Top PDF The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella) from South America

The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella) from South America

The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella) from South America

Remarks. he area where specimens of H. imbya were collected was severely al- tered in the last recent years (Fig. 7). he area sufered during decades with agriculture, but the recent impacts were even more harmful. Such area is drained to a tributary stream which lows to Ijuí river (its margin was about 3.5 km far from the sampled area). In 2011 the riparian vegetation of this tributary was removed (Fig. 7B) and a res- ervoir was illed, looding the deforested area (Fig. 7C). he phreatic level was altered since the distance between the sampled area and the nearest reservoir´s margin was reduced to about 2 km. In a visit maid on March 30, 2012 by two of the authors (S. G. Rodrigues and A. A. P. Bueno) to the same area no specimen was found. he area was completely dry and no spring was observed. It seems that changes in the hydrological parameters due to the building of São José reservoir altered the species habitat. Further considerations regarding such impacts will be discussed later.
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Brazil and Regional Integration in South America: Lessons from the EU’s Crisis

Brazil and Regional Integration in South America: Lessons from the EU’s Crisis

As the undisputed leader in regional initiatives, due largely to its eco- nomic size and power, Brazil has often looked to Europe in its discur- sive construction of an institutional project for its region. President Lula and his Foreign Minister, Celso Amorim, made European-style integration in South America a key goal. As early as his first speech after being elected in 2002, the Brazilian President made it clear that commercial agreements between regional blocs would be a foreign policy priority, thus echoing the EU’s traditional preference for inter- regional trade (ASSIS; MACHADO DA COSTA JR., 2003). In this regard, not only would MERCOSUR need more integration inter- nally, but it would also need to look strategically at the rest of the world to seal new partnerships, including in Africa and the Middle East. Soon after the new government’s formation, Foreign Minister Celso Amorim made explicit reference to the EU-model by arguing that MERCOSUR’s “agenda of stronger ties in regional integration is a multifaceted project, similar to the European Union” (AMORIM, 2003):
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Isoetes pedersenii, a new species from Southern South America

Isoetes pedersenii, a new species from Southern South America

During the development of the Project “Flórula del Parque Nacional Mburucuyá”, subproject “Flórula Pteri- dophytica”, several nomenclatural problems became ev- ident for the treatment of taxa in that national park. One of the nomenclatural problems concerns Isoetes peder- senii, which was effectively published for the first time by H.P. Fuchs-Eckert (1982) and later accepted by Mac- luf et al. (2006a, b). However, in none of the publica- tions it was published with a latin diagnosis as specified in articles 32.1 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature of Vienna (Mc Neill et al. 2007). Fuchs- Eckert (1982) mentioned the existence of a holotype housed in the Herbarium of Paris (P), which was col- lected in Corrientes, Argentina. The data supplied in the publication is mentioned below:
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Rediscovered after 77 years: Odontodiaptomus thomseni – a rare species of calanoid (Crustacea: Copepoda) from South America

Rediscovered after 77 years: Odontodiaptomus thomseni – a rare species of calanoid (Crustacea: Copepoda) from South America

Female. Prosome: Body length: 1,662 µm, maximum width: 283 µm. Slightly asymmetrical rostrum, with paired ros- tral filaments but right thickened in their median part (Fig. 17). Suture between fourth and fifth pedigerous somites incomplete; groups of long, fine spinules present on dorsal and lateral sur- faces of pedigerous somites 3 to 5. Fifth pedigerous somite with well-developed posterolateral wings (Fig. 25); wings asymmetri- cal, right larger than left and terminating in sharp spinous pro- cess, with two chitinuous protuberances. Urosome: Genital double-somite asymmetrical, ca. 2 broader than longer; with well- developed spinous process on left side, at tip of expansion (Fig. 25); right side with large curved expansion on outer margin; genital area protruding; anterior part as a wide cuticular pad, with a crescentic margin; posterior pad with straight margin; gonoporal plates oval, symmetrical, showing the gonoporal slits. Part posterior to genital area showing some transverse cuticular folds (Fig. 23); second urosomite as wide as long (Fig. 25), with rounded chitinous process on margin of left side, plus other smaller processes on dorsal and ventral surfaces of segment (Fig. 26). Caudal rami: Symmetrical, 1.5 times longer than wide, or- namented with setules along inner and outer margins of both caudal rami; caudal setae thick. Antennula: Antennules reach- ing end of caudal rami. Setal formula as for left antennule of male (Figs 20-22 and 27). Antenna (Figs 18 and 19): Biramous, coxa with one seta, basis with two setae. Endopod 2-segmented: first segment with two setae in mid part; ornamented with row Figures 11-13. Odontodiaptomus thomseni male: (11) exopod and
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First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

Specific data about risk factors for parasitic infec- tion, including demographic, socio-cultural, and envi- ronmental variables, and as well as the presence/absence of signs/symptoms were collected from each human par- ticipant. Data corresponding to the following variables were selected: demographic: sex and age; socio-cultural: residence (urban or rural); sanitary condition of the hous- es (good, medium or poor). “Good” included masonry building, cement/tile floors, fully-equipped bathroom, running water, sewage system, and garbage collection. “Medium” included masonry, cement/tile floors, fully- equipped/half equipped bathroom, home water pump, cesspool and no garbage collection (garbage buried or burnt). “Poor” included wooden/cardboard and/or tin building, dirt floors, latrine, water from a community pump or tap, and open-sky garbage disposal. Overcrowd- ing (yes or no) meant three or more people sleeping in the same room. Environmental: house flooding (never, sometimes, or frequently), where “sometimes” flooding was up to twice a year and “frequently” flooding ocurred three or more times a year. Clinical: presence/absence of
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Petasiger Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Birds and Mollusks from Brazil

Petasiger Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Birds and Mollusks from Brazil

Species of Petasiger Dietz, 1909 are intestinal trematodes of aquatic birds. Despite the diversity of described species in Europe and North America, only two South American species are known and no species have been previously reported in birds from Brazil. During a study of helminths recovered from the Least Grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus (Linnaeus, 1766), from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, adult trematodes identified as Petasiger novemdecim Lutz, 1928 were found. The prevalence of infection was 55% (5/9), and the mean intensity of infection was 8 (1-32) parasites. Additionally, Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) and Biomphalaria tenagophila (d’Orbigny, 1835) obtained from aquatic collections in the same state were found to harbor two species of echinostome cercariae of the Magnacauda group. These cercariae developed into metacercariae in experimentally infected Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859. Attempts to obtain adult parasites in vertebrate host models (mice, chickens, ducks and canaries) were unsuccessful. The present study is the first report of Petasiger in Brazilian birds and the first morphological description of larvae of these parasites in Brazilian mollusks. Taxonomic aspects related to South American species of Petasiger are discussed. It is suggested that, based on significant morphological differences observed in larval stages (i.e., larval dimensions) and adult parasites (i.e., disposition of the testes), Petasiger caribbensis Nassi, 1980 should be reconsidered as a distinct species from P. novemdecim.
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One maternal lineage leads the expansion of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the New and Old worlds

One maternal lineage leads the expansion of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) in the New and Old worlds

tion event might not be the actual first incursion and the establishment of a pest. Therefore, because of the short distance and the short period of this pest’s detection between Mexico and California (USA), it is impossible to know definitely in which country of North America T. peregrinus first entered. However, the presence of the same haplotype A in all areas of the Americas, suggests that a single invasion starting from South America and spread- ing northward to California might have occurred. Nevertheless, as before, Australia should also be considered as a source of T. peregrinus in North America because of the presence of haplotype A.
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First record of the invasive tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Pseudophyllidea; Bothriocephalidae) in native freshwater fish, Brazil

First record of the invasive tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Pseudophyllidea; Bothriocephalidae) in native freshwater fish, Brazil

This cestode is widely distributed throughout the Americas. In North America, many authors recorded S. acheilognathi in several localities in the United States (Cole and Choudhury 2016). Salgado-Maldonado and Rubio-Godoy (2014) updated the distribution of this tapeworm in Mexico, where the species peaks its invasive host record in America (50 freshwater fish species from seven families). In Central America, this parasite has been recorded from Puerto Rico (Bunkley-Williams and Williams 1994), Panama (Choudhury et al. 2013) and Honduras (Salgado-Maldonado et al. 2015). In South America, Schyzocotyle was reported in Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 from a Brazilian fish farm at the municipality of Cornélio Procópio, northern Paraná State (Rego et al. 1999), and inhabiting natural environment in C. carpio from Neuquen River, Patagonia, Argentina (Waicheim et al. 2014). So far, there was no report of this parasite in South American native fishes. Herein we firstly
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DISTRIBUTION OF WARM WATER ALPHEOID SHRIMP (CRUSTACEAJ CARIDEA) ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF EASTERN SOUTH AMERICA BETWEEN 23 AND 35°

DISTRIBUTION OF WARM WATER ALPHEOID SHRIMP (CRUSTACEAJ CARIDEA) ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF EASTERN SOUTH AMERICA BETWEEN 23 AND 35°

Descriptions of new genera and species of macrurous Crustacea from the coasts of North America. Aspects of the bio10gy of northern Florida Bay and adjacent estuar[r]

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Population ecology of Chaetophractus vellerosus: the first report for an armadillo in South America

Population ecology of Chaetophractus vellerosus: the first report for an armadillo in South America

We sought to capture armadillos within a 100 ha area located in an agricultural field (Figs 1, 2). This field was selected based on a previous study that documented considerable signs of armadillo activity there (Abba et al. 2007). Our capture and marking techniques followed those developed by Loughry and McDonough (2013) for D. novemcinctus. From June 2006 to June 2011, we conducted 16 field surveys. In the first years, surveys were conducted from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm, with two surveys in each of the four seasons of the year, with the exception of winter of 2007 when only one survey was conducted (a total of nine surveys in 2006–2007). In 2008 only one survey was con- ducted (during the summer) due to logistic constraints. From 2009 onward we made two surveys per year, one that involved sampling at night during the summer (7:00 pm to 1:00 am, three surveys total), and the other sampling during the day in winter (10:00 am to 6:00 pm, three surveys total). This change in methodology was based on data collected during the first two years of our study (2006, 2007), in which we detected a switch in the behavior of the animals between hot and cold seasons, but found that the intermediate seasons (fall and spring) did not show different patterns (Abba et al. 2011).
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A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

A diplodocid sauropod survivor from the early cretaceous of South America.

In this context, the discovery of Leinkupal laticauda in rocks belonging to the Early Cretaceous of South America represents not only the first certain diplodocid for any Cretaceous locality, but also the first for South America at any time. The new record demonstrates that although all diplodocoids originated during Middle Jurassic times, probably around Bajocian or Bathonian times, diplodocids thrived in Late Jurassic times and survived in southern continents until the Early Cretaceous. Dicraeosaurids thrived during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous times, and rebbachisaurids only thrived during the early Late Cretaceous, the former in western Laurasia and the latter on southern continents. Carballido et al. [36] proposed that the main neosauropod clades should have originated only by the late Mid Jurassic, but because the Middle and Upper Jurassic was times of maximum marine transgressions[67], a passage for broad movements of terrestrial tetrapods only existed earlier or later. Though Remes [11] considered that most Gondwanan diplodocoids were less derived in morphology, suggesting a southern origin for the group, this is not true for any member of the flagellicaudatan clade. More accurately, all diplodocoid basal forms show a peculiar global distribution (as Remes considers as a second hypothetical option), suggesting high dispersive capabilities through wide distances and varied environments, including deserts. In this context, it is highly possible that rebbachisaurids never entered North America or became extinct prior to the depositation of the Morrison Figure 4. Phylogenetic position of Leinkupal laticauda , gen. n. sp. n. (A) Strict consensus tree recovered after the inclusion of Leinkupal laticauda in a published data matrix focused on Diplodocoidea relationships [21]. (B) Most parsimonious tree recovered after the inclusion of Leinkupal laticauda in another published data matrix focused on Diplodocidae relationships [22]. Support values (Bremer/Bootstrap) of principal nodes are in brackets.
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Traduzindo as Regras do Futebol na América do Sul, 1863-1914

Traduzindo as Regras do Futebol na América do Sul, 1863-1914

Britain’s only formal British possession in South America, in the mid-1800s, and Demerara (the team representing the colony of Guiana, today Guyana) played Barbados in first-class fixtures in 1865 (Beckles, 1998). Here, as elsewhere in Britain’s Caribbean colonies, cricket was introduced as a strictly hierarchical form of separation and control, but adopted and even- tually mastered by the local populations of black and Indian heritage. As C.L.R. James wrote in Beyond a Boundary, cricket was both a sport and a form of drama with an extraordinary representative capacity: “the long hours … the measured ritualism and the varied and inten- sive physical activity which take place within it… leaves human personality on view” (1963: 194). In the late 1800s, Guyana was far from being the exception in South America. Stitching together references from a very fragmented set of sources we can see that cricket was being played in most seaports where British merchants were found. The sources suggest that it was cricket that set the foundations for football and its international, representative nature as it grew out of cricket clubs and grounds in the 1890s (for example, Chilian Times, 7 Jan. 1882; Magellan Times, 7 Jan. 1914). But there was little attempt to proselytize the game or found new clubs amongst the local population. It seems like cricketers did not necessarily trust that locally-born South Americans could behave according to the strict honour code of their game, or want to encourage them to do so.
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The Brasiliano collage in South America : a review

The Brasiliano collage in South America : a review

Manuscrito ID 30148. Recebido em: 05/08/2014. Aprovado em: 29/08/2014. ABSTRACT:Analysis of recent geological and geochronolo- gical data from the basement of the South American platform indicates that the Brasiliano orogenic collage took place in four distinct pulses: a) Early Cryogenian (ca. 800 – 740Ma); b) Late Cryogenian-Early Ediacaran (ca. 660 – 610 Ma); c) Early-Middle Ediacaran (c. 590 – 560 Ma); and d) Late Cambrian (520 – 500 Ma). The first three pulses are well represented in most Neopro- terozoic structural provinces in West Gondwana. The youngest orogenic phase/pulse, however, is only seen in Argentina (Pampe- an Orogeny) and Brazil, in eastern Rio de Janeiro State (Búzios Orogeny). The period between ca. 750 and 500 Ma is compara- ble to that reported for the amalgamation of various continental fragments in East (Arabian-Nubian, Mozambique, Kuunga) and North Gondwana (Cadomian). However, important differences in the nature and ages of events are recognized, which can be expected in view of the magnitude of Gondwana agglutination and the diversity of paleogeographic and tectonic scenarios. West Gondwana shows an interesting peculiarity: lithologically and tectonically diversified Tonian terranes underlie Brasiliano oro- genic buildups. They were strongly reworked during most of the orogenic pulses. The Tonian terranes (1000 – 900 Ma) and their relation with Rodinia or with the processes of Gondwana fusion remains an open question. Indications of their presence in East Gondwana are still poorly documented.
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The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America) belonging to haplogroup Q – virtually the only branch of the Y phylogeny observed in modern-day Amerindians of Central and South America – together with 27 from Mongolia and Kamchatka. Two main founding lineages, Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3), were detected along with novel sub-clades of younger age and more restricted geographic distributions. The first was also observed in Far East Asia while no Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) Y chromosome was found in Asia except the southern Siberian-specific sub-clade Q1a3a1c-L330. Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region. Although Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) display overlapping general distributions, they show different patterns of evolution in the Mexican plateau and the Andean area, which can be explained by local differentiations due to demographic events triggered by the introduction of agriculture and associated with the flourishing of the Great Empires.
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The first isolations of eastern encephalitis, group C, and Guama group arboviruses from the Peruvian Amazon region of western South America

The first isolations of eastern encephalitis, group C, and Guama group arboviruses from the Peruvian Amazon region of western South America

The group C virus were isolated in the Amazon region of agents were Caraparuassa, Marituba, and Peru near Pucallpa, Loreto Department, using Oriboca-Itaqui viruses[r]

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Bras. Political Sci. Rev.  vol.11 número2

Bras. Political Sci. Rev. vol.11 número2

The South American countries are states with common roots that have experienced the same influences through time, suffered similar problems (political, social and economic), which may have influenced them to adopt a different view on how to perceive and respond to conflict. Thus, as they do not have the resources needed for a total war, this entailed the development of FFAA according to their needs. That is, they have dissuasive capacity that allows them to face, at any given moment, a limited conflict and in a relatively short time, to later resolve it through diplomatic channels offered by international organizations in a better position at the negotiating table. Two considerations emerge, based on this conclusion: first, the reality of the conflicts in South America is unique and distinct from the average, and from the extremes associated with the intensity of international conflicts; second, a temporal persistence is associated with the low intensity of South American conflicts, in the context where the cyclic dichotomy between latency and conflict is present.
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Description of the first species of Metharpinia (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phoxocephalidae) from Brazil

Description of the first species of Metharpinia (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phoxocephalidae) from Brazil

ABSTRACT. A new amphipod species of Metharpinia Schellenberg, 1931 is described from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazilian coast. The material was collected with van Veen grab from unconsolidated substratum, off the mouth of the Paraíba do Sul River. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting a strongly constricted rostrum and a slender palp of maxilla 1. There are four species in Metharpinia from the South Atlantic: M. dentiurosoma Alonso de Pina, 2003, M. grandirama Alonso de Pina, 2003 and M. iado Alonso de Pina, 2003, and Metharpinia taylorae sp. nov. This is the first record of a species of the genus from Brazilian waters.
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First Record of Cleantioides planicauda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Holognathidae) from South Korea

First Record of Cleantioides planicauda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Holognathidae) from South Korea

Cleantioides planicauda is distinguished from other Korean species by several characters listed in the key. Cleantioides poorei Kwon and Kim, 1992 is very similar to C. planicauda regarding the following: 1) planiform region of the pleotel- son with anteriorly bilobed depression (more distinct in C. poorei); and 2) the shape of the head (anterior margin emar- ginated at midpoint). However, C. planicauda differs from C. poorei in having longer antenna 2; much slender pereopod 7; narrower body (5.1 times longer than the greatest width in C. planicauda versus 4 times in C. poorei); the number of dorsally visible coxal plates (visible dorsally on pereonites 5-7 in C. planicauda versus on pereonites 2-7 in C. poorei); and suture of maxillipedal palp between 2 and 3 (complete suture in C. planicauda versus partial suture in C. poorei).
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SOME DIGENEA PARASITES OF TUNNY FROM THE COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

SOME DIGENEA PARASITES OF TUNNY FROM THE COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

Tergestia laticollis was originally described from the Mediterranean Sea in Trachurus trachurus and has been reported from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in different hosts. Regarding tunna, this trematode was already reported from Puerto Rico in Euthynnus alletteratus by Siddiqi & Cable (1960), and in Florida (after Yamaguti, 1971). We found one specimen which is in agreement with those reported previously. This species is being reported for the first time in South America and in Thunnus albacares, representing a new host record.
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Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

Genetic differences between Chibcha and Non-Chibcha speaking tribes based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups from 21 Amerindian tribes from Colombia

Only 12 out of 424 individuals showed none of the four founder mtDNA haplogroups (2.8%). These individu- als may either have unrecognized founder lineages (Bailliet et al., 1994), recent racial admixture (Torroni et al., 1993a) or reversal of a mutation. The second possibility could be the case for the Wayuu, Arsario and Paez tribes in which admixture has been documented by blood groups and HLA class II genes (Yunis et al., 1994, 2001). The third possibil- ity, which is termed haplogroup C revertant, is common in populations found in the Colombian Orinoquian and Ama- zonian basin (Torres et al., 2006). This may be the case for the Piapoco tribe of our study that showed a 25% frequency of non A-D haplogroups. A high frequency (59%) for the revertant C haplogroup had previously been found by Tor- res et al. (2006) for this tribe. The same scenario is possible for the Piartapuyo (12.5%), Tuyuca (16%) and Guanana (10%) Amerindian tribes that live geographically close to- gether in the Northern Amazonian region of Colombia. They present low genetic admixture based on Y STR haplo- types (Campo, D and, JJY, unpublished data) and HLA Class II genes (unpublished data).
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