Piroplasmoses are tick-borne emerging zoonoses that can induce malaria-like syndromes. The etiological agents of these diseases are haemoprotozoa of the genus Babesia and Theileria (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida), which both infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals and constitute an obstacle to livestock production in farming areas. These parasites are transmitted from speciic ticks that feed on several hosts. Humans are included among the parasites’ blood sources and, once bitten, can develop diseases of diferent degree of severity. Human infections were irst described in 1957 in Europe in a splenectomised cattle farmer (Skrabalo and Deanovic 1957) and, in 1968, in the US in an asplenic man (Scholtens et al. 1968). To this day, more than 100 Babesia species have been described worldwide, but human infection has been associated with only few of them, i.e. Babesia microti and Babesia duncani in North America and Babesia divergens in Europe (Conrad 2006, Leiby 2006, Meliani et al. 2006), where the occurrence of human subclinical and persistent infections due to B. microti has also been recently documented (Hildebrandt, 2007). It is noteworthy that over the past few years, further zoonotic B. divergens- like pathogens have been identiied using molecular techniques both in the United States (the WA1, CA1
Nevertheless, since the original procedure was introduced (see e.g. Dalrymple, 1960) several extensions and evolutions were proposed, which partly relax this fundamental hypoth- esis. An example is the hierarchical application of the index flood hypothesis, where the statistics of increasing order are constant within a set of nested regions, the larger the order of the statistics, the larger the region (see e.g. Gabriele and Arnell, 1991). Another relevant example of evolution of the original hypothesis is the Region of Influence approach (e.g., Burn, 1990; Castellarin et al., 2001), which adopts the con- cept of homogeneous pooling groups of sites as opposed to homogeneous geographical regions. We present a regional model that can be considered to be an extension of the index flood model as well. Similarly to what originally proposed in Schaefer (1990) and Alila (1999), we assume that a homo- geneous region, within which L-Cv and L-Cs are constant, is a group of climatically homogeneous sites, within which the variability of MAP is very limited.
The faunal records of the studied period partially cover two successive MA, from the middle Galerian (Isernia FU) to the early Aurelian (Torre in Pietra FU). Therefore, human communities had to adapt their activities to the evolution of the ecosystems, especially during these faunal turnovers. Subsistence behavior analysis from the ear- liest sites (La Pineta and Notarchirico) highlighted that the local populations mainly
In general, IPF estimates of prevalence and incidence rates appear to be lower in Europe rel- ative to those reported in the US population [18,20,22]. In particular, studies that investigated the IPF epidemiology during the first years of the 21st century–which, therefore, are compara- ble to our study—found that the estimated mean annual incidence rate (per 100,000 person- years) ranged from 0.9 in Greece  to 7.4 in UK ; the estimated prevalence rate was only evaluated in Greece, and was 3.4 . Recently, the study of Agabiti et al.  focused on epi- demiology of IPF in the adult population of a region of Central-Southern Italy using hospital admission records: findings indicated that the estimated annual incidence rate over the period 2005–2009 varied between 7.5 and 9.3 (per 100,000 person-years), and that the estimated IPF prevalence in 2009 varied between 25.6 and 31.6 (per 100,000 person-years), depending on the case definition. These results show a higher incidence and a lower prevalence rate than ours. These differences might be due to different demographic characteristics of the analysed popu- lations, or to environmental factors, for example Lazio and Lombardy differ for climate as well as concentration and sources of environmental pollution, or they might be even due to differ- ences in the patient management, as each region of Italy has its own Healthcare System that is to some extent autonomous. However, we can’t rule out that, they might also originate from differences in study design: first, our estimates refer to the whole population, while those from Agabiti are related to people aged 18 or older; second, the criteria used in the study of Agabiti et al. were similar to the GCD criteria used in our study, but did not include outpatient claims; finally, different washout periods were used to identify IPF cases as incident or prevalent.
The first datum analyzed regards the incidence of birds, tortoises, and fish inhuman diet (Tables 5-6; Figures 2-3). InItaly during the Early Neolithic, excluding Grotta Continenza and Grotta dei Pic- cioni in Abruzzo (W ILKENS 1987, 1989-90; Figure 2), bird remains have only a very marginal role. However, also in these two Fucino-caves it’s not sure that all bird remains are the result of hunting; it is instead possible that the accumulation was produced by pellets of raptors or by other natural causes. Also fishing (Figure 3) seems to have played a secondary role with the exception of two sites: Grotta Continenza in Abruzzo (W ILKENS 1987)
Acknowledgements. We would like to thank all data providers who enabled the databases presented and discussed in the paper to be set up. Among them, in particular, we thank the Ufficio Centrale di Ecologia Agraria (UCEA) and the Servizio Idrografico as far as the secular records are concerned; and APAT, Italian Air Force, regional environmental agencies (ARPAs of Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna), Meteo Trentino, Societ`a Meteorologica Italiana and ENEL for the time series for the climatologies. We would also like to acknowledge the INTERREG Project FORALPS, the Lombardia Project Kyoto, the Parco Naturale dell’Adamello – CARIPLO Project CARIPANDA, the US-ITALY bilateral Agreement on Cooperation in Climate Change Research and Technology (Italian Ministry for the Environment), the project “Sviluppo e verifica di tecniche di downscaling e calibrazione di modelli idrologici, sulla base di una griglia termo- pluviometrica ad altissima risoluzione (1 km×1 km) per gli ultimi 150 anni, per la valutazione dell’impatto dei cambiamenti climatici sulla risorsa idrica” in the frame of the framework programme agreement between the Dipartimento Terra e Ambiente of the CNR and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, and the Milan University PhD research grant which supported the Project HRT NI – High Resolution Temperature Climatology NorthernItaly, which was developed parallel to ECSN/HRT GAR. In this context, valuable discussions with colleagues in the project provided fundamental insights for methodology developments and improvements. We would also like to thank all researchers and collaborators who, over the years, have helped in collect- ing, quality checking and homogenizing the databases: namely Fabio Monti, Rossella Pastorelli, Adriana Fassina, Claudia Maz- zola, Nicola Cortesi, Diana Cricchio.
The distributional patterns of 13 species of Diaptomus Westwood, 1836 were analyzed using the panbiogeographical method of track analysis. Locality records were compiled from the literature and mapped for the construction of individual tracks for each species. These tracks were superimposed to find the generalized tracks. Four generalized tracks were found: (1) Siberia, Central Europe, and Iceland; (2) NorthernItaly, southern France, central Spain, northern Algeria, andnorthern Morocco; (3) Southern France, central Spain, andnorthern Morocco; (4) Southern Italy, Sicily, and Albania. Five biogeographic nodes were found: (A) Southwestern Iberia, (B) Southeastern Iberia, (C) Central Iberia, (D) Cantabria, at the intersections of generalized tracks 2 and 3; and (E) Italian Peninsula Islands, at the intersection of generalized tracks 2 and 4. The main massing of the species of Diaptomus studied is located in the Iberian peninsula, where six of the species do occur. A model based on the fragmentation and differentiation of already widespread ancestors during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, related to the opening the North Atlantic Ocean and the formation of the Mediterranean Sea, is proposed as a most parsimonious explanation for the observed patterns of geographic vicariance.
to evaluate the risk of MS according to latitude and month of birth, which included many diferent regions in the same continent. he authors analyzed 1,207 MS patients and 1,207 controls in four countries of South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru, and compared the month of birth in a large range of latitudes (zero to 10° South; 11° to 20° South; 21° to 30° South; and 31° to 40° South) and the prevalence of MS. In spite of the relatively low number of patients due to the lower prevalence of MS in the Southern hemisphere compared to the Northern hemisphere, children born in high latitudes in the Southern hemisphere did not present higher incidence of MS in adult life. here is not a major variation of exposureto daylight between diferent seasons in the Southern hemisphere as there is in the Northern
When planning tourist visits we consider several factors, e.g. attractiveness, price, transportation facilities, possible weather. for many tourists weather plays a very important role in the choice of destination and time of the year for their holi- days. Many of us search for climates which differ from our domestic con ditions, being war mer or cooler than the climate we are living in. While young healthy people can adapt fairly easily to sudden changes of climate/weather con ditions, for children, elderly and unhealthy people adaptation to new ambient condition s can be very stressful, especially for the circulatory system. thus, for these groups of people, we must consider in detail which adaptation strain their organisms can be exposed to.
Several studies were performed on statistical methods to evaluate the hailstorms frequency. Recent papers showed that radar and rawinsonde data improve the reliability of the predictions, because they supply observed value for upper- air variables. Green and Clark (1972) produced a funda- mental work: for the first time they showed that the Verti- cally Integrated Liquid (VIL) could be used as a predictor of hailstorm occurrence. Two papers from Kitzmiller and Breindenbach (1993, 1995) faced the problem of centraland southern Plains (USA) hailstorm prediction using few atmo- spheric variables such as VIL, melting level, 50 hPa zonal wind components (the latter quantity was shown in the sec- ond paper not to be a pure hail indicator but rather a signifi- cant severe weather indicator) and surface relative humidity. Danielsen (1977) showed the importance of the mixing ratio in place of the relative humidity in hailstorm frequency and hail grain dimension.
Global warming, only recently an accepted hypothesis, despite evidence of the environ- mental impact of human intervention and pol- lution, also amplifies the risks brought about by these social and ecological changes result- ing from deforestation. It stimulates the flow of disease vectors (mosquitoes, ticks, and others) from tropical to temperate zones. These new scenarios increasingly concern developed na- tions, which had previously played down the importance of “tropical” infectious diseases, as- sumed to be restricted to the poorest countries. This article examines the possible epidemi- ological scenarios resulting from these phe- nomena and the limitations of the social and economic sciences and ecology to deal with their complexity. The tension between these historically dissociated paradigms is discussed and a transdisciplinary approach is proposed, i.e., social ecosystem health, in order to incor- porate them into a comprehensive theoretical framework, supporting alternative strategies to anticipate risks and prevent the amplification of risk conditions (Levins et al., 1994, 1995; Pos- sas & Marques, 1994; Levins & Lopez, 1999).
Municipality is rich in olive orchards representing one of the most common land use practice (Martini 2010). Olive trees are still managed traditionally, often in marginal sites, with minimal mechanization and relatively low external inputs such as chemical treatments in comparison to other crops. The presence of permanent crops (olive trees) guarantees a partially tree cover reducing hydrogeological risk. Soil management usually keeps natural grassing reducing soil carbon emission and increasing soil fertility (Bateni 2017). Intercropping with cereals and/or fodder legumes and livestock can also be practiced in olive orchards, increasing the complexity of the olive tree multifunctional system. Moreover, olive orchards can be managed as agroforestry systems since they can be intercropped with arable crops (cereals, legumes) and/or combined with livestock (sheep, poultry).
Current scientific evidence shows that human activities are causing interference at different levels in the global climate and availability of natural resources, and many authors already relate water scarcity to the increased risk of violent conflict, particularly in rural societies on the African continent. Climate disruptions caused by climate change are reflected on a regional and local scale, and the greatest impacts are already being felt in the poorest areas of the planet. Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, has been facing environmental problems in its territory that can be associated with climate change, such as rising temperatures, reduced rainfall and advancing desertification. Considering that all these phenomena have been worsening since the early twentieth century in Nigeria and, due to the escalating of violent conflicts since the beginning of the current century, the objective of this paper is to analyse how climate change can interfere in the conflict between herdsmen and farmers, as well as the possible impact of seasonal variation in rainfall on the dynamics of these communal conflicts. The study focused on literature review and the case study took place in four Nigerian states (Plateau, Benue, Taraba and Nasarawa) for the period 2010-2017, focusing on the communal conflict involving the Fulani ethnic group. The approach adopted was the inductive method in which the behaviour of rainfall in the study area was compared with the number of deaths resulting from the conflict, in addition to using geo-processing software to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of casualties. The theoretical framework used was that proposed by Thomas Homer-Dixon (1994) and the information was collected from primary sources, with consultation of qualitative and quantitative data, and from secondary sources through book reviews, publications and papers in scientific journals. While it is not yet possible to establish a direct and linear relationship between climate change and violent conflict, the revised literature indicates that competition for water and other natural resources in certain parts of Nigeria is increasing, and that the violent conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and farmers are increasing due to the dispute over access to water sources and grazing lands. Data analysis shows that in the study area there are 46.4% more deaths in the dry season (November to April) than in the rainy season (May to October). While there are still not enough elements to conclude that climate change is the primary cause of the conflict, the analysis reinforces the need, in certain contexts, particularly in developing countries with populations highly dependent on the primary sector of the economy, for the impacts of climate change to be seriously considered as a risk tohuman security.
Elisabetta Falchetti is the author of the first volume from the series Memorie di Museologia Scientifica (Memoirs of Science Museology), entitled Costruire il pensiero scientifico in museo. Spunti e riflessioni sull’educazione scientifica nei musei delle scienze (Building scientific thinking in a museum. Insights and reflections on science education in science museums). 12 The first section of the book is devoted to the discussion on the deep sense of the educational role by museums, finding its bases also in a definition of scientific thinking, and therefore of what a “better” (more faithful) science communication can be. To this purpose, the author explores the Italian and international literature, but also interviews a number of experts, with a full report included in the text: Carlo Bernardini, Silvia Caravita, Alessandra Guidotti, Claudio Longo, Lorenza Merzagora, Vincenzo Padiglione, Alessandra Sperduti and Adriana Valente. The second part of the book is devoted to understanding needs and attitudes of the public of science museums, especially through the case study of the Zoology Museum of Rome, Falchetti being its curator. The third part offers some examples (still in Rome) of good educational practices. An effective museum education, according to the author, should be able to interpret contemporary issues not only in terms of sustainable development, but also of multi-culture, democratisation, “human ethics” in compliance with the educational guidelines put forward by Morin for UNESCO: 13 “Science museums (and any other museum) cannot be strangers to the educational needs of our times: they should be actively involved in the change andin the search for solutions to contemporary problems. However, up to now, only a little part of the debate has apparently entered our museums (although in terms of Sustainable Development). (…) New educational goals for a new culture of sustainability require deep changes and should involve not only contents, but also contexts, languages, methods of expression, activities, relations with visitors: the entire strategy, management and museum life. This can stem only from a higher participation of the museum operators in the whole range of prospects and issues of sustainability and not only those of scientific research”.
Abstract Introduction: The cycling activity has increased in recent years, either as a means of leisure or physical activity or as means of transport. Discomfort is one of the main complaints for cyclists, especially when related to the type o pavement they use while riding. This work presents a study of measurement and evaluation of humanexposureto hand-arm vibration in the leisure cyclist activity in different pavements in order to classify according to vibration discomfort andto vibration injury risk. Methods: Vibration measurements are performed for three pavement types, asphalt (AS), precast concrete slab (PC), and interlocking concrete blocks (BI), using two bicycle models (time trial speed racing bike, S and mountain bike, MB), and cyclists with different physical characteristics. It is performed a quantitative analysis of each coni guration – pavement type × bike model × cyclist – where the daily vibration exposure A(8) is evaluated, as dei ned in ISO 5349-1 Standard, for 2h daily exposure. It is also evaluated the maximum daily exposurein order to reach limit values, as dei ned by Directive 2002/44/EC. Results: Based on a subjective analysis (survey), it is evaluated the comfort degree for vibration exposure for each tested pavement, according to a survey within cyclists. Finally, the results are compared using both quantitative and subjective analysis. Conclusions: Not surprisingly, it has been noticed that the most comfortable pavement type is the asphalt pavement (AS), followed by the precast concrete pavement (PC) and by the interlocking concrete blocks pavement (BI), coni rming the opinion pool within cyclists. As a new i nding, for some pavement types, bikes and daily journey activities, the vibration levels may reach health limit levels which justify the originality of the work and the importance as guidance for healthy public decisions for new cycle paths.
Anal fin ratios correlate with earlier observations of elongation in field samples collected in 2010 (Brockmeier, unpublished results) and the increase in the level of bone segmentation is also similar to previous findings [7,12]. Because the mechanism of anal fin growth in mosquitofish is associated with androgen concentration [14,27,28], these data appear to support an ongoing androgen exposure occurring at this site. In addition to anal fin growth, the mRNA levels of shh were upregulated in females from the Fenholloway River (Fig. 4). This gene is expressed in mosquitofish fry and adult females during androgen exposure [14,15], and is constitutively expressed in adult male anal fins (Erica K. Brockmeier, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, 2013). Other androgenic gene expression responses have also been seen downstream of other paper mills, such as spiggin expression in the kidneys of female three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to paper mill effluent . This gene is, however, only usable in members of the Gasterosteus genus, which is not found in Florida. The benefit of measuring shh or other biomarker genes to evaluate androgenicity, in addition to anal fin elongation, is that significant changes in gene expression occurs at time points of exposure earlier than physiological responses [14,15]. This sensitivity in terms of exposure timing can serve as an ‘early warning’ biomarker, indicating exposureto an androgenic compound before the physiological effects of anal fin growth manifest.
Undifferentiated RUES2 hESCs (Female line, Rockefeller University, NIH registry number 0013) were plated at 1.6x10 5 cells/cm 2 on Matrigel (BD) coated plates and maintained in an undifferentiated state with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) conditioned media containing 5 ng/mL hbFGF (Peprotech, 100-18B). Directed differentiations using a monolayer platform were performed based on previous reports  with a modified protocol. Undifferentiated hESCs were plated as single cells as described previously and upon reaching appropriate con- fluency, treated with the Wnt/β-catenin agonist CHIR-99021 (1 μM, Cayman chemical, 13122) for 24 hours. Cells were then exposed to Activin A (R&D SYSTEMS, 338-AC-050) (100 ng/ mL) in RPMI/B27 medium (day 0). After 17 hours, media was changed to RPMI/B27 medium containing BMP4 (R&D SYSTEMS, 314-BP-050) (5 ng/mL) and CHIR-99021 (1 μM, Cayman chemical,13122). On day 3, media was changed to RPMI/B27 medium containing the Wnt/β- catenin antagonist XAV-939 (1 μM; Tocris, 3748). Media was then changed on day 5 to RPMI/ B27 medium. From day 0 to day 5, the B27 supplement utilized did not contain insulin (Invi- trogen, 0050129SA). From day 7–14 a B27 supplement with insulin was used (Invitrogen, 17504044). For assays assessing the onset and rate of beating, cultures were analyzed indepen- dently during differentiation, with each well counted as n = 1.
Only samples that showed different restriction patterns from piroplasm species described in the literature were sequenced from data of two previous amplifications of the 18S rRNA gene, as described by Soares et al. (2011) with modifications. The sequences were aligned using the program Mega version 5 (TAMURA et al., 2011) to generate the unique sequence of each sample. The first PCR was performed with primers Bab 33-57 (5´-GCC AGT AGT CAT ATG CTT GTC TTA A- 3´) and Bab 432-409 (5´-TTC CTT AGA TGT GGT AGC CGT TTC- 3´), which amplify a fragment of ~370 bp. The program consisted of an initial denaturation step at 95 °C for 5 minutes, followed by 40 denaturation cycles at 95 °C for 40 seconds, annealing at 56 °C for 40 seconds and extension at 72 °C for 40 seconds. A final extension step at 72 °C for 5 minutes was performed. In the second amplification, the primers Bab 143-167 (5´-CCG TGC TAA TTG TAG GGC TAA TAC A- 3´) and Bab 858-834 (5´-CCT CTG ACA GTT AAA TAC GAA TGC C- 3´) were used, the latter being designed herein to amplify a fragment of ~715 bp. The reaction conditions were as follows: an initial denaturation step at 95 °C for 5 minutes, followed by 40 denaturation cycles at 95 °C for 1 minute, annealing at 64 °C for 1 minute and extension at 72 °C for 1 minute. A final extension step at 72 °C for 5 minutes was performed. For all amplifications, previously known positive B. vogeli samples and negative samples were used as controls.
ized on 26 November), discharge predictions driven by the global EPS fails to generate any relevant peak, while those driven by both LEPSs are remarkably better (Fig. 6, top panels). Although underestimated in magnitude, the possible occurrence of high discharge peaks is forecast respectively four and five days ahead by both LEPSs, thus their operational use would have provided a useful indication of the potential severity of
The events of 1989 helped Romanian mass-media to escape from the prison of censorship and conformism, of imposed but also self-imposed servitude. The changes happening in the political area also brought along a revolution of communication means. But not all was nice and good since in the new political framework, which featured a democracy in search of its own identity, the evolution of the mass-media also experienced such phenomena as the monopolisation of the public space, the cartelisation of the mass-media or the usage of media trusts as tools serving political interests.