Hardware development is traditionally expedited using software models. The models are implemented in high level or hardware description languages. Relevant benchmark programs are then run on the models to get good approximations of actual hardware. A processor system model needs to be inclusive of both the program and hardware behavior. The program behavior can be dynamic or static. The dynamic characterization can be done by capturing repeating patterns in a program - . Cycle-accurate simulators tend to be accurate but require weeks of simulation time with programs running for a few billion cycles  . Noonburg and Shen  utilized the benchmark (program) traces to create a model for superscalar instruction level parallelism (ILP). They combined the ILP and hardware parameters in their model. The prediction error with their models was as high as 22% for some of the SPEC CPU95 benchmarks . Wallace and Bagherzadeh , and Hossain et al.  presented models for conventional and trace caches, respectively. The analytical model by Hossain et al., due to its limited scope (only the caches, and not the full processor) had higher prediction accuracy – 7% to be specific. Different parts of a program can be steady state or cyclical in nature ; this property of programs was exploited in Hamerly et al.'s simulation tool 0. To speed up simulation, Wunderlich et al.  statistically characterized the full-length benchmarks into smaller subsets. Joseph et al.  collected performance measures from detailed simulations and then used radial basis
Taken togheter, these evidence suggest that family support interventions, beyond directly improving parenting skills, should also create contexts and environments that facilitate parenting (Daro & Dodge, 2009; Schofield et al., 2011). Thus, considering the target group’s characteristics and this brief review, the theoretical model designed for this program (see Figure 1) relies on the notion that socioeconomic disadvantages (economic problems; inadequate neighbourhood; overcrowding) and a challenging family environment (broken families, single parenting, and domestic violence) translate into child development problems (social/antisocial behaviour) mainly through the effects of poor parenting (lack of parenting skills).
Effective one-on-one counseling. One-on-one counseling about food selection and characteristics of a healthy lifestyle was an integral part of the study and proved to be a very effective strategy for adherence to the program. Individuals with little time and money resources have inherent challenges to adopting TLC. Throughout the study, I interacted with patients who wanted to make changes and were willing to make the effort to learn new habits, but societal conditions are currently stacked against many of these individuals. Some simply do not know how to get started making the lifestyle changes that are necessary. In the study, we stressed to patients that the TLC program required a total lifestyle change. Accordingly, if participants returned to work and family environments that remained unhealthy, then it would be very difficult to maintain success. With patient education and supportive home and work environments, people at greatest risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease may enjoy a better quality of life and lower incidence of chronic disease than would otherwise be possible.
The model that we are proposing incorporates the excita- tory and inhibitory properties of the somatodendritic mem- brane of neurons in a morphofunctional unity of the spinal reflex activity. This model takes into account a set of known synaptic characteristics, including certain mechanisms of tem- poral and spatial bioelectric responses, as the synaptic after firing, the adaptive process, the facilitation, the post-tetanic facilitation, and the synaptic fatigue. The physiological prop- erties of digitalling and autopropagability of the AP are rep- resented by Dirac delta functions. Routines to calculate post- synaptic effects for the circuit elements were established from Eqs. 2 and 3, using Eqs. 4a and 4b for estimating the time se- ries of the membrane potential. The summation of inhibitory and excitatory effects was performed by a suitable computer program.
One of the main goals of thesis work was to integrate formal methods with the system development effort. For this, viable strategies to support the integration of formal method techniques into the software development process are important. In this thesis we propose a JML-based strategy for incorporating formal specifications into software development processes for correctly writing Java programs. This JML-based strategy is in the style of Bertrand Meyer’s design-by-contract, and makes use of JML specifications to write the contracts. The written JML specifications are integrated with the Java code itself, but they are written inside special marked comment blocks (see Section 3.1). The JML specifications are declared as model, by using that keyword we are declaring that the specification is abstract and they have no influence on the program execution or the Java code writings. This aspect also covers methods defined in the JML specifications declared as model and pure. That is, developers can write auxiliary specification methods if needed in the same way as a normal Java method, but written in special comment block by declaring them as model and pure. Again, this kind of methods has no secondary effects on the program execution. Our strategy provides solutions to some of the main difficulties in the wide acceptance of formal methods by the software industry. Our strategy offers basic guidelines for a formal development while supporting the developers’ creative side, and by providing the developers a mean of communicating formal specifications with the end-users.
Average zeta potential of IME was found to be -20.9 ± 3.98 mV as shown in Figure 2 indicates the stability of the formulation. This may be because moderate negative surface charges resulted neither into strong aggregation nor repulsion of the globules (Mandal, 2011). Ibuprofen content was found to be 99.38 ± 0.17 %, 99.22 ± 0.23 % and 98.99 ± 0.27 % for MEI, MMEI and IDS respectively. pH of the developed formulations were around 6.4-6.8 indicating the suitability for nasal administration. No signiicant deviations were observed as shown in Table 1, in terms of phase separation, % transmittance, globule size and % assay indicating that developed formulations were physical stable for 6 months at all three storage conditions and hence the formulation may be stored at room temperature. The altered storage conditions were found to have no adverse efect on the stability of the optimal formulation. TEM result as shown in Figure 3 revealed the narrow particle size distribution.
The main purpose of this study was to develop an Information Literacy Assessment for 2nd-grade students and evaluate their performance. The assessment included a regular test and a portfolio assessment. There were 30 multiple-choice items and 3 constructed-response items in the test, while the portfolio assessment was based on the Super3 model. This study was conducted in an elementary school located in southern Taiwan. One hundred and forty-two second graders took the test, and only one class was randomly selected as the subjects for the portfolio assessment. The results showed that the test and portfolio assessment had good validity and reliability. In the ields of library literacy and media literacy, second-grade students with different abilities performed differently, while boys and girls performed similarly. Students performed well in the process of the Super3 model, only in the Plan Phase, they still needed teachers’ help to pose inquiry questions. At last, several suggestions were proposed for information literacy assessment and future research.
Altogether, more than 80 organizations and 250 people (indigenous communities, NGOs, private companies, public organizations, banks, specialists and scholars) are currently engaged in the initiative. Such an extensive and continuous stakeholder engagement’s process aims at fostering that the future Guidelines are put into practice by different actors across multiple geographical and administrative levels.
Taken as a whole, our data indicate that the irradiation of crotamine in solution leads to significant and appar- ently homogeneous conformational changes, with alter- ations of structural elements and a loss of enthalpy, resulting in reduced structural stability. The use of cro- tamine to investigate the impact of gamma ray exposure on peptides provides important insights into the poten- tial of radiation as a tool for attenuating toxins and con- tributing to the design of safer antigens for vaccine and antiserum production.
could also introduce maladapted alleles, while d) for large populations with high gene flow AGF would have little effect . Common tree species such as ponderosa pine typically exhibit large effective population sizes, evidence of fairly extensive gene flow at neutral markers [8,95–97]–suggesting that they fall into category c or d—as well as local adaptation [98–101], which suggests natural selection should be fairly effective in purging any maladapted alleles that may be introduced . Rarer tree species would fall into category b, but since trees typi- cally have extensive dispersal compared to non-woody plants relatively few are likely to fall into category a (for which AGF would likely be harmful). It is unclear how many tree species would fall into category d, for which AGF would be superfluous, but some early successional species might qualify. The extent to which tree species or forests might require or benefit from AGF or AGM will depend also on whether there are barriers to dispersal between current and projected future suitable climates ; how much migration rates are likely to lag behind cli- mate change given fecundity, dispersal ability, growth rate, establishment requirements, distur- bance regime, and the presence of competitors; and the extent to which existing genetic variation will allow adaptation to novel conditions. Trees may be able to persist in areas of sub- optimal climate for long periods if undisturbed, but ecosystem function may be impaired if these species or genotypes are growing slowly and sequestering little carbon, producing few seeds, etc. Our results suggest that some of the species that might benefit from AGF or AGM include species with relatively short dispersal distances and/or small numbers of viable seed (consistent with framework above) especially if they are in an area subject to frequent canopy- disrupting disturbances, as well as those exhibiting low fitness (lack of local adaptation) at the leading edge of their range.
the objective functions computed for each single realization of the transmitted chirp signal. Figure 9(a) shows the direct and surface reflected backpropagated rays with elevation angles estimated from six chirps transmitted at min 57, where the source was at a range of 114 m. The overall objective function (ambiguity curve) dependence in the range computed from these rays (and travel time estimates) is shown in the lower plot of Figure 9(b), whereas the estimated source range is given by the minimum of the objective function and the corresponding depth in the upper plot. The range and depth estimates at various source distances obtained by backpropagation are presented in Table 4. Column σ represents the minimum of the square root of the objective function, where the smaller values (smaller variance), are attained at closer ranges. Model-based source localization methods are, in general, not considered for real-time implementations, because of the time needed to compute the optimization procedure, which requires a large number of forward model runs, but a non-optimized Matlab implementation of the ray backpropagation method took less than 4 s in a current laptop. It is expected that further code optimization would allow for real-time application.
Lemaire et al. [LEM12] present a flexible simulation environment integrating different modeling techniques for design and exploration of SoCs. The proposed environment uses the GENEPY MPSoC as base model, which contains high-performance DSP processors, general-purpose processors and dedicated hardware interconnected by a GALS NoC. The NoC is modeled in SystemC/TLM with 3 different modes: loosely-timed packet-level mode, ignoring NoC contention; approximately-timed packet-level mode with a contention model; and an accurate flit-level mode, which implementation is very close to the real hardware. Such NoC models can integrate different CPU core models, also modeled in three different abstraction levels: Host Code Execution (HCE) model, in which application code is compiled and directly linked to SystemC/TLM platform; an Instruction Set Simulator (ISS) model; and an RTL model. A SystemC power model including DVFS is integrated to the proposed environment. Authors claim the proposed environment enables software development and hardware implementation, providing from fast simulation to low-level hardware models.
Methods for program verification are based on two fundamental concepts: that of inductive invariance and ranking. An inductively invariant set is closed under program transitions and includes all reachable program states. A ranking function which decreases for every non-goal state shows that the program always progresses towards a goal. The strongest (smallest) inductive invariant set is the set of reachable states. The standard model checking strategy – without abstraction – is to compute the set of reachable states in order to show that a property is invariant (i.e., it includes all reachable states). The reachabil- ity calculation can be prohibitively expensive due to state explosion: for instance, the model-checker SPIN  runs out of space checking the exclusion property for approximately 10 Dining Philosophers on a ring. The divide-and-conquer approach to invariance, which we discuss in this paper, is to calculate an inductive invariant which is made up of a number of local invariant pieces, one per process. A rather straightforward implementation of this calculation verifies the exclusion property for 3000 philosophers in about 1 second. In this section, we develop the basic theory behind the compositional reasoning ap- proach. Subsequent sections explore connections to symmetry, abstraction, and parametric verification, as well as some of the limitations of compositional reasoning.
Step 5: Regularly update the plan to adapt to reality In any organization, plans go awry for a multitude of reasons. As Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke the Eld- er makes clear: “No plan survives first contact with the enemy.” (tinyurl.com/cur325) Moltke was not implying that plans were not important, but rather that it is a matter of having a plan and adjusting it in real time as the picture evolves. Weekly “heartbeat” meetings provide a mechanism for receiving regular feedback and, when progress is slow or the expected results do not materialize, the executive team can have an intelli- gent, data-driven conversation about whether the plan “as is” still makes sense or must be changed. This mo- ment is when the executive team must put their expres- sions of support into action and show the tiger team that experimentation trumps the status quo, that rapid exploration and failure is strongly preferred over play- ing it safe, and that the company culture not only sup- ports but rewards a culture of experimentation.
All strains were constructed using standard B. subtilis protocols and molecular biology methods (Table 3). The background of all strains used was B. subtilis PY79. For image segmentation, a constitutive promoter expressing fluorescent protein reporter RFP was chromosomally integrated into PY79 (LS1). Promoter fusions to fluorescent proteins were chromosomally integrated using Bacillus integration vectors pDL30, ECE174 (both from lab stocks), and pER82 (kindly provided by Jonathan Dworkin). We also used the antibiotic-switching plasmid ECE73 (cmRRneoR). The inte- gration vector 174 hs (from lab stock) containing the IPTG- inducible LacI system added to the ECE174 backbone was used to induce Spo0F to different levels. For copy number perturbation, the plasmid pHP13 (from lab stock) was used. Based on these, other plasmids for promoter fusions and for circuit perturbations were constructed with Escherichia coli DH5a or DH5aZ1 by using standard methods of PCR, restriction enzyme digests, and ligations (Table 4, 5):
Abstract: Magnetic composites have a wide range of potential technological applications; however the evaluation of this material for extraction of phenolic compounds has not been sufficiently studied. Due to its high toxicity and solubility the removal of phenolic compounds from the aquatic environments has critical importance. In this work polymeric composites were prepared by anchoring Ni and Co particles on sulfonatedpoly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) PS-DVB. The PS-DVB beads were synthesized by suspension polymerization and reacted with acetyl sulfate, aiming to obtain sulfonated copolymers. All materials were capable of removing phenol from aqueous solutions. The phenol adsorption kinetics was influenced by the polymer porosity and swelling capacity in water. The composite derivative of the more porous copolymer impregnated with nickel (C1SNi) was the most efficient in phenol removal, with the sorption equilibrium being established more rapidly than for the other composites. The pseudo second-order model was more adequate to describe the phenol adsorption process for the composite C1SNi. The Langmuir model describes successfully the phenol removal by this composite.
ABSTRACT: A novel idea pertaining to the selection of a processor size for low power IC applications has been proposed . 8-bit processors were introduced in the beginning by Intel. Later, technology has rapidly advanced forcing the designers to go for 32-bit and 64-bit processors for edge cutting, high performance technologies. In this paper, it has been proposed that an 8 bit media processor can perform the same applications that the others do, at reduced power consumption and hence is more advantageous than other processor sizes. The main concept of the paper is that, once a VHDL or a Verilog code is designed for any media processing application, its Xilinx synthesis report is converted to transistor level net list by careful observation. This transistor level net list is implemented in Tanner Tools EDA and the power can be easily calculated. By this method, the experimental results have proved that 8-bit processor consumes less power than others and hence can be used in place of 16-bit and 32-bit processor chips.
Two different types of simplified methods may be dis- tinguished: the “black box” and the “rational” methods (Valentino, 1999; Cascini et al., 2005). The first method is aimed at foreseeing the main factors causing the occur- rence of the phenomena and, in particular, the critical rainfall amount triggering the soil slip (Govi et al., 1985; Versace et al., 2002). This method often neglects the mechanical be- haviour of the soil. The second method, tends to consider, even if in a simplified way, the role played by the soil, in fore- seeing the occurrence of a soil slip both on small and large scales. These kinds of models, which can be considered de- terministic, take into account not only external factors, such