Top PDF IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

In addition, SMEs take part in one or more supply chains (SC - Supply Chain), where any buyer in SC has its own corresponding demands. These demands influence the SMEs operation i.e. the needs of the buyers of constant and high quality products and strong management that provides all these mentioned. To that effect SMEs are more and more required, as a condition for business cooperation, to implement the quality management system (ISO 9001 : 2000) or enviromental management system (ISO 14001). If the production program refers to the nutrition products, any organization should implement HACCP, and in case of work in risk production conditions, ISO 18001 (safety and protection at work) should be implemented. It is obvious that in SMEs the core of business activities should be “moved” from the production management onto management systems providing fulfillment of these and more complex demands of buyers. Large companies also play an important role in starting the SMEs up to accept innovations. This is the result of the fact that most of SMEs are typically included into business to business activities.
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Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the portuguese industrial SMEs

Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the portuguese industrial SMEs

de Groot et al. (2001) conclude that the most important impediments to not (yet) investing in energy-saving technologies are the existence of other, more attractive investment opportunities, incomplete depreciation of the existing capital stock and that energy costs are not sufficiently important. Ramesohl et al. (1997), who investigated the implementation of energy efficiency in industrial, commerce and service companies, argue that the actors‘ behaviour is affected by their own perception of organisational culture and social reality and is not exclusively rational. Their results show that energy efficiency can be ignored due to factors as scarce personnel, who are concentrated on core production issues like output and quality. Zilahy (2004) find that environmental awareness is one of the most important organisational factors determining the level of environmental measures within an organisation.
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Brazil´s internationalization of SMEs: Trade barriers and notes on how to overcome them – a commented literature review

Brazil´s internationalization of SMEs: Trade barriers and notes on how to overcome them – a commented literature review

This study assumes a literature review on trade barriers perceived by Brazilian Small and Medium Enterprises (SME). It was found that each previously conducted study on trade Barriers in Brazil uses a different trade barrier classification, subsequently infusing the responses and making direct comparison difficult. This article suggests to use Leonidou’s (2004) classification to aid researchers to compare, synthesize and build upon the research. It was found that most Brazilian SME’s perceive an unfavourable business climate to internationalize. The most severe trade barriers are the deficient logistical infrastructure and unfavourable home regulations. These barriers can be overcome by investing in infrastructure and the effective implementation of logistical policies, while simultaneously making bureaucratic processes more transparent and predictable through providing an adequate enforcement structure. Furthermore, it appeared that firms whose decision-makers are rather incompetent, risk-averse, and inward-looking are very likely to perceive more export obstacles. As such investment on training and education was considered desirable to reduce the perception of trade barriers on all fronts. Even though, it seems like SMEs are subject to unfavourable external situations, they can join strengths by conducting lobbying activities. In addition, government-business consultation is considered key to the future
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An integrated approach for TQM implementation in SMEs

An integrated approach for TQM implementation in SMEs

in assimilating two core concepts: clarification and communication of strategy, and management by fact. In SMEs, it is not unusual to find out that the strategy only exists in the top manager/owner’s mind. Some of the possible reasons are: the manager believes the strategy must be kept secret; the manager considers the strategy formulation is to be done exclusively by him/her; not clearly communicating the strategy is a way to avoid exposure to failure. Therefore, it may be a formidable task to persuade the manager to engage in a process of formalising the strategy with the participation of other levels of management, so that it can become clear to everyone in the organisation. Also, in SMEs, personal perceptions are very valued and it may be difficult to recognise the need to collect and analyse information, to develop the right measures and then to act upon the data. Another shortcoming of the BSC in the SMEs context is the fact that it does not provide guidelines on how to manage the processes. For instance, with regard to strategy, it outlines the final result but says nothing about the process of defining the strategy. Some of the critical factors pointed out by McAdam (2000) for a successful BSC implementation in SMEs are:
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Ann Brown and Martin Rich

Ann Brown and Martin Rich

Abstract: Information Systems Security (ISS) is a critical issue for a wide range of organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) as although all organizations have their own requirements as far as information security is concerned, SMEs offer one of the most interesting cases for studying the issue of information security policies in particular, and information security in general. Within the organizational universe, SMEs assume a unique relevance due to their high number, which makes information security efficiency a crucial issue. There are several measures which can be implemented in order to ensure the effective protection of information assets, among which the adoption of ISS policies stands out. A recent survey concluded that among 307 SMEs, only 15 indicated to have an ISS policy. The conclusion drawn from that study was that the adoption of ISS policies has not become a reality yet. As an attempt to mitigate this fact, an academic practitioner collaboration effort was established regarding the implementation of ISS policies in three SMEs. These interventions were conceived as Action Research (AR) projects. AR, whose application was originally established in academic milieus in the fields of Social and Medical Sciences, started to be successfully explored from 1990 in the field of IS. The nineties witnessed a development in Research, namely in Educational Sciences, IS research and the learning of Organizations (Baskerville 1999). This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the AR method in information systems, more specifically through the implementation of an ISS policy in SMEs where previous attempts to adopt a policy have failed. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the institutionalization of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method, improving the understanding among researchers about the issues that hinder such adoption, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers that have prevented the implementation of ISS policies in SMEs.
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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.  vol.46 número1

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.46 número1

We are grateful to Rosa Bela Ferrinho for the bibliographical research and text preparation. We are indebted for the operational support of the country ofice of WHO in Bissau and we emphasize the personal interest of the Secretary of State for Health, Dr Augusto Paulo Silva and the organizational support of the Director General Dr Umaru Bá. Our deepest appreciation for the members of the panel for their interest and commitment and for all those that actively participated in the inal meeting: Alda Umarú Jaló, Ane Barent Fisker, Augusto Paulo Silva, Beti Có, Cunhate Na Bangna, Euclides Victor dos Santos, Fernando Menezes, Francisco Aleluia Lopes Júnior, Francisco José Mendes, Gabriel Cá, Isabel Maria Garcia de Almeida, Ivone Menezes Moreira, José Monteiro, Júlio César Sá Nogueira, Malam Dramé, Maria Irene Gomes, Orlando Lopes, Sidu Biai, Silvino Bnaba,Umaru Bá, Zacarias José da Silva and Zeferina Gomes da Costa.
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Occult HBV Infection Reactivation in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: An Update on Prevalence and Management

Occult HBV Infection Reactivation in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: An Update on Prevalence and Management

between these patients is not negligible. Therefore, in our view, the reports that analyse all HBsAg negative patients may be considered more reliable on assessing this issue. The methods to diagnose HBV reactivation varied widely across the diferent studies and thus also the deinition of OBI reactivation. In the majority of the studies, especially those in a small population, a ‘pre-clinical HBV reactivation’ is considered, that is deined as the reappearance of detectable HBV DNA in the serum, even without an abnormal ALT level. On the contrary, large population studies very often use a ‘clinical reactivation’ deinition, usually described as the derangement of ALT/aspartate transaminase (at least 2/3 times upper normal values), with HBsAg and HBV DNA detectable in the serum. Finally, among the reviewed studies, only a few papers reported that an analysis of DNA extracts from liver tissues was performed, thus assessing the ‘true prevalence of OBI’. 37 As previously said, after
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Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)  vol.24 número58

Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto) vol.24 número58

Abstract: The aim was to identify the barriers for implementing the restriction on smoking in psychiatric hospitalization services, its impact on the hospitalized smokers, and the positioning of the professionals. Integrative review of 19 articles published (1989-2011) in MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Descriptive analysis was carried out. The studies revealed that the main barriers for the implementation of the restriction were: beliefs in the patients’ increased aggressiveness, damage to the professional-patient relationship, and lack of preparation to address the theme. After the implementation, the restrictions showed a positive impact: reduction of cigarettes smoked, increased motivation to quit smoking, and more attempts to stop smoking. The professionals who smoked and those who did not believe that quitting smoking beneits mental health patients were those that least supported the implementation of the restrictions. In conclusion, the restriction on smoking is effective in psychiatric hospitalization, as it provokes an attitude of change in mental health patients.
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WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

Any field requires investment for development or implementation of new projects. One of these areas is the tourism domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country.

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TQM and market orientation's impact on SMEs' performance

TQM and market orientation's impact on SMEs' performance

Raju et al. (2011) investigated MO specifically in the context of SMEs. They performed an in-depth review of the extant literature to develop a conceptual framework by exploring the major antecedents of MO, the MO–Performance relationship, and the key mediators and environmental moderators of this relationship. They also examined various studies on SMEs in terms of different perspectives of this framework.

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Adjustment in banks’ capital ratios and its effects on Portuguese SMEs

Adjustment in banks’ capital ratios and its effects on Portuguese SMEs

Khwaja and Mian (2008) develop a new methodology to overcome the identification problem of disentangling the dynamics of demand and credit supply from the effect of a specific policy or event and consequently the effects on real economy. The strategy is based on within firm differences-in-differences comparing loans from distinct banks to the same firm, thus firm fixed effects absorb the whole firm specific change in credit demand therefore the difference estimated in loan changes within the same firm can be seemingly attributed to differences in bank liquidity shocks. The authors used a natural experience, the nuclear tests made in Pakistan in 1998 that forced banks to block dollars withdrawals in order to secure the government against problems in balance of payments and concluded that a 1% decline in bank liquidity leads to 0,6% decline in bank’s loan to a specific firm. The authors also looked into its differences in firm’s size, the coefficients for 1% drop in a bank’s liquidity leads to a reduction in lending for small firms of 0,87% and of 0,3% for large firms.
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Determinants and Reasons for Dropout in Swimming

Determinants and Reasons for Dropout in Swimming

Abstract: The present research aims to systematically review the determinants and reasons for swimming dropout. The systematic review was conducted through electronic searches on the Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo databases from 2 February to 29 July 2015, using the keywords dropout, withdrawal, motives, reasons, sport, framework-theories, motivation, swim*, review, attrition and compliance. Fifteen studies were found and six were fully reviewed and its data extracted and analysed. Most studies were undertaken in Canada and in the United States of America (USA), and one study was conducted in Spain. Most participants were female (65.74%), and the main reasons for dropout were ‘conflicts with their trainers’, ‘other things to do’, ‘competence improvements’ failure’, ‘parents, couples or trainers’ pressure’, ‘lack of enjoyment’ and ‘get bored’. This review contributes to the present knowledge on the understanding of dropout in swimming. However, it is necessary to continue researching on this topic, validating measurement instruments and studying the motivational processes related to dropout and persistence.
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Advantages of Joining a Network of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): National (Brazil) versus International Literature Review

Advantages of Joining a Network of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): National (Brazil) versus International Literature Review

In the development of the second stage, initially, it has been set up the database (DB) to carry out the research. As a criterion for selection of DB, the following aspects were established : (i) the DB should be included in the portal's journal of the regular Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), (ii) to be chosen, the DB should be in one of the following three major areas of CAPES: Applied Social Sciences, Engineering and Multidisciplinary area, because these three areas are closely aligned with the topic illustrated in the research, (iii) the DB should provide a tool of search with the possibility of using Boolean expressions (iv) the search engine of the DB should provide the ability to search in the fields: title, abstract and keywords. Thus, 23 DB met the established criteria. As a result, it was verified the alignment of keywords in the DB, that is, it was sought the number of articles for the combinations of keywords. Thus, it was possible to fix the desired representation, that is, to decide the amount of DB that would be researched. With the made analysis, it was decided to keep looking in all related DB.
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Growth determinants: empirical evidence from surviving and non-surviving SMEs in Portugal

Growth determinants: empirical evidence from surviving and non-surviving SMEs in Portugal

It is argued that SMEs have little information about the company, leading thus to have higher average growth rates, but with a more limited funding. Therefore more dependent on bank loans. For a bank, the limited information available about the company, increases the risk associated with providing financing, which induces the bank to reduce the maturity of the loan and increase the interest rate. To improve the conditions of the loan, SMEs should build a relationship with your bank in order to minimize the information asymmetry. The relationship between the maturity of bank debt and loans, was investigated by Ortiz-Molina & Feathers (2004) and Hernández Cánovas & Koëter Kant (2008), where they obtained several conclusions. Hernández Cánovas & Koëter Kant (2008) found that the control of specific firm characteristics such as size, age, financial situation and debt, increasing the possibility of obtaining long-term bank loans. However, as has heterocedasticidades can assume that the empirical evidence shows that loans and its effects on the maturity of bank loans to SMEs is affected by factors specific to each country. Based on similar arguments, Ozkan & Ozkan (2004) argue that building relationships with financial institutions will improve the ability of firms in access to external financing. This makes companies more bank debt, are able to more easily external financing.
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Centralization And Decentralization In Planning

Centralization And Decentralization In Planning

2. central economic andunder the supervision ofthe stateisonthe economicactivityand guidancein accordance with theplansstudied antrzah Management and is based on the administrative function of the State Palace on the central government representatives in the capital.

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Advantages and disadvantages of bim platforms on construction site

Advantages and disadvantages of bim platforms on construction site

To some companies, using BIM during the construction phase may mean implementing a new process and refining operational tasks. Although some companies use BIM throughout the entire course of a project, many others either stop using it in the preconstruction phase or use various bits and pieces of a BIM process to help them better coordinate a project. Despite there is no right or wrong way to use BIM, the most important question is, how improvement can be achieved in the way construction management is done? As projects progress, it is easy to slip back into the same old way of doing things, and in doing this, there is very little chance for future growth, either in technology or in efficiency. Gradually adopting BIM initiatives is the best way to change existing practices until it becomes habit. As project become more advanced, complex, and difficult, the technology used in these projects will also advance along with them. More exciting, the construction industry is driving these technologies further than ever before. Entrepreneurs, software companies, and tech-savvy professionals are developing BIM tools rapidly to meet the rising demands of the industry [17].
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Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto)  vol.27 número67

Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto) vol.27 número67

or reference was guided by the criteria of meaning (theme) and not by grammatical formal criteria (e.g. number of words, sentences). During this process, we followed the guidelines of Miles and Huberman (1994) for qualitative coding (which involves data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/ check), of Krueger and Casey (2009) for the analytic fra- mework to code the data (identiication of patterns and rela- tionships between ideas and concepts), as well as of Richards (2005) for the use and proitability of Nvivo8 software. We created a common tree node in Nvivo8, with the following categories: (a) parental functions; (b) parental involvement; and (c) family-school partnership. Each of these categories included sub-categories based on the literature. Thus, parental functions category was organised according to the type of de- velopment in which parenting behaviours exerted inluence: (1) cognitive development; (2) emotional development; (3) social development; (4) moral development; and (5) acade- mic development. The parental involvement category was sub-divided according to the aforementioned Epstein’s types of involvement: (1) parenting; (2) communication; (3) volun- teering; (4) learning at home; (5) decision-making; and (6) collaborating with community. And the last category – fa- mily-school partnership – comprised three sub-categories: (1) positive aspects; (2) negative aspects; and (3) suggestions for promoting the family-school partnership.
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Understanding the reasons for behavioral failure: a process view of psychosocial barriers and constraints to pro-ecological behavior

Understanding the reasons for behavioral failure: a process view of psychosocial barriers and constraints to pro-ecological behavior

An example of a theoretical approach focused on pro-ecological behavior barriers and constraints is provided by Tanner [10] based on the Ipsative Theory of Behavior (e.g., Frey, 1989; cited by [10]). This approach identifies three general classes: (1) Ipsative Constraints—includes internal factors that prevent the activation of a particular behavioral alternative from occurring. This implies that the action can only be performed if the individual remembers to perform it, i.e., if it is cognitively accessible to consciousness. If this is not the case, then the individual only takes into consideration a limited number of behavioral options, in which the pro-ecological option might not be one of them; (2) Subjective Constraints—includes perceived factors that inhibit the preference for a particular behavioral alternative or willingness to act. This can include, for example, beliefs of what is possible or not, desired or not, or allowed or not, thus influencing the deliberation about which is the best behavioral alternative to choose; (3) Objective Constraints—includes external or situational factors that prevent the performance of a particular behavior alternative from occurring. These are considered as independent from the individuals‘ perception and include: lack of opportunities, mental and physical disabilities, low income, influence of legal and political institutions, etc. Although the latter constraints were considered to be non-psychological in nature, their effect over behaviors is mediated by psychological processes (for an example, see Kaiser and Keller [25], and Klöckner and Matties [26]). Moreover, there is an idiosyncratic dimension given that, for a person not owing a car might be perceived as a barrier but for another it might not be, as he/she can engage in ―carpooling‖ or renting.
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Analyzing the determinants of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises: a cognition-driven framework

Analyzing the determinants of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises: a cognition-driven framework

Abstract. The increasing use of information technology in enterprises’ daily operations has led to multiple innovative ways to run a business, including electronic commerce (hereafter, e-commerce). However, firms with fewer resources, such as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), are more reluctant to use electronic channels during transactions. This aversion to contemporary business models is a result of these companies’ lack of knowledge and capabilities regarding e-commerce. To improve their businesses, SMEs’ managers and decision makers could benefit from a methodologi- cal framework that fosters a deeper understanding of the determinants of e-commerce. This study sought to explore the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping to address this need. The results are grounded in the knowledge and experience of a panel of experts in e-commerce. The fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) developed shows that entrepreneur profile, market, operational management, marketing and promotions, website and digital platform, and products present the highest centrality indices as de- terminants of SME e-commerce. The findings offer a better understanding of the cause-and-effect relationships between these determinants. The advantages, limitations, and shortcomings of our constructivist proposal are also discussed.
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Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of Pharmaceutical Care among Pharmacists in Private and Government Hospitals in Metro Manila

Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of Pharmaceutical Care among Pharmacists in Private and Government Hospitals in Metro Manila

This study determined the private and government hospital pharmacists’ perceived major barriers to the implementation of the pharmaceutical care practice in the Philippines. It employed a cross-sectional, descriptive research design using self-administered survey as data collection method. The weighted mean scores from the results of the Likert scale were used to determine the perceived major barriers in the provision of pharmaceutical care. A total of 194 pharmacists from private and government hospitals in Metro Manila participated in the study. The perceived major barrier to the implementation of pharmaceutical care among hospital pharmacist was the lack of support from other health professionals. This result has been consistent with the observation across different countries. However, pharmacists practicing in private hospitals identify the lack of economic incentives for delivering pharmaceutical care as the greater barrier towards pharmaceutical care practice in the Philippines as compared to their counterpart in the government hospitals. This may be attributed to the lower salary and compensation in these types of hospitals as compared to those in the government hospital in the Philippines. Comparison of the responses also revealed that government hospital pharmacist on the other hand perceive insufficient physical space as another major barrier towards their provision of pharmaceutical care, which was less likely considered to be a barrier by their private hospital counterparts. Other perceived major barriers identified were related to documentation, time and lack of guidelines.
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