From the principle of current mirror circuit, when designing to rectifiercircuit it able to show the structure of completely high-precisionmulti-waverectifiercircuitoperatinginlowvoltage + 1.5 Voltcurrentmode as figure 2. The structure compound with high-speed current comparator
In many applications power density is an important criterion [1-4]. The demand for decreasing cost and volume leads to increasing power density . Earlier it has been proposed that voltage doubler and current doubler plays an important factor in improving power density [1-2]. In this paper phase shift converter circuit with transformer and full waverectifier replaced by current doubler rectifier is used so as to enhance the power density at lower cost. The voltage doubler is also simulated in the same way. This paper deals with some basic background in phase shifted timing fundamentals of the synchronous rectifier . Switched mode power supplies are used, as they offer designs that are compact, light, and operate over a wide voltage range. With large power requirements, a voltage doubling circuit is generally required for multi voltagesets. The most expensive components in the voltage doubling circuit are the electrolytic capacitors, which are rated at 400V in order to comply with safety requirements. The 400V rating is required to ensure safe operation under fault conditions. Under normal operating conditions, a voltage rating of 250V is adequate. This paper proposes a novel approach to meet the safety requirements, while using 250V electrolytics. This is achieved with an overvoltage protection circuit, which activates when the voltage across an electrolytic exceeds its safe operatingvoltage. The main benefit of using this circuit is to reduce cost. Highvoltage electrolytics are very expensive components. Electrolytics rated at 400V can be more than double the cost of the ones rated at 250V.
This present is show the circuit, it has component with a little of transistor, noncomplex in working function, dissipation of current source, working at input currentmode, output signal is half-waverectifiercircuitin dual phase, without the reflection of temperature with + 1.5 V lowvoltage and it not chance the structure of circuit. The result of testing it able to guarantee a quality of working function at maximum frequency 100 MHz, maximum output current 400 µA p-p ,
memristor presented in this paper reveals an ambiguity of its port equation, which may cause non-convergence, nu- merical errors, and non-physical solutions during time- domain simulation. As there is no easy fix of the original model a new behavioral approximation of static I-V char- acteristics has been proposed. The approximation matches well the original model and is unambiguous.
DOE is a systematic approach to experimentation, focused on the data collection stage, to determine the relationship between factors affecting a process and the corresponding output that has one or more observable responses. Taguchi method is an experimental design that uses statistical methods to analyse the process parameters, designated as factors, and indicate the most influents and how they affect the selected response . Low and high levels of factors are commonly referred to as 1 and 2 . Taguchi suggested the S/N ratio as a measure of quality characteristics deviating from or near to the desired values. In order to evaluate the significance of the parameters used in the process, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied in a statistical study of Taguchi’s method. Analysis of variance is a statistical hypothesis testing whose purpose is to test for significant differences between means. The results of the analysis are presented in a table (ANOVA table) that determines the most relevant parameters for the process through the sources that contribute to the total variation in the data values.
electronic tunability of the filter parameters. High-order filters using bipolar junction transistor-based DO-CCCII were presented in . Each DO-CCCII uses 20 transistors without including the DC bias current. Since the number of DO-CCCII is equal to the order of the filter +1, then it is obvious that the proposed circuit requires a large number of bipolar junction transistors. Moreover, because of the de- pendence on the parasitic resistances at terminals x of the DO-CCCIIs, the parameters of the circuit are temperature dependent. Another topology for implementing high-order filters using CMOS-based DO-ICCII was introduced in . Each ICCII uses 16 MOSFETs in addition to special bias voltages applied to the gates of two transistors. Of course these bias voltages can be obtained from the DC supply voltages, but this requires additional circuits. Since the number of ICCII equal the order of the required filter +1, then it is obvious that the area on the chip will be very large. Moreover, the circuit does not enjoy independent control of its parameters. High order voltagemode circuits are also available; see for example . The circuitin  suffers from the classical disadvantages of the operation involtagemode; that is the complicated circuits required for realizing summation and subtraction. Moreover, the circuit uses floating passive elements which is not attractive for integration. Thus, it appears that there is a need for new designs of high-order LPFs enjoying the following attrac- tive features: use of less number of active and passive components, avoid the use of resistors, enjoy the electronic tunability of the filter parameters and are suitable for inte- gration.
Introduction : In recent years, a rapid development of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells initiated and the power conversion efficiencies of BHJ solar cells increased continuously. However, the power conversion efficiencies of BHJ polymer solar cells are still a factor four lower compared to inorganic semiconductor devices. At present, the typical device structure of bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells consists of two randomly orientated, disordered interpenetrating networks consisting of a semiconducting polymeric donor and an organic acceptor making the photovoltaic active layer sandwiched between two asymmetrical work function metal electrodes [1, 2].
Abstract -This is an attempt to simulate the concept of average access time of the memory system by using some analog devices (operational amplifiers) whose behaviour is similar to the mathematical operations e.g. summation, integration, differentiation, scaling etc. We can calculate the average access time with this analog method with high speed and high degree of versatality. This paper evaluates the three most common parameters of the Memory system i.e access time of the RAM, access time of Cache memory and the Cache hit ratio. Basically, the voltages in the high-gain dc amplifiers are equated to these three variables and the operational amplifiers can do the mathematical operations on the voltages, athough the accuracy of measuring voltage is limited to certain point. The simulation has been done using CircuitMaker.
The use of the recently developed power control mechanisms, called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms, has led to increasing the efficiency of operation of the solar modules. Therefore, MPPT is efficient in the field of exploitation of renewable sources of energy [MPPT technics]. Maximum power point tracking is a DC-to-DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar array (PV modules) and the battery bank or utility grid. It converts a higher voltage DC output from solar PV arrays or modules down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries and vice versa. Maximum Power Point Tracking is an electronic arrangement that routinely finds the voltage (V MPP ) or current (I MPP ) at which PV modules should operate to achieve
operating frequency than compared footed domino logic gates resulting in a improved EDP of 20 times better than standard inverter. Further comparisons to CMOS has been elaborated in , which also strengthen the ULV gates potential. Furthermore, this gate has been used in the field of power analysis and it has been found to be able to camouflage its instantaneous current dissipation due to the clock drivers . Extracting the joint advan- tages of this particular ULV gate, we find the combina- tion of high speed and lowvoltage giving quite good EDP numbers than other known similar logic, such as CMOS and footed domino logic. Although, the ULV inverter is presented here, there are published work on other logical gates, such as NAND and NOR .
stability should be combined in a modified circuit topology. The novel 16-transistor SRAM cell, as shown in Fig. 5, re- duces the total leakage current by a factor of 200 compared to a common 6-transistor cell (Schmitz, 2002). Read and write performance are not affected. Additionally, its soft error sta- bility, i.e. the critical charge injection before an error occurs, is five times higher than that of a standard SRAM cell.
With the expanding human population, the demand for energy is increasing continuously, and the sustainable energy supply is arising as one of major problems of 21 st century. By the year 2050, the expected world population will be 10.6 billion and the energy demand will also become double because of industrialization of societies and better life standard. But, the currently serving fossil fuel resources are limited and causing global warming and environmental issues, so, the scientific society is trying to explore environmental friendly energy resources. Now, the efficient production of clean and sustainable energy is the most provoking challenge of coming few decades [1–4]. To meet the future energy challenges, the thermoelectric phenomena can play an important role, which involve the conversion of heat to electricity and endow with the methods for materials heating and cooling . The sustainability of the electricity can also be improved by scavenging of waste heat from industrial processes, factories, power plants, automotive exhaust computers, home heating and even from the human body by the use of thermoelectric generators [4–6].
A currentmode sample and hold circuit is presented in this paper at 180nm technology. The major concerns of VLSI are area, power, delay and speed. Hence, we have used a MOSFET in triode region in the proposed architecture for voltage to current conversion instead of a resistor being used in previously proposed circuit. The proposed circuit achieves high sampling frequency and with more accuracy than the previous one. The performance of the proposed circuit is depicted in the form of simulation results.
igh Throughput Satellites (HTS) and particularly Ka- band satellite communication systems are presenting new challenges in space and ground segments . Wideband and high selectivity dual-band filters are required in this context to cover both transmission and reception frequency bands. As an example for the space segment, its use is suggested in  to enable increasing the number of reflector feeds using polarization and frequency diversity. Since both 20 and 30 GHz frequency bands are divided into adjacent sub-bands, dual-wideband filters with high selectivity are mandatory to ensure proper isolation. To the authors’ best knowledge, no dual-wideband and high selective filter is found in literature, which is dedicated for Ka-band satelitte systems.
method. After furnace heating, the upper temperature (start- ing ampoule position) was maintained at about 40 °C above the melting point (408 °C) of the compound. The crystal growth was performed by dropping the ampoule at a rate of about 2 mm/h through a cooling gradient of 10 °C/cm. This growth results in a PbI 2 single crystal (30 mm length and 8
During the ablation equipment development phase, the equipment was calibrated using the RMS values for voltage and current. However, to obtain the declared power, in compliance with the standard NBR-IEC 60601-2-2 (Associação…, 2013), the RMS power was applied in conjunction with the CF obtained at each point of the curve. These adjustments consider small distortions of the equipment’s output signal to avoid performing a rough approximation by multiplying the value by 2 . To guarantee test robustness, the temperature of the power transformer was monitored using a GM320 digital pyrometer and maintained at approximately 50 °C. Thus, it was possible to verify that the power transformer operated within the technical characteristics defined during development. The temperature was required to not exceed 80 °C in order to avoid power loss due to excess temperature.
Abstract — Purpose: CMOS devices are scaling down to nano ranges resulting in increased process variations and short channel effects which not only affect the reliability of the device but also performance expectations. The SRAM design uses the smallest transistors possible and is also susceptible to reliability issues and process variations, making it an ideal benchmark circuit to compare the two technologies . Low power static-random access memories (SRAM) have become a critical component in modern VLSI systems. They occupy a large portion of area and accounts for a major component of power consumption in today’s VLSI circuits. In this paper we intend to analyse the performance of a traditional 6T SRAM cell of 16nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology with change inOperatingVoltage and Temperature.
Abstract: Problem statement: Voltage disturbances are the most common power quality problem due to the increased use of a large numbers of sophisticated electronic equipment in industrial distribution system. The voltage disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, harmonics, unbalance and flickers. High quality in the power supply is needed, since failures due to such disturbances usually have a high impact on production cost. There are many different solutions to compensate voltage disturbances but the use of a DVR is considered to be the most cost effective method. The objective of this study is to propose a new topology of a DVR in order to mitigate voltage swells using a powerful power custom device namely the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). Approach: New configuration of a DVR with an improvement of a controller based on direct-quadrature-zero method has been introduced to compensate voltage swells in the network. Results: The effectiveness of the DVR with its controller were verify using Matlab/Simulink’s SimPower Toolbox and then implemented using 5KVA DVR experimental setup. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effective dynamic performance of the proposed configuration. Conclusion: The implimentation of the proposed DVR validate the capabilities in mitigating of voltage swells effectiveness.During voltage swells, the DVR injects an appropriate voltage to maintain the load voltage at its nominal value.
For VLSI designer‟s power consumption has become a very important issue. Sequential logic circuits, such as registers, memory elements, counters etc., are heavily used in the implementation of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits . Power dissipation is critical for battery-operated systems, such as laptops, calculators, cell phones and MP3 players since it determines the battery life. Therefore, designs are needed that can consume less power while maintaining comparable performance. Flip-flop is a data storage element. The operation of the flip-flops is done by its clock frequency  . When multistage Flip-Flop is operated with respect to clock frequency, it processes with high clock switching activity and then increases time latency. Therefore it affects the speed and energy performance of the circuit . Various classes of flip-flops have been proposed to achieve high-speed and low-energy operation . In the past decades, many works has been dedicated to improve the performance of the flip-flops. Latches and flip-flops are the basic elements for storing information. The flip-flops and latches could be grouped under the static and dynamic design styles. The former type of designs dissipates lower power and the latter type includes the modern high performance flip-flops . Several hybrid flip-flop designs have been proposed to reduce the power and delay. Some flip-flops analyzed here are PowerPC 603 flip-flop, Semi-dynamic flip-flop (SDFF), Conditional data mapping flip-flop (CDMFF), Cross charge control flip-flop (XCFF) and Dual dynamic node hybrid flip-flop (DDFF). For a design engineer the trade-off of any of these flip-flops is very important when designing a circuit. Therefore a flip-flop which meets the designer requirements have to be developed.A new dual dynamic based flip-flop is presented in this paper which involves clock gating for further power reduction. The clock gating technique  has been developed to avoid unnecessary power consumptions, like the power wasted by timing components during the time when the system is idle.
The results are compared, shows Figure.2, which explains the speed of the rotor in the combination of diode rectifier and inverter which will get stop working after 1.8 ms and hence the output get affected. In Figure.3, explains the speed of the rotor in the combination of Vienna rectifier and Z- source inverter added three phase ground fault disturbance is given by this method motor can run continuously even though it has very minimum rotor speed oscillation. Waveforms are analyzed and compared as shown in Table.1