Top PDF HIV Drug Therapy in the Americas 16–18 April 2015, Mexico City, Mexico

HIV Drug Therapy in the Americas 16–18 April 2015, Mexico City, Mexico

HIV Drug Therapy in the Americas 16–18 April 2015, Mexico City, Mexico

Clı´nica Especializada Condesa, Consejerı´a, Mexico City, Mexico. Introduction: We describe a model of HIV/AIDS control and prevention programme in an urban context developed for Mexico City. Methods: The programme started implementation in 2008 with the aim of increasing the access to Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services, reducing the time between HIV diagnosis, incorporation to clinical services and antiretroviral therapies (ART) initiation, and improving the effectiveness of the ART universal access programme. The main components of the model include: 1) articulation between VCT services, specialized laboratory, and provision of clinical services; 2) co-ordination between federal and local government stakeholders with civil society organizations for people living with HIV (PLWH), vulnerable populations and human rights defence; 3) outreach pro- grammes for vulnerable populations; and 4) strengthening of clinical services provision. These services are located or centrally co-ordinated at the Clı´nica Especializada Condesa, a primary care clinic for HIV care. Results: Mexico City HIV/AIDS Programme integrated the provision of preventive and care services in a primary care HIV/AIDS Clinic in 2008. Annual number of HIV tests increased from 2691 to 29,799 in 20072014. Time between pre-VCT session and delivery of results in post-VCT session decreased from 14 days to 36 hours (median). The number of patients receiving care at Clı´nica Especializada Condesa increased from 3870 to 10,064 in 20082014. The time from access to care to ART initiation decreased from four months to two weeks. The median time to achieve undetectable HIV-VL after ART initiation decreased from 8.2 to 3.3 months in 2008 to 2012. The programme now provides services for inmates, male and female sex street-workers, people living in the street, drug users and juvenile detainees and also provides specialized clinical care for trans-gender women, acutely HIV-positive patients, STDs, and reproductive and sexual health services for teenagers and sexual violence victims. Conclusions: Mexico City HIV/AIDS Programme has implemented a multi-disciplinary approach for the prevention and control of the HIV-epidemic in an urban context in a middle-income country. The continuum between preventive, clinical care and supportive services and the cooperation of federal and local government instances with civil society organizations have been paramount for the programme’s success.
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A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

Although it was an old illegal practice and most people did not regard it as a crime, prostitution developed in the twentieth century in a grey area that encouraged police extortion and often involved violence against workers. Citing public health reasons, prostitution had been regulated and supervised since the 1860s. Forcing them to register and undergo periodic examinations, the regulation exposed prostitutes to extortion and pushed them either to the margins of the city or to enter brothels, where the relationship with health inspectors and policemen was mediated by madams. There, women could find also gave a measure of protection against anonymous violence in the streets. Police harassment of isolated prostitutes played into this process, as did some famous episodes of violence against women. During the 1930s, prostitution was de-regulated and law began to punish pimping—considered a practice of male exploitation over working-class women. Yet the business of prostitution, and its connections with cabarets, dance-halls, and hotels continued to thrive and be a feature of Mexico City night life. Young women were recruited through deception and often coerced to work by brothel owners. Multiple sources document the causal chain that lead girls from domestic violence, through rape and coerced labor, to prostitution. Young women from the interior found themselves alone and helpless in a city that was as large as it seemed indifferent to their plight. Even among women for whom prostitution had become a source of some financial autonomy, the stigma of “la vida” on their honor was costly in terms of social capital, and a powerful factor to keep them in the business. 25 Neighbors denounced cabarets and cantinas as centers of vice that the government had to attack, yet the illegality of the practice and the violence it involved from madams and customers did not prompt systematic police campaigns or public scandals similar to those seen in other countries. 26 As with prostitution, drug trafficking expanded during the twentieth century and involved the complicity of officials in different levels and from different institutions. Drugs like marihuana, cocaine, opium, heroine, and morphine had been used since the late nineteenth century but were criminalized in the early decades of the twentieth, largely due to pressure from the United States. 27 These drugs were connected to different social
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Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

Uncertainties in SOA simulations due to meteorological uncertainties in Mexico City during MILAGRO-2006 field campaign

compounds, but the model results still fail to close the gap between the measure- ments and the model in Mexico City. Although the evaluation of the new SOA formation mechanisms using CTMs is considerably influenced by the uncertainties from mea- surements, emissions, aging of semi-volatile and intermediate volatile organic com- pounds, and contributions from background transport (Li et al., 2011a), few studies

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A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

Although it was an old illegal practice and most people did not regard it as a crime, prostitution developed in the twentieth century in a grey area that encouraged police extortion and often involved violence against workers. Citing public health reasons, prostitution had been regulated and supervised since the 1860s. Forcing them to register and undergo periodic examinations, the regulation exposed prostitutes to extortion and pushed them either to the margins of the city or to enter brothels, where the relationship with health inspectors and policemen was mediated by madams. There, women could find also gave a measure of protection against anonymous violence in the streets. Police harassment of isolated prostitutes played into this process, as did some famous episodes of violence against women. During the 1930s, prostitution was de-regulated and law began to punish pimping—considered a practice of male exploitation over working-class women. Yet the business of prostitution, and its connections with cabarets, dance-halls, and hotels continued to thrive and be a feature of Mexico City night life. Young women were recruited through deception and often coerced to work by brothel owners. Multiple sources document the causal chain that lead girls from domestic violence, through rape and coerced labor, to prostitution. Young women from the interior found themselves alone and helpless in a city that was as large as it seemed indifferent to their plight. Even among women for whom prostitution had become a source of some financial autonomy, the stigma of “la vida” on their honor was costly in terms of social capital, and a powerful factor to keep them in the business. 25 Neighbors denounced cabarets and cantinas as centers of vice that the government had to attack, yet the illegality of the practice and the violence it involved from madams and customers did not prompt systematic police campaigns or public scandals similar to those seen in other countries. 26 As with prostitution, drug trafficking expanded during the twentieth century and involved the complicity of officials in different levels and from different institutions. Drugs like marihuana, cocaine, opium, heroine, and morphine had been used since the late nineteenth century but were criminalized in the early decades of the twentieth, largely due to pressure from the United States. 27 These drugs were connected to different social
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The influence of urban structures on entrepreneurial decision-making: a comparative analysis of Mexico City and São Paulo

The influence of urban structures on entrepreneurial decision-making: a comparative analysis of Mexico City and São Paulo

Encouraging entrepreneurial activity is now more than ever a priority of emerging economies. In different parts of the world, entrepreneurs are recognized as true agents of change, and the new enterprises they create become drivers of innovation, which can ultimately be diffused to the rest of the economy. Urban economic theories, which examine the dynamics between urban agglomeration and economic activity, have stressed the importance of spatial concentration of similar industries. Understanding the incentives that ignite entrepreneurial activity is fairly recent and has primarily focused on few cases in industrialized economies. Nevertheless, the success of a handful of high-tech clusters such as the Silicon Valley in California, USA, cannot be replicated in itself, and the local conditions have to be considered in order to understand the emergence of these ecosystems. This study intends to investigate the criteria in which entrepreneurs base their decisions when selecting the localization of their venture. More specifically, the research explores the recent emergence of entrepreneurial ecosystems in Mexico City and Sao Paulo, the two largest Latin American metropolitan areas, in the light of a retrospective on urban economics. In order to do so, the research follows the method of a comparative case study based on the exploration of two neighborhoods: Vila Leopoldina in Sao Paulo and the Colonia Roma Norte in Mexico City. The consolidated results based on the qualitative interviews carried out in both neighborhoods first reveal that the urban place, defined as the local ties as well as the general atmosphere of the environment, remains important for the actors despite the increasing use of high speed communications that generate more interactivity within regions. Furthermore, the relation between the entrepreneurs and their local environment is highly dependent on the stage of development and the nature of the activity of their ventures; informal networks prove to be instrumental in identifying the business opportunities before progressively being replaced through institutionalized relations with Venture Capital firms or incubators. These two nascent ecosystems are nurturing specific features of their own, which can begin to outline their future evolution.
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Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

Abstract. An extensive set of measurements was made in and around Mexico City as part of the MILAGRO (Mega- city Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) ex- periments in March 2006. Simulations with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART- 4), a global chemical transport model, have been used to pro- vide a regional context for these observations and assist in their interpretation. These MOZART-4 simulations repro- duce the aircraft observations generally well, but some dif- ferences in the modeled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the observations result from incorrect VOC speciation assumed for the emission inventories. The different types of CO sources represented in the model have been “tagged” to quantify the contributions of regions outside Mexico, as well as the various emissions sectors within Mexico, to the regional air quality of Mexico. This analysis indicates open fires have some, but not a dominant, impact on the atmo-
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Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City

Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City

was used to determine particle mass as described next. We assumed spherical particles and integrated over the size distribution measured by the UHSAS, to obtain an es- timate of the volume of particles at 1 Hz. For each of the 8 plume penetrations on 18 March that featured both the UH- SAS and nephelometer sampling pine-forest fires in the MC- area mountains, the integrated particle mass was ratioed to the integrated particle volume. For the densest plumes, only data from the more dilute parts of the plume (<100 µg/m 3 ) were used to avoid effects of saturation in the UHSAS. The mass to volume ratio was 1.858±0.183 g/cc. It is tempting to interpret this mass/volume ratio as an estimate of particle density, but the real density should be lower since: the par- ticles are not perfectly spherical, there is a small amount of particle mass in the diameter range 1–2.5 microns, and the particles are also ∼8% black carbon by mass (Ferek et al., 1998; Reid et al., 2005), which would partially absorb the UHSAS laser. In any case, we used the above “empirical” m/v ratio to convert the integrated UHSAS particle volume to integrated particle mass for the pine forest fire, plume- penetration samples obtained 6–17 March. The simultane- ous co-located CO 2 measurements again provided the com-
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Serotypes of shigella flexneri found in children in Mexico City

Serotypes of shigella flexneri found in children in Mexico City

Previous studies (1) have shown that or- ganisms belonging to the genus Shigella are the most common bacteria1 pathogens found in children over six months old wit[r]

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Installation of a water disinfection system in a Mexico City Hospital

Installation of a water disinfection system in a Mexico City Hospital

Generally speaking, the initial test re- sults indicated that water disinfection in city treatment plants and the state of the urban water distribution network we[r]

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Acute respiratory infections in a cohort of malnourished children in Mexico City

Acute respiratory infections in a cohort of malnourished children in Mexico City

(1) Bulla, A. Acute respiratory infections in children: A review. Acute respiratory infections in children: A global public health problem. Acute respiratory infec- tions [r]

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Training of auxiliary personnel

Training of auxiliary personnel

The item was widely discussed during the XV Meeting of the Directing Council held in Mexico City last year and, in compliance with a resolution of the Executive Committee, the C[r]

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Commerce, conflict, and contamination: yellow fever in early- independence Veracruz in the US imaginary, 1821-1848

Commerce, conflict, and contamination: yellow fever in early- independence Veracruz in the US imaginary, 1821-1848

port cities. Correspondence from June 1833, later published in Newport, Rhode-Island’s Newport Mercury (13 July 1833, p.2), explained, “One letter states, that an eighth part of the population had fallen.” Officials took a wide range of measures to restrict and reduce the spread of the disease. Despite Townsend’s report a decade earlier on the difficulties of restricting the flow of disease, in the Evening Post of New York, US port cities began to quarantine trade ships coming from Mexican ports. Officials in Veracruz took steps to improve sanitation in the city, reinstating late-colonial policies of routinely cleaning the streets. At the same time that government officials sought to reduce the outbreak of diseases, city officials also tried to cure those already infected. A list of remedies had been tried to varying degrees of success throughout the city, which led officials to search for trained medical practitioners to deal with yellow fever. Officials in Mexico City sent two doctors to Veracruz to cure those infected in the city. Yet the most effective doctor, according to the Veracruz periodical El Censor, Chavert, a native of New Orleans living in Veracruz. Veracruzanos saw Chavert as a savior due to his application of the plant huaca to those infected. Contributors to periodicals praised Chavert’s cure, because it was easily made and safe for those who used it (El Censor, 29 Aug. 1833). By the end of 1833, through natural causes and possibly aided by the city’s attempt to rid the streets of stagnant water, Veracruz survived this most recent threat to the health of the port.
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Meeting reports and seminars

Meeting reports and seminars

of Public Health, Havana Institute of Health Development, Ministry of Public Health, Havana School of Public Health, Mexico City School of Public Health, Mexico City Carib[r]

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Epidemiological considerations of animal diseases with special reference to caprine brucellosis

Epidemiological considerations of animal diseases with special reference to caprine brucellosis

Reports from Mexico City indicate that at least 95 per cent of the cases of brucellosis in Mexico City are of ca- prine origin, most likely due to cheese and butter pre[r]

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Financial report of the Director and report of the External Auditor for 1978

Financial report of the Director and report of the External Auditor for 1978

To recommend to the Directing Council that, if the Council de- cides to proceed with the purchase of an office building in Mexico City, Mexico, as a result of t[r]

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Ciênc. saúde coletiva  vol.21 número1

Ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.21 número1

Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 – 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to differ- ent age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD- 10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attrib- utable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consump- tion is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the de- cline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012.
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Report of the Pan American Committee on Sanitary Engineering

Report of the Pan American Committee on Sanitary Engineering

Lectures on hospital sanitation given ’ by one of the Bureau engineers at the recent meeting of the Inter- Ameritan Hospital Association held in Mexico City during [r]

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St. Louis encephalomyelitis in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

St. Louis encephalomyelitis in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

‘Epidemiologist, General Directorate of Coordinated State Public Health Services, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Mexico City, Mexico.. states of Arizona and Californ[r]

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Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  vol.32 número3

Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. vol.32 número3

Two years later, getting-up during sleep and sporadic sleepwalking events were evident, the major event occurred during a vacation at the age of 13: she got up while sleeping and attempted to leave the house, later she went back to sleep. She has not experienced academic difficulties and is now attending college with excellent grades. She is now 21 years of age and has occasional brief events of sleep-talking with slurred speech.

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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.17 número6

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.17 número6

A reduced group of families consumed chaya (a plant grown in the state and rich in protein) prepared as chanchac, that is, a broth of chaya and ground pumpkin seeds and lemon accompanied by gorditas (salt bread made with corn, butter and baked in grids, which in Mayan, are called pimes). Based on this, disseminating the nutritious and medicinal properties of chaya to different actors (politicians, educators, health professionals, economists and others) related to health and diet is needed so that chaya becomes an important component of feeding programs and further research about this plant is carried out so its different properties are established. Among the beliefs of caregivers, broths predominated as a main food of great value to health. Another aspect to be highlighted was the fact that caregivers do not concomitantly offer fish and milk because they believed these two foods together would cause mal de pinto (disease caused by a bacterium that causes spots on the skin) in children or adults. Thus, due to this belief, children were deprived of an important food.
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