Top PDF THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

The touristic potential of Romania is composed of a variety of forms of relief, springs with mineral and thermal water, lakes used for recreation, swimming and sport fishing, a valuable hunting fund amassed in coniferous and broadleaf forests, diverse landscapes from the mountain peaks of over 2000 metres to the plains, to the seaside and the Danube Delta. The grouping of elements with touristic potential, the infrastructure and the development on the Romanian territory is the result of the connections established between man and nature along time, as a consequence of the historic and natural evolution, which has lead to the separation of touristic provinces (regions, areas, centres, localities, etc.) each one reflecting a certain degree of complexity, as a touristic potential, infrastructure, as well as a way of performing the tourism activities. Consequently, the contour of touristic axes that go across various provinces, areas, centres, localities and objectives has been produced.
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Tourism in Timor Leste: contributions to a sustainable development

Tourism in Timor Leste: contributions to a sustainable development

This study was conducted in local communities in three districts, Díli, Baucau, and Maliana which have not only potential tourism resources but also vocational tourism activities. Díli is the capital of Timor-Leste and was founded on the 10 th October in 1769; it is the centre for public administration, education and business activities. Díli has a population surpassing 228,559 people (NSD & UNFPA, 2010). It is located in the north coast of the territory. Its natural tourist attractiveness stems from the beaches, the island of Atauro, the marine biodiversity such as coral reefs, dolphins and whales and good diving locations. In this area there are several historical sites, the cultural and religious heritage reveals the struggle for independence in the country (UNWTO, 2007). Baucau is the second city of Timor-Leste, situated in the eastern part of the territory, located 122km from Díli and having a population surpassing 110,160 people (NSD & UNFPA, 2010). Maliana is the capital of the Bobonaro District, located 149km to the southwest of Díli in the western part of the country, near the border with Indonesia. It has 91,199 inhabitants (NSD & UNFPA, 2010).
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Importance of local participation in achieving equity in benefitsharing mechanisms for REDD+: a case study from the Juma Sustainable Development Reserve

Importance of local participation in achieving equity in benefitsharing mechanisms for REDD+: a case study from the Juma Sustainable Development Reserve

To develop the interview questions, I began by carrying out an exploratory study to clarify the subject, given the absence of a clear definition of benefit- sharing mechanisms and how they should be implemented. To complement the secondary data available, I then emailed a questionnaire to a group of academics identified as experts in ‘REDD+-like’ schemes, including PES, whom I selected based on their representation and relevance to the study’s conceptual framework. Eight respondents participated in this part of the research. The questionnaire covered the experts’ views on REDD+ equity, criteria for the distribution of REDD+ benefits, priority of REDD+ investments, methods for local participation, and awareness of the Juma project. The results of this part of the research served to guide the field research in terms of important aspects related to sharing benefits from REDD+, including the actions that are necessary to ensure that REDD+ resources are distributed effectively and the preconditions to secure fairness in the distribution of REDD+ benefits.
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The SPA Tourism Perception in Romania

The SPA Tourism Perception in Romania

Statistics announced in general an increase in the number of tourists from to Fig. no. .a and .b . )n Romania has practiced by providing tourist services, an aggressive policy for the presentation of tourist products. Only during the period - , participated in approximately trade fairs and exhibitions annual international of which in Europe, two in the Middle East, two in North America and one in Japan occasions by which companies Romanian tourist was present, have exposed and have negotiated contracts for international tourism, and over . million visitors came to Romania stands. Aggressive campaign to promote tourism spend it seems that has a positive effect on the destination "subsidised spa resorts", that each year of the period to was, at the time, characterised by a surplus of foreign tourists from the precedent, from persons in to people in . )t is not an accident that, in the "Study on merits of the development strategy of tourism in Romania's accession to the European Union, Phase ) - tourism in Romania - analysis of the situation existing, Bucharest, September, "show that in between all tourist destinations, spas were very well flows of foreign tourists, the issuing country main tourists to Romania, (ungary, Germany, )srael, Austria - held , % of the market, a percentage higher than the average net by country. And currently same remained issuing countries, only that the positions have changed.
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The necessity to focus on the development of low carbon cities in urban management structure

The necessity to focus on the development of low carbon cities in urban management structure

Urbanization is developed along with the economic growth and development of countries. This phenomenon has led to increasing the energy consumption in urban areas and consequently, the emission of greenhouse gases. Increasing greenhouse gas emissions with carbon source in urban areas and its adverse effects due to universality have affected all countries. This became a concern for the international community. Thus, the idea of low-carbon cities has been raised at the international level. Efficient use of energy, better use of public transportation systems, improving recycling and increasing public awareness are the important factors in achieving the low-carbon cities. Urbanization is increased in all developing countries in the process of moving on the path of economic growth and development. In this path, our country is faced with rapidly increasing urbanization. Some shortcomings in urban management created many problems such as environmental problems especially for big cities. Due to the importance of sustainable urban management and urban development, focusing on the establishment of a comprehensive program to reduce carbon emissions in cities is a prerequisite for the development of public transport increasing the efficiency of energy consumption, financing the emission reduction projects, improving the recycling system of municipal solid waste on the role of urban management and taking a step in the direction of low-carbon cities. Thus, developing the carbon emission reducing plans is inevitable in urban management structure along with the growth and development of cities. Keywords: urbanization, urban management, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, low-carbon city
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Impacts of tourism on geomorphological processes in the Bucegi Mountains in Romania

Impacts of tourism on geomorphological processes in the Bucegi Mountains in Romania

In order to promote a sustainable development of tourism on the plateau, it is argued here that three main courses of action should be taken. The first one is a redrawing of the whole road and footpath net- work. Some paths should be closed and hiking should be concentrated on a smaller network of well sign- posted paths reinforced against erosion. The second suggestion is to restore the vegetal cover on degraded slopes by construction of micro terraces. Experiments related to this line of action show good results for the area around Babele chalet, but the costs are very high. Finally, interest in the geomorphological landforms of the area (Babele geomorphosites) and education of tourists about the effects of erosion should be pro- moted. Knowledge of the processes of erosion caused by tourists should make them more sensitive to the effects of their own impact on the environment. It is suggested that these actions could be integrated into a directory plan to be implemented, for example, by the nature park administration.
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Considering the importance of deploying actions for the sustainable development as a way to promote health in vulnerable communities, we share the experience of a nursing research group conducting extension activities in quilombo communities, seeking to disseminate to the academic and scientiic community other perspectives on the extension practices than those of health assistance nature usually developed in the course of nursing. Moreover, considering the scarcity of studies on extension activities in nursing focusing on health promotion from sustainable development, this study has unprecedented nature from the scientiic point of view, contributing to the strengthening of extension practices in health care area.
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The role of travel intermediaries in the development of sustainable mountain tourism. The case of Turkey

The role of travel intermediaries in the development of sustainable mountain tourism. The case of Turkey

The incoming tourists are generally interested in re- sorts and historical locations in Turkey. In addition the ingoing tourism movements are focusing on 3S, thermal and winter tourism consequently. With respect to the globalized expectations and needs of the consumers in 20th century, new and shining tourism type “mountain tourism” is getting familiar and popular. With regard to the geographical resources in Turkey, the incoming de- mand points out some important locations with the ne- cessary natural foundation such as the mountains Ararat (A ğrı), Hakkari-Cilo & Sat, Rize-Kaçkar, Kayseri-Erciyes & Niğde-Aladağlar etc. Despite the fact that mountain tourism is getting familiar in Turkey as well, gaining ad- vantage from this side of tourism mostly depends on the planned, settled developments targeting ingoing tourists. The most effective branch of mountain tourism is winter tourism and it is gaining importance day by day. National tourists used to relaxing in summer time, try to escape from the hard times of winter & weather conditions, air pollution in the low season. That is why the new pursuit of relaxing in this part of the year emerged a new kind of tourism such as “winter tourism” and a new concept such as “Winter Sports”. Especially the increase in number of mobilized people in Turkey, weekend holidays, and the in- crease in consumption power stimulates the participation in winter tourism beside summer tourism.
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Renewable Energy Sources in the Function of Sustainable Business in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

Renewable Energy Sources in the Function of Sustainable Business in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

uses renewable energy sources in its business processeds becomes recognisable to tourists who want to spend their vacaion in harmony with nature. hey want to conribute daily to envi- ronmental protecion during their stay in the hotel, and such hotel faciliy provides just that possibiliy. For example, energy saving bulbs are installed in the rooms, bikes in the hotel gym serve to ill bateries and save energy, there are solar panels on the roof of the hotel which sup- ply hot water for the enire hotel, etc. On the other hand, government and government insi- tuions can signiicantly conribute to business results of such hotel faciliies as well as promo- ion of sustainable development and the necessiy to use renewable energy sources in business operaions through legislaion and regulaions, and through a number of inancial incenives (Croaian Bank for Reconsrucion and Development, European Bank for Reconsrucion and Development, EU cohesion funds). he objecives of inroducing renewable energy sources presented in the compeiiveness diamond also include srengthening of mutual co-operaion of all tourist suppliers in a tourist desinaion who implement renewable energy sources in their business operaions, and promote sustainable development and sustainable business aciviies.
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Sustainable tourism development and monitoring in developing countries : the case of Armenia

Sustainable tourism development and monitoring in developing countries : the case of Armenia

Even though tourism’s contribution to worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated at some 5% and 30% of the global exports of services at over US$ 1 trillion, figures prove it is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing economic sectors (UNWTO, 2012). UNWTO annual report of 2012 also states that while countries across the globe face the challenge of unemployment, tourism can play a leading role in fighting a jobless recovery thus laying background for fostering development and fighting poverty since tourism’s contribution to employment tends to be slightly higher and is estimated in the order of 6-7% of the overall number of jobs worldwide (direct and indirect). Moreover, tourism has a variety of impacts on the economic development which by all means leads to high living standards (Stynes, 1997).
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OBJECTIVES AND TRENDS OF A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT ECONOMY IN EUROPEAN UNION AND IN ROMANIA

OBJECTIVES AND TRENDS OF A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT ECONOMY IN EUROPEAN UNION AND IN ROMANIA

The time-series data computations and analysis show that the evolution of the Romanian economy in recent years has been inconsistent with the principles of sustainable development model and the gap towards the EU-27 average level of resource efficiency (productivity) has widened, in recent years. As such, the continuation of this trend in the Romanian economy may threaten the sustainability of economic growth in the long term, due to excessive and irrational resource consumption, with negative consequences for the state of natural capital, but also for the desired resource-efficient economic and social development.
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Sustainability and the small destination: The EDEN project in Italy

Sustainability and the small destination: The EDEN project in Italy

destinations; the creation of a platform for sharing good practices throughout the EU territory; rewarding and support of forms of sustainable tourism. The project calls for the selection in each member state, through an annual contest, of destinations proposed as examples of good practice in sustainable tourism development. The competition is held on a national level, with the involvement of the central administrations of the Member states and candidates (Ministries, Government agencies, etc.), which have the task of identifying 5 finalist destinations in their own territory from among which a winner will be chosen. Each year, from the initial project edition, the European Commission, together with the relevant national tourism bodies, identifies a topic that is the theme of the initiative (Table 1). The EDEN topics present an opportunity for demonstrating the importance of the diversity Europe can offer with reference to natural resources, historical heritage, traditional celebrations and local gastronomy. In 2012, as illustrated in table 1, a selection was not made, because the European Commission decided to alternate one year the selection of destinations and the following year their promotion. In fact, the 2012 tender, as will that of 2014, only covered the promotion of EDEN destinations to be implemented, in each country, by the tourism promotion bodies.
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Network-based planning for the sustainable development of tourism destinations: conceptual approach

Network-based planning for the sustainable development of tourism destinations: conceptual approach

tal, economic and sociocultural dimensions are the base of sustainable tourism, and balance must sub- sist between these three dimensions for tourism to be considered sustainable (Mowforth & Munt, 1998; Stabler, 1997; WTO, 1998). Currently, some authors suggest more dimensions such as the technological (Mathieson & Wall, 1982; Choi & Sirakaya, 2006) and the political (Butler, 1999; Choi & Sirakaya, 2006; Mowforth & Munt, 1998) dimensions. The technological dimension (Math- ieson & Wall, 1982; Choi & Sirakaya, 2006) in- cludes the internet that enabled host communi- ties to create communication networks and di- vulge their destination, and allowed tourists to be- come acquainted with destinations all around the world. It also includes environmentally mobility systems; energy efficiency; and scientific knowl- edge and technological support that allow evalu- ating and monitoring tourism impacts, as well as providing alternatives to avoid future negative ef- fects (Choi & Sirakaya, 2006). The political di- mension is about the renegotiation of goals and establishment of a system of governance that en- ables the implementation of tourism sustainability at all levels (Choi & Sirakaya, 2006). In fact, it is important to politicise the tourism industry to avoid corruption and the transformation of nature, culture and society, and, simultaneously, move to- wards sustainability (Mowforth & Munt, 1998). All the dimensions are interconnected and serve as a basis for development of sustainability indica- tors, and indicators are crucial to monitor tourism and its impacts on the tourism destinations.
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QUALITY MILESTONES OF THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

QUALITY MILESTONES OF THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Europe has developed different systems of certification, from certification on local level, to national level in some cases at national level (the Swan or the Green Key- Greenland, Denmark and European Nordic Countries; Green Certificate -Latvia; La Clef verte- France; Legambiente Turismo -Italy; Milieubarometer -Netherlands; Hiiumaa Green Label -Estonia; Eco-Romania-Romania), and at last European eco-label. All can be applied to tourist hotel structures if they meet certain conditions if meet ecological principles of sustainability. For instance in hotel industry, the ECO-label must comply, the following provisions and conditions:
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The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

In 2014, Rowen considered that a deep analysis is needed inside cultural and territorial politics in order to create a tourism strategy. Moreover, he assumed that tourism should be viewed as a technology of state territorialisation, referring „[...] to those practices and processes by which space is rendered or configured as belonging to, bounded by, and subject to the sovereignty of the collective actor imagi ned as a particular state”. Therefore, the tourism phenomenon is so complex from the structural and functional point of view, that we need to allow for many aspects, and even the smallest mistake done in a strategy (omission, wrong data) might have an upshot to the entire study (Rowen, 2014, p. 66).
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Beyond the perfect wave : environmental awareness of surf tourism : a case study of Peniche, Portugal

Beyond the perfect wave : environmental awareness of surf tourism : a case study of Peniche, Portugal

Sustainable surf tourism, likewise as sustainable tourism, adapts the principles of sustainable development and therefore, the overall aim is to respect the current and future, economic, social, cultural and ecological welfare of the local community, and create tourist satisfaction. However, there are major barriers to sustainable development within surf tourism and as can be extracted from the quotation above, every surf destination has its own set of challenges. To assess and measure the sustainability of surf tourism in less developed countries, some models have been developed. For instance, the Surf Resource Sustainability Index (SRSI) by Martin and Assenov (2012), which is a “multidimensional approach by placing sustainability indicators into qualitative and quantitative modules for analysis, serving as a theoretical compass pointing at surf habitat conservation issues” (Borne & Ponting, 2017). Ponting and O’Brien (2013, 2014) propose the Frame Analysis for Sustainable Surf Tourism (FASST) which consists of five variables, whereby it considers the impact of economic neo- liberalism; the need for coordinated planning and limits to growth; the advantages of systematic attempts to foster cross-cultural understanding; the social benefits associated with the development of surfing at the village level; and the need for surf tourism to contribute to poverty alleviation in destination communities (Ponting & Obrien 2014).
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Tourism through the gaze of stakeholders: the case of Óbidos Lagoon in Portugal

Tourism through the gaze of stakeholders: the case of Óbidos Lagoon in Portugal

The development of an Interpretative and Recreation Centre about the lagoon that eases the lagoons environment understanding will be an asset and will contribute to achieve, in a long-term period, to a sustainable development in the territory. The main activities of the centre will be: 1) undertake informative and interpretative activities to visitors; 2) develop routes and interpretive scenarios in the lagoon surroundings such as the “fishing art” route; 3) boost the traditional activities with a place dedicated to exhibits, and workshops about the local fishing arts and handicraft. There will be equally a place where the art pieces can be purchased; 4) undertake informative and educational activities with schools to promote between the youngsters an environmental awareness; 5) develop agreements of cooperation between universities and scientific organizations to control and monitoring the fauna and flora of the lagoon as well as the water quality of the lagoon; 6) control the free access in the areas where the endangered species live and collect information about the lagoon visitors and eliminate the current lack of information about how many people visit the lagoon.
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Achieving sustainable in hotel industry by introducing more environmentally friendly eco-tourism practices and promotion green consumers and tourism

Achieving sustainable in hotel industry by introducing more environmentally friendly eco-tourism practices and promotion green consumers and tourism

My main job role was working as a chef in kitchen which involved preparing lunch and dinner buffet for the guests, mainly Portuguese cuisine such as cutting and preparing different types of soups, lasagne, bacalao, Sword fish, Camaro, tuna and various salads. As well as responsible for cleaning the cooking area once the task is completed, quality control of the food as well as the cooking area and do teamwork effectively whenever required to compensate higher working demand during the busy hours. I work six days a week from 9:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. and then I resume my shift again from 6:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. with a break of 4 hours in between for rest. I really like my job and working environment as I got an opportunity to learn new tricks and techniques as a chef, as well as the art of cooking Portuguese cuisine. I plan to work here but I would like to bring few managerial issues, lack of environmental sustainability measures and knowledge in focus of the managers for improved working environment and sustainability, and the importance of environmental sustainability for attracting more tourists, achieving greater destination competitiveness and better performance.
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SUSTAINABLE FINANCING SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROMANIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

SUSTAINABLE FINANCING SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROMANIAN HEALTH SYSTEM

During the past two decades, Romania had introduced several reforms in the health sector in the context of political, social, and economic changes[ ]. The reforms have focused on the financing of health system, provision of health services, management, and resource development Anton & Onofrei, . Relative to other new European Union EU member states, the results of these reforms were poor Anton, . As a result, the performance of the Romanian health system measured in terms of outputs/outcomes and the access to health care services is still low compared to that reported for other
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Analysis of the social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of indigenous tourism: a multi-case study of indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon

Analysis of the social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of indigenous tourism: a multi-case study of indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon

Numerous reports have been published since the 1970s that mention the concern there is with maintaining economic growth without destroying the natural and social environment. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was created by the General Assembly of the United Nations Organization (UNO) in 1983, and its report entitled “Our Common Future”, which was published in 1987, emphasizes the need for a new development model that is capable of making economic growth, wealth distribution and environmental preservation compatible. Sustainable development is defined as that which satisfies the needs and aspirations of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs [3]. The central points on sustainable development that were presented in the “Our Common Future” report became the basis for preparing Agenda 21, which can be defined as a “planning instrument for the construction of sustainable societies in different geographic bases, which reconciles methods of environmental protection, social justice and economic efficiency” (UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992) [4].
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