For hundreds of years theHmongand Iu Mien lived inthe mountains of northern Laos and southwestern China and fought to maintain their independence. During the Vietnam War, the CIA recruited them to fight the "secret war" in Laos. Though no document exists to corroborate the story, it is said the United States promised theHmong, Mien and several smaller societies that the United States government would take care of them after the way was over. This promise was not kept. Following the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam in 1975, the Communist Vietnamese flooded into Laos. Many people in Laos, including theHmong, fled communist oppression by going to Thailand. Large refugee camps were built to house the refugees (Chan, 1991). After living in these camps for varying periods of time, thousands of Hmong settled inthe United States.
We performed a wide range of tests of model reliability and sensitivity analysis (detailed in Text S1) to ensure that our results were not an artifact of the way the model was formulated or a result of variables that were left out of the model. The focus of these supplementary analyses was to eliminate the possibility that some concurrent process produced the observed differences between Californiaandthe control states, for example, earlier and more extensive penetration of managed careinCalifornia than inthe control states. These analyses included (1) in-sample dynamic predictions of Californiahealth expenditure (Equations 1 and 3) and difference in per capita cigarette consumption (Equations 2 and 4); (2) sensitivity analysis of results to choice of controls and price deﬂators for Californiahealth expendi- tures (Equation 1); (3) out-of-sample forecasts of the depend- ent (endogenous) variables to check stability of estimated parameters for Equations 1 and 2; (4) reverse regression of cointegrating regressions (Equations 1 and 2); (5) time series modeling of possible untaxed cigarette consumption inCalifornia (Equation 1); (6) recursive estimates of the regression coefﬁcients to check model stability over time for Equations 1 and 2; (7) sensitivity analysis of the exogenous time trends; and (8) unrestricted estimation of the effect of changes in per capita cigarette consumption on Californiahealthcare expenditures in Equation 1.
During this study, the researchers attempted to increase knowledge and awareness regarding nasopharyngeal cancer intheHmong community. During the interviews, a large number of participants indicated that they were interested in an education with free screening for NPC and other cancers. The researchers recommended actions be taken to educate and increase healthcare access to this unique population. Furthermore, health clinicians and educators should closely monitor the incidence, prevalence, mortality, morbidity, and quality of life of the study population.
The educational services, healthcareand social assistance industries are the second largest in which Hmong work (19%). 7 This should not come as a surprise, since the service industry was the driving force behind job growth throughout the 1990s (Hatch & Clinton, 2000). Home healthcare workers and social service providers added millions of jobs during that time. An increase in formal education led many former refugees and second-generation Hmong to work as teachers, nurses and other healthcare professionals, and within a multitude of social service positions. Employers who serve Hmong families often hire bilingual staff. Whereas many Hmong Americans work inthe education services, healthcareand social assistance
healthcare, and opportunities for participation in public arenas, which worsens when men have moved to urban centers leaving their women inthe rural areas. While it is recognized that women play fundamental roles inthe socio-economic development of their communities, they are often excluded from local decision-making processes because their views are not solicited and their interests are not taken into consideration by their counterparts (Opare, 2005). Society as a whole would benefit greatly if women had adequate access to decision-making opportunities. Women have been and continue to be subordinated to men in several ways that adversely affect their well-being. The Beijing Platform for Action emphasized that “women’s equal participation in decision making is not only a demand for justice or democracy, but can also be seen as a necessary condition for women’s interests to be taken into account. Without the
each component to the reduction of inequality, year by year. The table shows that the variance of wages declined by 0.25 between 1995 and 2009, from an initial value of 0.93, that is, a reduction of 26%. Moreover, the reduction of the education and age wage differentials accounts for about 44% of the total drop. Changes inthe education and age composition of the workforce explain about eight percent of the change in inequality, as the new generations become increasingly more educated. The contribution of the price effect within-groups is inthe range of 70%, the highest amongst all different factors. Finally, had all the other forces remained constant, the higher human capital of the workforce would have contributed to an increase inthe overall variance of earnings by about 22%, since inequality is higher among the more educated and
We focus, here, the need for providing a comprehensive care for the elderly individual, aimed at a holistic attention, as well as the possibility to keep a flow inthe clinical network, in accordance with her/his health demands. However, what is observed are reductionist and fragmented clinical practices, where healthcare levels do not maintain communication with each other, executing isolated actions that are not problem-solving, which eventually recur at various points of the network, generating a duplication of demand in a health service.
One of the premises of the philosophy of pharma- ceutical care is that the patient should be at the center of the practice and be seen as a teacher who can teach the pharmacist about the meanings of being ill and of using medications. As Ramalho de Oliveira and Shoemaker (2006) wrote: “…Members of the profession must be open to learn with and from the patient and develop a holistic comprehension of patients’ understandings, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors toward health, disease, and medications.” We would like to go beyond this as- sertion to underscore that, besides being open to patients, pharmacists should also tend to the expectations and perceptions of other healthcare providers because, in order to care holistically and effectively for patients, pharmacists must collaborate with other professionals inthe community and hospitals. This can also be considered a piece of the humanistic component and of the psycho- social aspects associated with pharmaceutical care prac- tice. In this regard, in recent years, several studies have explored interprofessional perspectives of pharmacists’ role, which have gained an increased prominence inthe pharmacy literature.
Meetings with students who registered in 2005 and 2006 were scheduled during the classes’ intervals to present the project’s objectives and methodology when Free and Informed Consent Forms (FICF) were distributed to each student with one copy for students’ information and one for them to sign and indicate their agreement to participate inthe study. At the time students were asked to identify themselves inthe documents (evaluations of the courses) so we could match these with the signed FICF and randomly deine the study’s participants. Names are conidential and documents are identiied by the courses’ acronym and year followed by a number in numerical sequence.
Abstract: Introduction: National and international debates point to the importance and necessity of mental healthcarein primary healthcareand discuss the main challenges and propositions. Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze what has been produced inthe national scientific literature on mental healthcare practices in primary healthcare from a systematic literature review. Method: The review was carried out inthe Latin American and Caribbean Literature inHealth Sciences database (LILACS), of which 19 articles were eligible to be included inthe study, according to the inclusion criteria adopted. Results: Six themes that were most frequently addressed in studies were identified: professional training and qualification; Biomedical model, medicalizing and excluding; Specialty of care; User, family and support network; Powers inthe territory; Possibilities and challenges. From the results presented, the difficulties that permeate thecare practices in Mental Healthin Primary HealthCare offered to users in psychological distress are evident. Conclusion: These results, in addition to causing concern, reveal the need for investment in effective and comprehensive care practices, supported by Mental Healthand Primary HealthCare Public Policies.
The Northeast population has the highest number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score of Brazil, except for age 12, following the Southeast region – which is the richest part of the country . The population needs primary preventive activities and restoration services in case of disease occurrence. Professionals should bear in mind that the extraction does not solve the problem, for it is a procedure that brings the need for rehabilitation and hence expenses with this treatment. Extraction without prosthetic rehabilitation, indeed frightfully common, increases difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speech, harming even more users’ health. Therefore, the dentist should not make use of this as a routine procedure. Fortunately, the number of tooth extractions in Fortaleza has been decreasing since 2004 , and it may be a result of the OHT improvements over the years, as well as of the decrease of the suppressed demand.
The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
Focus Groups were previously scheduled, according to avail- ability and organization of the teams. Five FG were performed between June and July 2016, with up to 7 participants per group, totalizing 26 participants, four of them with medical professionals, nurses and matrix supporters, and one with managers and techni- cal directors. The implementation of the FG was supported by a moderator and two observers. The meetings lasted approximately 90 minutes and were held in a Higher Education institution, with privacy and conditions to comfortably welcome the participants. Only the FG of managers occurred in a private room of MOH, due to their preference. It was read a text about the topic of study and generating questions: How has the coordination of child/ adolescent/family carein chronic condition inthe Family Health Strategy inthe municipality of João Pessoa been conducted? How do you perceive theHealthCare Network in child/adolescent/ family carein chronic condition? What challenges do you face in managing child/adolescent/family carein chronic condition? How do activities of the Family Health Teams and managers of Primary HealthCare integrate theHealthCare Network inthecare for the child/adolescent/family in chronic condition?
The literature shows that ‘healthcare model’ is a polysemic term used with various terminologi- cal variations, and refering to different aspects of a complex phenomenon. However, based on the research work and published matter on the sub- ject, it is possible to state that the shape of a spe- cific healthcare model results in an historic-social process which is dynamic and multi-factorial and which undergoes influences from a network of factors from the macro and micro-social spheres, of a given society. This ‘shaping’ involves values that orient the concept of healthandthe right to health. It is also influenced by accumulated knowledge and by the hegemonic paradigm of sci- ence, in such a way that different models consist of political responses produced in answer to thehealth problems of a given society, taking into ac- count costs, demands andthe capacity of the var- ious agents to press for their interests and rights.
These findings corroborate the perception that thein- strument may possibly not depict the patient’s complexity as perceived by some of the nurses. However, in addition to the choice of method to standardize the score, another aspect may be interfering inthe adequate evaluation of the patient’s healthcare category. Originally built to deter- mine the patient’s complexity in relation to the nursing practices, the instrument contains only activities performed with the patients or their families, and does not address other activities performed by the nurse that demand time, such as management activities, healthcare coordination, supervision and training the team and students. This means that, in its current format, the nursing team’s workload is measured only partially. Thus, in order to mirror the real workload more accurately, it is necessary to include other factors that also interfere in its measurement.
The poor conditions of public roads cause problems to the families, particularly in rainy days, as observed inthe last excerpt. Poorly preserved roads may aﬀ ect production (logistics) and make it diffi cult for the population to keep living inthe settlement (lack of mobility infrastructure), as well as to access schools, health services, etc. So, these people are sometimes exposed to extreme situations to maintain their livelihood, working under unhealthy work- ing conditions.
TheHmong are called Mèo in Vietnam and known as Miáo or Miáo zú in China (Culas, 2010). However, the name “Mèo” means “cat” and has been perceived as a derogatory term by theHmong so the name “Hmong” has been officially used since 1979 (Institute of Anthropology, 2005). It has been proposed by some scholars that theHmong group was present in China as long as five thousand years ago (Thao, 1999 & 2004; Institute of Anthropology, 2005; Cha, 2010). In around 2700 B.C., theHmong were first present inthe Yangtze region of China. At that time, theHmong were a subgroup of a larger number of ethnic groups called by the Chinese as Miao. It has been proposed by some writers that theHmong are descendants of the Miao King, Chi You (Thao, 1999; Institute of Anthropology, 2005; Cha, 2010). Chi You’s ruling kingdom, namely Jiuli, consisted of over 81 different clans. Huang Di, the Chinese Yellow Emperor, attacked and defeated Chi You and his people. When Chi You was killed, Huang Di became the emperor of the Jiuli tribe (Cha, 2010). Later, under the dynasty of Yao, Shun and Wu, new alliances namely, the Sanmiao, Youmiao and Miaomin were formed and developed in confrontation with the powers of the Kings. From the 16 th to the 11 th centuries B.C., the Sanmiao and Jingchu (or Nanman) had wealthy economies and continued their resistance against the Chinese. The Sanmiao period was a prosperous time for the ancestors of theHmong when they settled inthe northern part of the Yellow river. Then owing to the strong expansion of the Hanzu, they gradually fled to the south. After many serious defeats, the Sanmiao were finally conquered by the Chinese about 3200 years ago. Many Hmong were killed and others scattered to the rugged mountainous highlands of the southern and western regions (Institute of Anthropology, 2005; Cha, 2010).
Arterial Hypertension (AH) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are considered a worldwide epidemics whose control poses a challenge to healthcare services. Within the National Health System, the Family Health Program currently has the dual role of being a system gateway and reference structure. Bearing in mind this scenario, this study assessed the access of AH and DM patients to healthcareand therapeutic drugs. A household survey was conducted in ive municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants inthe Baixada Santista. A two-stage self-weighted proba- bilistic sample was used. Results estimated a prevalence of 26.3% for AH and of 8.8% for DM, AH being more prevalent among women. As to healthcare, 85.3% of the individuals with AH interviewed reported having had their arterial pressure checked, and 70.2% of those with DM reported having had their glucose blood serum level tested inthe preceding six months. Drug treatment was prescribed to 99.4% of these patients, and 62.8% of AH patients purchased such drugs from private drugstores, and 57.9% of DM patients received drugs provided by health centers. Over 90% of the patients had no access to educational group activities, and 78% of AH and 92.5% of DM patients had no supervising home visits. These ind- ings suggest the need for primary healthcare as the mainstay for thecare provided to HA and DM.
In many studies published inthe literature on the topic of health-care waste several operational technical problems have been seen inthe implementation of health-care waste management programs. Further, other difficulties such as preservation of the environment, public health safety, and economical implications tend to worsen the problems of thehealth-care waste management. Today health-care establishments are ever more in need of instruments that enable them to take decisions in order to make the handling of hazardous health-care waste safer and more appropriate.
The life of the Region’s inhabitants unfolds within the context of growing globalization and interdependence with the transnational environment. This process is not only economic but social and political as well and has led to a redistribution of power between the State, civil society, andthe market. Despite the strong market influence, civil society, through its organizations, is experiencing a resurgence, offering new options for the development of health. The emergence and expansion of this new paradigm of production not only implies a change inthe role of the nations’ sectors but also has been manifested inthe replacement of the technology links that once reigned supreme by others, created by the advances in computer technology, telematics, and biotechnology. This new paradigm also has an impact on other human activities such as communications, which have produced changes in consumption patterns, urbanization, lifestyles, social representation, and values that are moving the world toward the cultural homogenization of society. These advances in technology are strongly reflected inthe socialization of information.