Abs tra c t. The article exam ines the historical aspect of the tolerance phenom enon research, particularly the study of tolerancein the age of Antiquity, Middle Ages, New Tim es, Enlightenm ent. It is rem arkable that the problem of tolerance, em erged in Western civilization on religious grounds, laid the foundation for all other freedom s, attained in m any countries. Besides, the article attaches special attention to the researchers of the East, such as Abu Nasr al-Farabi, Khoja Ahm ed Yasawi, studies the historical aspect of works by Kazakhstan thinkers A. Kunanbayev, C. Valikhanova, K.B. Zharikbayev, S.K. Kaliyev, A.N. Nysanbayev, A.I. Artem ev and others. The analysis of historicalresearch of the tolerance phenom enon brings the author to the conclusion that religious freedom was the starting point for the em ergence of new areas of tolerance display. The content of this phenom enon changed according to the historical peculiarities of the societies’ developm ent.
Let us take as an example a case of simple, yet specific inheritance of a sensory ability such as the ability to taste the PTC substance (present in pickles) as either bitter or tasteless. The proportion of non-tasters ranges from 20 % in African population up to 30 % in European descendants. The ability to taste PTC as bitter is highly specific in that the substance can be recognised by the “taster” only when dissolved in his own saliva and it is therefore not related to overall taste acuity . Cytowic claims that it is not naive to seek a single-gene determinant for synesthetic ability. The argument for such an assumption are current cases, in which a specific gene determines the occurrence of a complex mental phenomenon, as for instance in Tourette’s syndrome, in types of X-linked mental deficits, colour blindness and inherited deafness. Results of the tests done on twins suggest the high influence of the hereditary components on susceptibility for certain visual illusions, eidetic (photographic) memory, various optical illusions (afterimages), spatial orientation and for flicker fusion frequency . Similar examples are certain strongly expressed talents. One of the talents that are supposed to be inherited is the musical ability. The family trees of world’s famous musicians such as Bach, Mozart and Beethoven speak in favour of such claims. For this kind of inherited ability it is characteristic to emerge early in life, to improve steadily, and persevere among the gifted, independently from the circumstances. A similar development may be spotted in synesthetes as well in terms of possessing a memory of their trait that goes way back into early childhood and is perceived as a natural part of their perception (the latter applies to the developmental synesthesia but not to the acquired one) .
Numerous of political, economic and social changes in latest decades of the XX-th century, the beginning of the XXI-st century have changed essentially the world picture and were at the obvious transformation of international relations. Following attentively on global changes, we are witnessing of rapid changes in geopolitics content. If in the past states and peoples were isolated, atomized, today they are under the conditions of mutual contacts, of interdependent relations. It appears the new integration groups, diversification of organizational forms, and evolution from simplistic models to more complex ones. As a result, the integration processes comprised virtually all regions and states, contributing thus to the formation of new international “matrix”. An historical impetus has been made by The European Union. The beginning of formation is considered to be the April 18, 1951, when six European countries (France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) signed the Treaty of Paris. The main goal of this international body consisted in creating a common space to unite all the states through a customs union and free movement of goods in the Member States, by canceling taxes and other barriers to trade, free movement of capital, services and people, creating a single monetary policy and aid to developing states.
The presented historical synoptic and brief review of the present state point out that this unexplored immigrant population in South America represents a complex phenomenon, a community which identity has embedded various historical, political, cultural, religious and ideological layers.
The study of different tolerance levels also provides a cautionary tale on the use of ABC. As its name indicates it approximates the posterior distributions, and the method needs additional parameters such as the tolerance level τ. It means that τ also needs to be explored, as any other parameter. Results of the case study are a good example of the need of this exploration, as Bayes Factors for τ = 0.05 are radically different than the other two values. Any study using ABC should acknowledge this issue and integrate this discussion in the experiment design. Computational models are becoming a relevant quantitative tool for historicalresearch. This new approach allows historians to evaluate the plausibility of competing hypotheses beyond what has been discussed in natural language. It is clear that History presents a unique set of issues and challenges to formal modelling, often related to the uncertainty of the datasets collected by the researchers. In this context, the integration of model selection methods such as ABC with new datasets and computer models can provide solutions to some of the current debates of the discipline.
A few years later a new diagnostic of the interaction between history and digital technology seemed to point towards the same conclusion. Although it did not deny that digital tools had brought changes in terms of society, daily behavior, information seeking, forms of communication, and even changes in how we ‘research, write, present, and teach about the past,’ in 2005 the authors stated that this interaction was still far from a ‘revolution.’ The profusion of web sites about history, the strong growth of publishing sources online, and the fact that a signiﬁcant number of specialty journals already had a presence on the world wide web were all highlighted as positive aspects. With this the possibility glimmered that historians could, through digital technology’s ‘capacity, accessibility, ﬂexibility, diversity, manipulability, interactivity, and hypertextuality,’ undertake better, richer investigations. However, they pointed to the risks inherent in this digital history, that it could settle for ‘quality, durability, readability (. . . ) and inaccessibility’ of information, and also the ‘passivity’ of the reader. 8
variables may constitute an important pillar for the discussion of the regional integration process in Mercosur and the resulting debate about the future institutional framework of it, even though Best does not provide a method to connect the complexity variables with a specific institutional construct. This may be rather advantageous due to the fact that none (European) integration theory is entirely feasible for the Mercosur case and consequently the Best‟s complexity variables may induce new perspectives. The following comparative research pretends to analyze systematically the different integration systems applied in the European Union and the Mercosur, especially revealing the integration targets, strategies and the resulting institutional framework, comparing supranationalism in the European Union with intergovernmentalism in Mercosur. The first part introduces the concepts of supranationalism, sovereignty and intergovernmentalism. The second part describes the different regional integration concepts in the European Union and Mercosur and analyzes the experiences with supranationalism in the European integration process. Among the decelerated and partly deadlocked integration process in the Mercosur arises the question if supranationalism could be an exit for the today‟s challenges. This will be approached in the third part. Do the distinct cultural, historical and political aspectsin the member countries of Mercosur impede the implementation of a supranational framework or can the EU institutional model be applied to another regional integration project, namely the Mercosur? It may hardly depend on the integration objectives of the Mercosur‟s member leaders and how deep they want the integration process to continue.
The teaching of Mathematics in the Early Years has been gaining ground, especially in the case of researches focused on improving teaching and learning. This study presents excerpts from a master's research that aims to interfere in the mathematical pedagogical practice of teachers from the earliest years based on epistemological terms in the History of Mathematics (HM) through the presuppositions of certain researches in HM and pedagogically in the ausubelian theory seeking to elaborate a didactic proposal to be used as didactic resource. The intent of proposing conditions to promote changes in the practice of these teachers and to deepen their understanding of fundamental operations defined the option for the action research as qualitative approach. The results obtained after the analysis of the data indicate that the elaborated didactic proposal can be qualified as a potentially significant material for the teaching of Square Root.
This article aims to epistemologically ratify the conventional demystification of the Middle Ages as the “Dark Ages”. To this end, culture and education were listed as the main categories of analysis in this historical period. It is a research constructed through literature review in peculiar theoretical references. The deductive method was used, accompanied by a qualitative approach. The article is divided into four topics. The first makes a general exposition of the text. The second debate on cultural and educational aspectsin the High Middle Ages. The third discusses the same aspects as in the Early Middle Ages. Finally, the fourth contemplates some judgments of value over all the textual composite. The results demonstrate that, instead of a period of “darkness”, the Middle Ages should be classified as a fertile period in cultural and educational aspects, when school and university systems are founded, legacies that continue to this day.
With these brief remarks I have tried to provide clues to the way in which I will approach the issue of the transformation from „Computing for the Humanities“ to „Digital Humanities“ and the state of this transformation in Portugal, in 2014. In the following text I will develop three major aspects. The first is to draw attention to those who seem to have been the disciplinary fields where, despite everything, the Digital Humanities (in the broad perspective as will be regarded here) have asserted themselves in a more comprehensive manner. I think it is here that I run into greater risks, not only for what I have mentioned above, but certainly because a significant part, perhaps, of the achievements and of the researchers might have escaped the look that I sought to cast upon the past few decades, always influenced by my own experience and the work carried out in the field of History. But this can be considered as a work in progress and it is open to criticism and suggestions. A second point to note is that emphasis will be given to the main lines of development in the relationship between historicalresearch and digital methodologies, resources and tools. Finally, I will try to make a brief analysis of what has been the Digital Humanities discourse appropriation in recent years, with very debatable data and methods for sure, because studies are still scarce and little systematic information is available that would allow to go beyond an introductory reflection.
matter howsophisticated it is, can correct data whose collection was poorly planned. The data collected must be truly capable of responding to the question of interest and all relevant information must be recorded in a way that allows it to be easily used for further analysis. Poorly designed forms often have high levels of missing data. An obvious consequence is that this reduces the number of individuals that can be included in the study and consequently the possibility of an effect being detected, if it exists. The scriptfor collecting secondary data (for example, searching for information in medical records) should also be systematized and, as far as possible, follow the aspects described above.
HISTORICALASPECTS OF MARIE SKLODOWSKA CURIE VISIT TO BELO HORIZONTE. In the year 2011 it is celebrated the Marie Sklodowska Curie Nobel Prize centenary and the International Year of Chemistry. However, it is not generally known that Marie Sklodowska Curie, one of the greatest scientists of all time, visited Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. She arrived by train at Belo Horizonte city on 16 August 1926, coming from Rio de Janeiro and accompanied by her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie. The scientists visited the Institute of Radium of Belo Horizonte. The approach in this work emphasizes the presence of Marie Sklodowska Curie in Belo Horizonte, exploring the admiration and respect that people had for her.
The relationship between stigma and a sub- ject’s attribute in health studies focused on sym- bolically marked diseases (e.g., mental disorders, tuberculosis, leprosy), and the concentration of studies that report on individual experiences, re- affirm the perception that discrimination based on stigma results from the interaction between subjects. Thus, the report of an experience can be understood as a means to overcome discrimina- tion through two mechanisms: first by identifica- tion, then by differentiation. From this perspec- tive, one person’s identification with another and with his or her suffering occurs because both be- long to the category of human beings. Differentia- tion, in turn, results from the perception that only one of the poles in the relationship possesses the mark that gives rise to the discrimination. In this interplay, the mark of the stigma is preserved as a contingent and natural fact. Stated differently, the description of the stigma’s effects on subjects, rather than the analysis of the processes involved in its (re)production, is incapable of leveraging political responses through its deconstruction, although it may be useful in exhorting subjects to establish more inclusive relations 9 .
Inna M. Belousova – Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Honored Science Worker of the Russian Federation, Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR, Section head – Chief scientific researcher of Nanophotonics Section of «Vavilov State Optical Institute», JSC, Professor of Laser Optics Department of ITMO University. Scientific areas: Laser Physics and Technology, Nonlinear Optics, Nanophotonics, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy. The author of over 250 scientific papers in the field of Laser Physics, Laser Photonics and Nanophotonics. Head of major works on state contracts, grants of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR). Project supervisor of the International Science and Technology Center. Dissertation Board Member in Saint Petersburg State University, and Dissertation Board Member and Member of Science&Technology Council in «Vavilov State Optical Institute», JSC, Scientific Secretary of Science&Technology Council in S&R Institute of Laser Physics of «Vavilov State Optical Institute», JSC. 15 candidates of physical and mathematical sciences were trained under scientific supervision of I.M. Belousova. I.M. Belousov is the Head of Nanophotonics and Biophotonics Section at the International Laser Optics Conference.
Methods: an integrative literature review in the PubMed and Scielo databases with the key words: survey, constructing, questionnaire, formulary, development and design in various combinations, including arti- cles published in any language in the last ten years. The survey returned 1,480 articles, and after reading and critically reviewing the abstracts according to the objective of the study, 16 articles were selected for complete reading. Information regarding aspects that were most relevant to the objective of the study was analyzed, as well as its recurrence in the selected articles.
who stayed at his place construct another identity of R., showing up his sense of humour, etc. Reference is a fundamental brick in building the trustworthy proﬁ le, because it is the only element of a proﬁ le (apart from statistics) that the member him/herself cannot inﬂ uence. The simple tool that allows the CS members to evalu- ate and describe their hosting or surﬁ ng experience helps to create a social network with an “atmosphere of trust”, described in one of the references. The CS members however rarely refer directly to the categories of trust in their references, preferring to describe the shared activities and personal traits of their host or a guest. It may be also suggested that writing that “you can trust him/her” is likely to be interpreted as if the member had doubts in trusting the particular user before meeting him or her personally. From 288 references only nine people write directly that a person is trustworthy, one of them thanks for trusting. The other way to express the trustwor- thiness of a member is to use language constructions addressing the potential hosts/ surfers of a member. The word “you” contain 140 references and 30 of them contain the structures “you can/ you have to/ you should”. For instance: “If you host them”, “with whom you can have a great time, you can talk about everything with him”, “I highly recommend that you host her, you should deﬁ nitely get in contact with him”, “deﬁ nitely a person that you have to meet”, etc. 13 references contained direct recommendations to host or surf a couch of the referenced member, using the verb “recommend”. References, being an instrument for making people trust each other in a virtual community contain direct messages of trust. Describing the shared experiences is also aimed at making other people interested in a particular user. In other words references are the disclaimer of trust within couchsurﬁ ng.org.
HISTORICALASPECTS OF CHEMISTRY COURSES IN TEACHERS FORMATION IN BRAZIL IN THE 1930’S TO 1980. This article describes some historical moments in the establishment and development of chemistry teacher’s training courses since 1930, with the creation of universities in Brazil, until 1980. Correlations between educational and political questions that inluenced the directions taken for the formation of chemistry teachers in Brazil are discussed. From a review of the bibliographical sources available, we revisited stances of discussions on public policies related to science teacher’s formation in general and in chemistry, particularly, in order to provoke a relection on what challenges and prospects exist in the current scenario of undergraduate chemistry education in Brazilian universities and colleges.
The collection procedure was based on the information in the histopathology reports and medical records of biop- sies, which were transcribed into a standard file developed specifically for this analysis. The assessed variables related to the patient were gender, age, and race. Regarding clinical features of oral mucocele, the following data were col- lected: lesion location, shape of the main lesion, surface, symptoms, duration, size, history of trauma, size variation, clinical diagnosis, and type of biopsy performed. It is note- worthy that because ranula is considered a clinical variant of mucoceles, 8 it was decided to group them together in this
In 2003, ES/CICAD developed an advanced program entitled “International Research Capacity- Building Program for Health Related Professionals to Study Drug Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean” (IRCBP), which was initiated in partnership with the University of Alberta-Faculty of Nursing in Edmonton, Canada. Since 2006, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) has assumed the partnership role with CICAD to offer this innovative capacity building initiative in Toronto/Canada. The program objectives are: (i) to prepare health related professionals with advance research skills to conduct drug demand studies according to country priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean; (ii) to use scientiic evidence to support the development of drug policies, programs and projects; and (iii) to exchange knowledge and expertise between regional and Canadian researchers in terms of drug-related phenomenon. The CICAD-CAMH-IRCBP program has already trained more than 71 health related professionals in the following countries: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, and Uruguay. The following academic areas have been represented in the program: medicine, public health, nursing, psychology, sociology, education, law, social work, etc. 3
Though respondents readily describe the support they have either received or given, in the Proches et Parents survey, they do not explicitly mention the temporality of the exchanges. But this vagueness is central: by not specifying the time when support was given or provided, these men and women thus ensure that the resources of their networks remain accessible to them at any time. They deliberately place themselves in a state of “ambiguity”, support being a potential relationship that unfolds over time. The analysis of the interviews confirms that acts of support, far from being perceived as specific moments in one’s life, are accumulated and reactivated along the life course. The existence of support then becomes the product of a bond established over time, and addressing varied needs.