Top PDF Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage of Travel Agencies in Montenegro

Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage of Travel Agencies in Montenegro

Human Resources as a Competitive Advantage of Travel Agencies in Montenegro

men have beter competencies, 16.7% that women have beter competencies because there are no men in the agency and 3.3% that men have beter competencies because there are no women in the agency. Responding as to whether they are saisied by human resources, the agency directors stated in 63.3% cases that they are saisied, in 33.3% cases that they are very saisied and in 3.3% cases that they are dissaisied. It is very important that the agen- cy directors are ready to send the employees for addiional educaion and rainings (86.7%), so that they would improve their competencies in the ields of: managing service ofer of the agency, managing the promoional mix, managing the disribuive mix of the agency, man- aging prices of the producive mix of the agency, consumer management, agency personnel management, stakeholders management and other domains of agency business operaion. In 63.3% agencies, employees are coninuously sent for addiional educaion and raining. Quantum and qualiy of generic and speciic competencies of human resources enables the agencies to create services and products of superior value for the consumers, which is an important segment of their compeiive advantage. Prevailing model of inancing of employ- ees in agencies, when it comes to addiional educaion is: 100% paricipaion of the agen- cy (in 46.7% cases). his is an indicator that agency human resources are approached rom the aspect of their compeiive advantage. At the same ime, this is an indicator that luctu- aion of human resources in ravel agencies is very small and that agency directors are mak- ing eforts to retain the personnel.
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Sustainable Competitive Advantage Needs Green Human Resource Practices: A Framework for Environmental Management

Sustainable Competitive Advantage Needs Green Human Resource Practices: A Framework for Environmental Management

In 1995, Hart developed the Natural Resource Based View (NRBV), which is based on the Resource Based View (RBV) theory developed by Barney (1991). The NRBV theory draws attention to environmental practices regarding sustainable competitive advantage. The NRBV proposes that sustainable competitive advantage is achieved when an enterprise’s resources which are valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable are related to specific strategic capabilities, such as pollution prevention, product stewardship and sustainable development (Hart, 1995). In addition, Hart and Dowell (2011) developed the Clean Technology and Base of Pyramid (BoP) to facilitate the implementation and measurement of the three environmental strategies. To develop these strategies, employees must get involved, and organizations must emphasize that environmental concerns are taken as a strategic value. Therefore, human resource (HR) policies and practices are critical to organizations in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, because organizations can incorporate sustainable habits into their routine and processes through HR policies and practices (Dubois & Dubois, 2012). These habits may be institutionalized into organizational culture if organizations promote changes in employees’ values and behaviors, for example, by developing HR systems (hiring and promoting) based on sustainable values (Aragón-Correa & Sharma, 2003; Borges & Michalisin, 2009; Chan, 2005; Hart, & Sharma, 2004).
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Use of entrepreuneurial social networks by women in the travel agencies creation process

Use of entrepreuneurial social networks by women in the travel agencies creation process

Regarding the scope of social net- works, Vale and Serafim (2010) found that fe- male networks were not very diverse, and this restricted access to other platforms. A possible reason for this might be related to the availability of time for these women, who do not find it so easy to socialize outside of their work and family environments, to which they dedicate much of their time. Another explanation given by Vale et al. (2011) for the low diversity of women’s networks lies in the historical social context portrayed in the im- age of the man as the provider. In their activ- ities outside of the family, men form net- works with predominantly weak ties, while women, with stronger links to their families, are involved in networks with strong ties. The problem that emerges from this characteris- tic of women’s networks is that the less dif- fuse her network is the less capacity a woman will have to obtain information that is useful for developing a competitive advantage (Vale & Serafim, 2010).
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Marketing resources, performance, and competitive advantage: a review and future research directions

Marketing resources, performance, and competitive advantage: a review and future research directions

intangible value propositions, physical or human processes, intellectual or relational properties (cf. Srivastava et al., 1998; Hooley et al., 2005). Marketing resources also vary in their direct or indirect contribution to competitive advantage. For example, “market-based” resources that have direct effects on competitive advantage and are immediately deployable, whereas “marketing support” resources that serve as support activities and have indirect effects on competitive advantage (Hooley et al., 2005). Market-based resources are critical factors of firm performance, because of their pivotal role in acquiring market knowledge, developing brands, creating marketing relationships, etc. However, Srivastava et al. (1998) pointed out problems of identification of these resources in financial statements and the lack of their direct effects to improve the firm performance. In this context, despite years of research across different academic disciplines, there is scant literature exploring the inter-relationships among marketing resources, competitive advantage and marketing performance. The problem lies in the fact that the literature rarely takes a holistic view and mostly takes a partial conceptual ground and limited empirical approach.
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The soft side of environmentally- sustainable organizations

The soft side of environmentally- sustainable organizations

© Charbel Jose Chiapetta Jabbour and Douglas William Scott Renwick. Published in RAUSP Management Journal. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode

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Can innovation be a sustainable competitive advantage for a bank?

Can innovation be a sustainable competitive advantage for a bank?

Banks exist for centuries as banking history is entangled with the history of money and as such it presents a long and rich track. Nevertheless, the following work will focus mostly on the years after the early 2000s, because it coincides with the full establishment of BNP Paribas group as a result of the merger of BNP and Paribas in the year 2000. Since the beginning of 21st century, and after an initial period of industry consolidation, the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September of 2008 led to a credit crunch and to a global banking crisis that caused significant financial stress on banks worldwide. This raised fears that the world economy was at risk of facing another depression similar to the Big Depression in the 1930s. As a response, central banks announced unconventional monetary policies including quantitative easing, and lower interest rates on banks’ deposits with the central bank in order to ease access to credit. This led to a crushing of bank’s margins (Solt, 2018) and consequently to a loss of profitability in the banking industry that it is still present nowadays. In 2017, the average Return on Equity (ROE) for banks in Europe remained below 8%, which is less than their cost of capital or the ROE of US Banks (Arnold, Jenkins and Noonan, 2018).
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Can a family business image be a source of competitive advantage?

Can a family business image be a source of competitive advantage?

On the contrary, there can also be situations where family-owned / -managed businesses do not self identify as such. Leonard Lauder, second-generation leader and chairman of Estée Lauder has publicly stated, “we’re not a family business – we’re a family in business” (Vaughan, 2004). This is despite the Lauder family owning 40% of the company’s stock, and controlling (through voting power) 87% of it (Estée Lauder Companies, 2016). This non- family firm self-identity also manifests itself in the company’s values, culture and behaviour. Rather than fostering a cooperative, teamwork culture that one might expect from family businesses (Miller, Lee, Chang & Le Breton-Miller, 2009), the company drives growth by pitting its internal brands as competitors against each other.
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Everis’ Internationalization strategy to the Nordic market

Everis’ Internationalization strategy to the Nordic market

Norwegian Consulting market is very mature; but has been growing at a stable rate. A major constraint to MC development is caused by managers that still have reservations about the Consulting market and prefer to solve everything within internal resources, leading to a slower reduction in the overcapacity of Consulting companies. In Norway, companies have always been frequent IT users, but the purchased capacities and capabilities were not used so often. In the last decade due to the World crises, companies have been trying to get full potential out of the existing systems that already had, instead of buying new ones. Although, many of the old systems are not operational anymore and competitors are pushing many companies to invest again, which has been translated into an increase in demand for IT services.
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The choice of technological innovation modes: a multiple case study in the green lighting industry in China

The choice of technological innovation modes: a multiple case study in the green lighting industry in China

The strategic objectives of semiconductor lighting during the “twelfth five-year plan” is to achieve a breakthrough in terms of basic research, cutting-edge technology, the application of technology, the industrialization demonstration of the whole innovation chain by 2015. At the same time it should solve the fundamental scientific problem of ultra-high efficiency nitride LED chips and obtain the core technology of a new generation of white light illumination. Other measures include: white LED luminous efficiency (150-200 lm/W) shall reach the international corresponding advanced level; the epitaxial growth of the substrate by the high efficiency of large-size sapphire, SiC and Si, should be achieved; the localization of 80% of the chips should be reached; the localization of large-scale key equipment and key supporting material (not less than 40 inches) such as MOCVD should happen; the manufacture of standardized and specified products that are healthy and environmentally-friendly in the field of general lighting, backlight and automobile should also be promoted. By 2015, the value of the industry will reach 500 billion RMB and save 100 billion kwh electricity every year and a national R & D platform and industrial base to cultivate a number of leading brands and to train a group of science and technology leaders in terms of technology and entrepreneurial talent should be formed.
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Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

Creating competitive poles – the sustainable model for obtaining the competitive advantage

The case of emergent countries could be brought into the spotlight. The case of Romania could be a successful one if they will follow the steps of other emergent countries that succeeded. A good example is Costa Rica, a country with an immaculate investment strategy. They started almost two decades ago their investment in education and they transformed the country nowadays in a pole for information technology. On Costa Rica there were done many papers, even Michael Porter stresses the fact that Costa Rica was a third world country that could be considered a second tier country at best, but today is a pole for technology. Intel opened a factory there, but with Intel there came the mandatory development of local infrastructure (transportation – roads and airports) and the economy opened to new investors (the suppliers of Intel started to see in the local market a huge opportunity for their company: as a market for their products and as a resource for their human capital). Until today the Costa Rica information technology pole isn’t developed completely, maybe there will pass another twenty years until the development and deployment process will be completed, but the continuous improvement creates small competitive advantages that help develop the local economy before the private sector grabbing the competitive advantage for their sake.
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Zimmerman (1999) in his article titled ―Mobile Computing: Characteristics, Benefits, and the Mobile fra mework‖ defined mobile computing as ―the use of computing devices, which usually interact in some way with a centralised information system while away from the normal fixed workplace‖. He went on to say that, Mobile computing technology enables the mobile person to create, access, process, store and communicate information without being constrained to a single location. It is on the above basis that this researcher views mobile computing as embracing a host of portable technologies the can access internet using wireless fidelity (WIFI). These range from notebook computers to tablets, to smartphones and e-book readers. Such devices have brought about Mobile learning (m-Learning) in Zimbabwe Polytechnics, enabling staff and students to share academic resources, be able to research and develop applications from wherever they are. Zimmerman (1999) went on to identify mobile computing hardware, software and communications in use then. He identified hardware as palmtops, clamshells, handheld Pen Keys, pen slates, and laptops. The characteristics of such devices in terms of screen size was small, processing capability was limited and supported a few mobile applications. Over the years mobile devices have improved in such characteristics to make mobile computing easy, fast and user friendly. Great improvements also came with the associated systems software, with the modern devices now running on Android, Symbian and windows 8 mobile, as compared to then when MS DOS, Windows 3.1, Pen DOS were used. In communications Zimmerman talked of internet speeds in kilobytes per second (Kbps), while today’s communications devices have speeds of gigabytes per second (Gbps
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Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

Human Capital and the Recent Fall of Earnings Inequality in Brazil

where is a set of linear restrictions that transforms the unrestricted model (1) on restricted model (2). 8 In our case, the restriction implies that the age, trend and (orthogonal) time dummies are sufficient to explain the behavior of each estimated statistic order across cells and over time. Imposing the restrictions means estimating weighted least squares regressions on the grouped data, for each quantile and education group separately. This procedure will give us consistent estimates of . Under the null that the restrictions are valid, the minimized value follows a chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of restrictions. In order to construct the test statistics, we only have to sum up the weighted squared residuals, that is, the estimated percentiles minus the predicted values minus the orthogonal time dummies.
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Identifying and ranking the factors affecting entrepreneurial marketing to facilitate exports

Identifying and ranking the factors affecting entrepreneurial marketing to facilitate exports

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are believed the most important components of today’s businesses and they can boost the growth of economy. This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify and rank important factors influencing on entrepreneurial marketing to facilitate exports of SMEs. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 387 randomly selected entrepreneurs who act as managers of some SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.873, which is well above the acceptable level. Using principle component analysis, the study has determined four factors including competitive intelligence, competitive advantage, external factors and internal factors to facilitate the export of SMEs.
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Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem  vol.23 número5

Rev. LatinoAm. Enfermagem vol.23 número5

of foot ulcers in diabetes mellitus patients, show improvement in some health indicators, such as; reducing the number of amputations, hospitalizations and health costs. Or when assuming their share of responsibility in monitoring pregnant women with a view to normal childbirth, nurses are able to show how advanced practice can reduce the number of unnecessary cesareans. Still, when prescribing medicines for patients with chronic diseases, the follow-up shows a good control of the disease. Or when dedicated to the development and validation of models on social and behavioral science to strengthen patients’ adherence to healthy behaviors, reducing the number of patients to health services, among other possible strategies.
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THE LEARNING PROCESS OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES AS PRACTICE: AN ETHNOMETHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN TRAVEL AGENCIES

THE LEARNING PROCESS OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES AS PRACTICE: AN ETHNOMETHODOLOGICAL APPROACH IN TRAVEL AGENCIES

We can not see today a travel agent without the presence of technology, especially the right tools and systems, but at the same time, technology has major problems that is direct competition with the Internet. Today this technology comes straight to the final customer, passenger, now the customer has the possibility to search and often know more than you, because the technology itself. But today the tools of an agency are fully connected to the portals, the issuance of electronic tickets on time, hotel voucher, online reservation anywhere in the world, linking all of a sudden your system with the system for other companies and outside the tools today's disclosure, social networking ... then that agency today to be complete today, I think ... technology is connected to everything right! Although it had not so much technology, perhaps we had even better results. Today you gain efficiency, but at the same time, you ... lost in customization, you lose in support ... because you end up ... serving the customer ... always with the tool of technology then becomes a business rather impersonal, then this is the role, role of technology.
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The importance of the internet in travel planning and destination choice of the independent traveller

The importance of the internet in travel planning and destination choice of the independent traveller

The main characteristic of this model is that it identifies two forms of suppressed demand. Deferred demand is the state, in which the suppliers of tourism products and services cannot fulfil the demand. This is distinct from the situation of potential demand, which implies there is a willingness to travel, but that it is suppressed by factors in the person’s life, whether economic or social, thus inhibiting a person from acting upon their motivation. The other pinpointed variants of demand are, “effective demand”; which constitutes the existing market or those who are already participating in tourism, and “no demand”, the final category which distinguishes those with no desire to travel or a lack of motivation. This final form renders the “determinants” irrelevant.
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Review of Information Technology Effect on Competitive Advantage- Strategic Perspective

Review of Information Technology Effect on Competitive Advantage- Strategic Perspective

Because information systems strategy guides information systems and business decisions, it seems reasonable to conclude that investigating the results of aligning information systems strategy and organisational strategy requires considering the effects of mutual alignment. In the late 1980s, a number of models were provided to evaluate the extent of alignment of business strategies and IS/IT strategies. While the concept of strategic alignment has been in use for many years, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Management in the 1990s, research project attached a particular meaning to the concept in the context of IS/IT management (Scott Morton ,1991). Their analysis is based on the assertion that the failure of organisations to realize value from IS/IT investments is, in part, as a result of lack of alignment between business and IS/IT strategies. They developed a model that represented the dynamic alignment between the business strategic context and the IT strategic context. This model is based on the building blocks of strategic integration and functional integration. Further, Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) explained that the alignment perspective should—at minimum— involve four domains of strategic choice: business strategy, organisational infrastructure and processes, IT strategy and IT infrastructure and processes (see Figure 7). They also discussed that a business strategy is the driver of both organisational design choice and the design of information systems infrastructure. Additionally, in case of organisational performance, Dedrick et al. (2004) assert that the results of information systems investment over the last decade demonstrate a significant positive organisational performance relationship, and Benjamin and Levinson (1993) conclude that performance depends on how information systems resource is integrated with organisational, technical, and business resources., In other words, the impact of information systems on performance may not be a direct one, but intermediated by other factors such as the alignment between information systems strategy and business strategy. Consequently, the factors such as, effective management (Broadbent & Weill, 1993), efficient resource usage, flexibility, adaptability, communication, and executive support should occur as a result of alignment
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MAXSTORE: the launch of a new platform to gain a competitive advantage

MAXSTORE: the launch of a new platform to gain a competitive advantage

In the products and services for partners, in the service category, there are no rappels or commissions negotiated, since initially they were introduced only to employees. Thus, in order to allow more space for better discounts and offers, RE/MAX Portugal decided to keep contracts with partners without rappels or negotiated commissions. In this way, the partnerships are based on an exchange of interests where the partners offer reduction of prices or campaigns and RE/MAX passes them along to their network of clients. So, there are currently seventeen partners on the RE/MAX card. There are several partners that are not in MAXSTORE, such as El Corte Ingles, because they only offer occasional campaigns that are communicated via email to employees and clients who have the card. However, the RE/MAX Card is sold for 1,23 euros, which financially contributes to MAXSTORE's financial results. The management of the RE/MAX card is included in the monthly fees, and as the project broke even financially before being implemented in MAXSTORE, the sales of the card were all profit for the company.
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Indian Banking: Value Creation for Competitive Advantage in the Global Environment

Indian Banking: Value Creation for Competitive Advantage in the Global Environment

Although many approaches to improve quality in health care organizations have been implemented along the past century (Ramsaran-Fowdar, 2008), so performance measurement is not easy, particularly in health and public services (Crescent, 2008). On the other hand, many national quality awards originated after 1990 and some are still at that stage of accumulating learned experiences through assessing organizations on their processes. All the awards represent organizational efforts to enhance international reputation in an increasingly competitive environment in multi-national organizations (Xiang et al., 2010).
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A research in sustainable competitive positional advantage of english dailies in Tamilnadu (India)

A research in sustainable competitive positional advantage of english dailies in Tamilnadu (India)

The field of application has been tested in Newspaper sector of the print media. The study area has been identified as one of the state provinces of India, viz., Tamilnadu. The pilot study has been carried out in Chidambaram town which is coming under the B3 category of Socio-Economic Class in two phases. The first phase has been carried out during the working days to meet the respondent and seek the responses. The second phase of field study as pilot exercise has been carried out on holidays. In the first phase around 75 respondents approached and around 60 responses have been used for reliability study using Cronbach's Alpha test. The results of the study have been verified and it was found to be favourable for bipolar scale with 0.69 alpha co-efficients which is expressing the competitive positional advantage part of SCPA. The sustainability part of SCPA where the items have been adhered to Likert's scale type, importance scale and rating scale type of questions, the result has been found below 0.33 alpha co-efficient.
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