech Therapy.

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Lessac, Cristina Loureiro Chaves Solderaa, Maria Inês Dornelles da Costa Ferreirad, Márcia Salgado Machadoa, ∗

Lessac, Cristina Loureiro Chaves Solderaa, Maria Inês Dornelles da Costa Ferreirad, Márcia Salgado Machadoa, ∗

This systematic review shows the need to develop screening tools for CAP function for the adult and elderly populations, as they are currently restricted to the pediatric population. Regarding the study translation, adaptation and/or validation processes, it is essential to clarify the analysis of the results and parameters of normality of each tool for the Brazilian population, since these limitations were found in most studies found in the ‘‘gray literature’’. New studies with greater methodological stringency should be carried out and published for the purpose of demonstrating reliability, supporting evidence-based prac- tice and disseminating the use another auxiliary tool in the diagnosis of CAPD, which will allow the use of such tools in clinical practice.
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Rev. CEFAC  vol.17 número3

Rev. CEFAC vol.17 número3

It is a prospective, longitudinal and contemporary study. The instrument of study is an initial question- naire containing data of the subject, time of sensory deprivation (period between the irst diagnosis of hearing loss and the use of hearing aid) and daily time of use of hearing aid (informed by participant and confronted with the programming software of the hearing aid device); also, the records of the results of the following tests- Speech in Noise, the conventional and the expanded RGDT (the latter performed just in case the patient is not able to meet the conventional test) and Dichotic Digit.
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A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON SEGMENTATION SCALE SPACE AND RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFIER

A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON SEGMENTATION SCALE SPACE AND RANDOM FOREST CLASSIFIER

Object creation through the segmentation algorithm is a main processing step in object-based image analysis process. It highly depends on the segmentation scale parameter. In this paper, a new framework is proposed for estimating segmentation scale parameter. This method uses the primary land cover maps obtained by classical pixel-based classifier in order to estimate the proper scale for each land cover class and generate the SSS. SSS is then optimized using the NDVI and the DSM data in each object in different scales. Finally, RF classifier is employed in order to produce the final land cover map. The evaluations demonstrate that SSS optimization process produces image objects comparable with those produced by ESP tools. Moreover the potential of proposed method is demonstrated in extracting land cover information. As expected, setting proper scale parameter for segmentation of small objects, such as cars, is more effective in final classification. Here, we see our solution causes to significantly improvement of F1-score for impervious surface, car and tree land cover classes.
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en 2317 1782 codas 29 6 e20170038

en 2317 1782 codas 29 6 e20170038

Purpose: To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech luency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders. Methods: The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: luency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The “Wilcoxon Signal Post” test was used in the intragroup analysis and “Mann-Whitney” test in the intergroup analysis. Results : The DAF caused a statistically signiicant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically signiicant effects on SGAPD luency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders. Conclusion: The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech luency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in luency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.
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J. Soc. Bras. Fonoaudiol.  vol.24 número1 en v24n1a08

J. Soc. Bras. Fonoaudiol. vol.24 número1 en v24n1a08

Purpose: This study compared the temporal processing performance of children with phonological disorders submitted to formal and informal auditory training. Methods: Fifteen subjects with phonological disorder (pure tone thresholds ≤20 dBHL from 0.50 to 4 kHz, and age between 7 years and 10 years and 11 months) were evaluated, divided into three groups: Control Group: five subjects (mean age 9.1 years) without auditory processing disorder, who passed through two evaluations of the auditory processing at intervals of six to eight weeks and without any intervention; Formal Training Group with five subjects (average 8.3 years) with audi- tory processing disorder submitted to eight sessions of formal training; and Informal Training Group, with five subjects (average 8.1 years) with auditory processing disorder submitted to eight sessions of informal training. Results: After eight sessions the formal training group showed an improvement of 8% and the informal train- ing group of 22.5% in comparison with the pitch pattern sequence test. For the duration pattern sequence test, the average of the formal training group improved by 12.9% and the informal training group by 18.7%. There was no statistical difference between the means obtained by both groups after intervention, neither in the pitch pattern nor in the duration pattern sequence test. Conclusion: Although the results did not present significant differences, this pilot study suggests that both formal and informal trainings provide improvement in the tem- poral processing abilities of children with phonological and auditory processing disorders.
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A corticothalamic circuit model for sound identification in complex scenes.

A corticothalamic circuit model for sound identification in complex scenes.

Two types of neuronal responses in auditory cortex ICPA makes a prediction about two types of behaviors in cortical cells, with one type encoding the error in the presence parameters and a second type encoding the associated uncertainty. We postulate that these two populations could be distinguished by their levels of spontaneous activity and we found that the spontaneous activity can be used to determine the level of adaption, which according to iCPA differs for the two cell populations. There are two pairs of known candidates. One pair consists of the fast spiking interneurons and the regular spiking neurons in which fast spiking interneurons have higher firing rates than regular spiking neurons [20]. The other pair are lower layer cells and upper layer cells in which lower layer cells have higher spontaneous firing rates than upper layer cells [9,21]. According to iCPA, the high spontaneous cells drive the behavior of the low spontaneous ones. Therefore, the high spontaneous population should have shorter sound evoked latencies than the low spontaneous ones. In fact, the fast spiking neurons have been reported to have shorter latencies than regular spiking neurons [31] and lower layer neurons also have shorter latencies than upper layer neurons [21]. Selective recordings of these populations of neurons during the performance of sound identification tasks in complex scenes might narrow down the possible populations that are involved in representing uncertainty and the error in the parameters.
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Determination Of Longevity Of Teeth In Buckets Of Loading Equipment In Coal Mines - A Case Study

Determination Of Longevity Of Teeth In Buckets Of Loading Equipment In Coal Mines - A Case Study

Abstract: The life of bucket teeth in shovel and dragline deployed in handling of overburden rock is an important contributor to the stores cost and is also responsible for the loss of valuable availability and utilisation time of these critical equipment. To ascertain the effect of rock type on longevity of bucket teeth, a study has been conducted in two large opencast mines of Singrauli Coalfields. The results of this study is presented in this paper. There was a significant variation as compared to the actual figures of the mine, it establish useful relationship between the type of mineral present in the overburden and the life of bucket teeth of shovel and dragline.
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Braz. j. .  vol.79 número6

Braz. j. . vol.79 número6

component is the central executive system, which has attention resources that enable the execution of concurrent tasks needed in different problem situations, such as mathematical problem solving, text reading comprehension, etc. In the current study, the Frequency Pattern Test was applied by means of a verbal response. This type of response requires the individual to memorize the association between the name (low or high) and the specific sound, ensuring a correct naming of the sound, while memorizing the sequence of sounds heard in order to sort the stimuli in their order of appearance. The hypothesis is that perhaps the concurrent execution of these tasks involves the working memory, which could explain the correlation. Moreover, if we consider the relationship between working memory and reading tasks such as reading comprehension, we could suggest that perhaps the subgroup of children with dyslexia who had alterations in this type of memory is more prone to exhibit poor performance in tests like this.
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