Top PDF Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

Anthropometric and biochemical measurements All subjects were assessed after overnight fasting for at least 10 h. The details of anthropometric measurements (height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure) and the methods for assay of biochemical variables (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were obtained as reported previously [22]. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment index–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [23,24]. Serum levels of FGF-21 (Bioven- dor, Modrice, Czech Republic) and C-reactive protein (CRP, R&D, USA)were determined with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays according to the manufacturers’ instructions. After an overnight fasting, blood samples were taken. Serum insulin was measured with a two-site chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay using Immulite automated analyzer (Diagnostic Products, Los Angeles, CA). Fasting blood glucose, total choles- terol, HDL-c, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), LDL-c, and triglycerides were measured by standard laboratory methods in a certified clinical examination laboratory.
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Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure.

Serum Angiopoietin-Like Protein 2 Concentrations Are Independently Associated with Heart Failure.

A total of 170 symptomatic HF patients and 130 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled from clinic. The echocardiography was analyzed in each patient, and stress myo- cardial perfusion study was performed for clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. Detailed demographic information, medications, and biochemical data were recorded. Cir- culating adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, adipo- cyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) and ANGPTL2, were analyzed. Compared with the control group subjects, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were significantly higher in HF group patients. In correlation analyses, ANGPTL2 level was positively correlated to creati- nine, fasting glucose, triglyceride, hsCRP, TNF-α, NT-proBNP and A-FABP levels, and neg- atively correlated with HDL-C and left ventricular ejection fraction. In multiple regression analysis, A-FABP, hsCRP, and HDL-C levels remained as independent predictors for ANGPTL2 level. To determine the association between serum ANGPTL2 concentrations and HF, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with subjects divided into tertiles by ANGPTL2 levels. For the subjects with ANGPTL2 levels in the highest tertile, their risk of HF was about 2.97 fold (95% CI = 1.24–7.08, P = 0.01) higher than those in the lowest tertile.
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Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

It has also been postulated that OPG is secreted in the cardiovascular system (18). In fact, OPG has been found to be expressed in the heart and the vascular walls in rodents (19). The hypothesis that OPG might reflect advanced cardiovascular disease has been described in several studies in populations without chronic kidney disease (20-23). The Tromsø study (20), a cohort study with 12 years of follow-up, performed in the general population, revealed that serum OPG concentration was significantly associated with incident myocardial infarc- tion, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality, indepen- dently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, OPG has also been considered an indicator of myocardial failure and an independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The demonstra- tion of an independent association between OPG levels at baseline and the incidence of hospitalizations owing to heart failure suggests that OPG concentration could be a predictor of the development of heart failure. Ueland et al. (21) reported that increased expression of components of the OPG/RANKL/RANK axis is associated with the development of heart failure through the mediation of matrix degradation, and that inflammation and ventricular remodeling might play a role in this process.
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Cardiovascular Complications of HIV

Cardiovascular Complications of HIV

11. Grunfeld C, Delaney JA, Wanke C, Currier JS, Scherzer R, Biggs ML, et al. Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study. AIDS. 2009;23(14):1841-9. 12. da Cunha J, Maselli LM, Stern AC, Spada C, Bydlowski SP. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on lipid metabolism of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Old and new drugs. World J Virol. 2015;4(2):56-77. 13. Smith CJ, Ryom L, Weber R, Morlat P, Pradier C, Reiss P, et al. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D): a multicohort collaboration. Lancet. 2014;384(9939):241-8. 14. Raposeiras-Roubin S, Triant V. Ischemic Heart Disease in HIV: An
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Int. braz j urol.  vol.39 número6

Int. braz j urol. vol.39 número6

In our series obesity is a prevalent condi- tion and it is associated with an increased risk of high grade disease in patients with PCa. This data confirmed our previous experiences where we ob- served how obesity is a significant independent risk factor for high grade Gleason score when PCa is diagnosed by prostate biopsy (3,9,13). Further- more, the same observations were reported in other studies evaluating the possible relationship be- tween obesity and PCa development and progres- sion (14,15). Although further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate which Table 3 - Exploring the association of SHBG and prostate cancer risk.
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Circulating complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects.

Circulating complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects.

Previous studies have indicated that CTRP family members, including adiponectin, CTRP3 and CTRP9, were involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in mice and humans [9,10,11,12]. For example, adiponectin, a member of CTRP family predominately expressed in adipose tissue, is significantly decreased in T2DM patients, as well as genetic and diet-induced murine models of obesity [3,5,23]. Administration of full-length or globular adiponectin ameliorates insulin resistance and hypergly- cemia in diabetic mice [24]. Similarly, CTRP3 has been found to be strikingly associated with cardiac risk factors in humans [25]; CTRP9 levels are positively associated with favorable glucose or metabolic phenotypes and absence of metabolic syndrome, which are independent of serum total adiponectin concentrations [26]. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant CTRP3 or CTRP9 proteins can significantly decrease adverse glucose levels in ob/ob mice [10,11]. Collectively, these data are in favor of the role that CTRP family members possibly play in glucose metabolism.
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ESTATINAS NA PREVENÇÃO DE DOENÇAS CARDIOVASCULARES DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5892/ruvrd.v14i1.2469

ESTATINAS NA PREVENÇÃO DE DOENÇAS CARDIOVASCULARES DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5892/ruvrd.v14i1.2469

Abstract: There are several classes of drugs used in clinical practice for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including statins. However, like all drugs, the statins may develop adverse effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the benefits and risks of using statins for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Studies as the reference 4S, Care AFCAPS/TexCAPS and Jupiter found lower risk of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke and rehospitalization when used simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin and rosuvastatin respectively. Adverse effects are rare in treatment with statins. Among them, myopathy is the most common and may occur within weeks or years after treatment initiation. It is concluded that statins are an important therapeutic class for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The evidence showed that the cardiovascular protection offered by statins seems clearly overcome the incidence of adverse effects.
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THE EFFECT OF HOOKWORM INFECTION AND URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS ON BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN LIVING IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

THE EFFECT OF HOOKWORM INFECTION AND URINARY SCHISTOSOMIASIS ON BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN LIVING IN NORTHERN MOZAMBIQUE

Strategy for children recruitment and sampling. This study was carried out in a subgroup of the population analyzed by AUGUSTO et al. 2009 from August 2005 to June 2007 by the Schistosomiasis and Soil- Transmitted Helminthiases Laboratory of the National Institute of Health of the Ministry of Health, Mozambique. In the studied areas, each district or municipality is divided into small areas called Pedagogical Influence Zones (PIZ), each containing an average of eight schools. One school from each PIZ was randomly selected for this study from which one class from each grade was included. The sampling was intended to cover the whole province as well as urban and rural zones including children belonging to families with distinct incomes. The research team remained in each of the districts and municipalities for two days, carrying out hemoglobin measurements, gathering demographic data and collecting feces and urine samples. In Nampula, children living in the districts/municipalities of Ilha de Moçambique, Malema, Meconta, Mecubúri, Mogovolas, Mongicual, Murrupula, Nacala Porto, Nacala-a-Velha and Nacaroa were recruited. In Cabo Delgado, children in this cross-sectional survey attended schools in the districts/municipalities of Macomia, Mecufi, Meluco, Mueda, Muindumbe, Namuno, Nangade, Palma, Chiure, Quissanga, Pemba, Mocimboa da Praia and Montepuez. In the province of Niassa the children lived in the districts/municipalities of Cidade de Lichinga, Cuamba, Distrito de Lichinga, Lago, Mandimba, Marrupa, Maúa, Mecanhelas, Mecula, Meterica, Muembe, Ngauma, Nipepe and Sanga.
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Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B

Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a serious worldwide public health problem caused by the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1,2). Patients with CHB have been found to exhibit a high risk of developing devastating complica- tions, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (3,4). Currently, detecting the enzymatic activities of some markers, such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in blood, is the most commonly used method to assess liver injury. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these markers to diagnose virus-induced liver damage are insufficient (5,6). Therefore, it is still a major clinical challenge to assess the severity of HBV-induced liver damage. Exploration of effective markers is important to better monitor the progression of CHB.
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Circulating levels of neurotrophic factors are unchanged in patients with Parkinson’s disease

Circulating levels of neurotrophic factors are unchanged in patients with Parkinson’s disease

This is a brief assessment tool that evaluates executive func- tioning and consists of six sub-tests exploring cognitive pro- cesses related to the frontal lobes: conceptualization, men- tal flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control and environmental autonomy. In addition, all participants were evaluated using the Beck’s Depression Inventory, a self-rating instrument for depressive symptoms comprising 21 items, each ranging from 0 to 3, according to the severity of symptoms 22 . The Beck’s Depression Inventory
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Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with physical activity in Japanese men.

Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with physical activity in Japanese men.

thickness than in patients with normal IL-18 [27]. According to the relationship between IL-18 and exercise, Leick et al reported that exercise training reduced adipose tissue IL-18 mRNA content by 20% in both sexes after 8 weeks of exercise training in obese subjects [28]. Stensvold D et al also showed that serum IL-18 levels were reduced by 43% after aerobic interval training in 11 inactive men and women with metabolic syndrome [29]. Exercise training reduced IL-18 with a 6-month aerobic exercise training program (four times/week, 40–60 min/session) [30]. In this study, although our study was cross-sectional study, significant relationships between serum IL-18 levels and physical activity by using uniaxial accelerometer were noted. The relationships still remained even after adjusting for confounding factors (except for body fat percentage) by logistic regression analysis. In addition, by stepwise multiple regression analysis, only age and physical activity were significant determinant factors of serum IL-18 levels. It is noteworthy that the serum IL-18 levels were closely linked to physical activity independent of physical fitness. Brun JM et al reported that plasma IL-18 was associated with changes in insulin resistance but not with BMI [31]. Daily walking rather than increasing physical fitness was closely associated with improving insulin resistance [13]. Taken together, increasing physical activity, independent of physical fitness, may reduce serum IL-18 levels in some healthy Japanese men.
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Clinics  vol.67 número11

Clinics vol.67 número11

However, the IgE serum concentrations varied widely, which may be due to differences in environment- and patient-specific factors, such as contact with antigens, race, gender and age. Witting et al. (24) showed that an IgE level of 100 IU/ml is the upper-limit cutoff for elevated IgE diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for all patient cohorts. Thus, one possible limitation of this study is the lack of comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Regarding lupus activity, patients with severe active disease (SLEDAI 2K $10) had IgE levels at least two times higher than the IgE levels of patients with inactive disease, although this difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, IgE concentrations correlated inversely with C4 levels, which could suggest that the complement cascade was activated and its components were consumed, as shown by the reduction of C4 levels, which is also considered a marker of disease activity. The latter state- ment that IgE levels could be a marker of disease activity requires further investigation because the correlation between IgE and C4 levels was relatively weak. Although serum IgE levels have been reported to vary according to disease activity in adult SLE patients (14,15,31,39), our findings could not confirm this correlation in a definitive manner in patients with JSLE.
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Serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and mortality are associated in severe septic patients: pilot study.

Serum levels of caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 and mortality are associated in severe septic patients: pilot study.

Continuous variables are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. Categorical variables are reported as frequencies and percentages. Comparisons of continuous variables between groups were carried out using Mann-Whitney U test. Comparisons between groups for categorical variables were carried out with chi- square test. We plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using survival at 30 days as the classification variable, and serum CCCK-18 levels as the prognostic variable. Analysis of survival at 30 days with Kaplan-Meier method curve and comparisons by log-rank test were carried out using serum CCCK-18 levels lower/higher than 391 u/L as the independent variable, and survival at 30 days as the dependent variable. We used dot-plot to represent serum caspase-cleaved citokeratin (CCCK)-18 levels in 30-day surviving and non-surviving septic patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to test the independent contribution of serum CCCK-18 levels higher than 391 u/L on the prediction of 30-day mortality, controlling for SOFA score, lactic acid levels and age. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated as measures of the clinical impact of the predictor variables. Wald test was calculated for each variable included in the regression model. We used Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient to determine the associ- ation between continuous variables. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical analyses were per- formed with SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and NCSS 2000 (Kaysville, Utah).
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Risk factors, biochemical markers, and genetic polymorphisms in early coronary artery disease

Risk factors, biochemical markers, and genetic polymorphisms in early coronary artery disease

favorable lipid profile characterized by elevation in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides, and reduction in HDL–c. Among the new risk markers, higher levels of apolipoprotein B and lower levels of apolipoprotein AI were observed in early CAD. In addition, higher levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer in a chronic and stable phase of coronary artery disease suggest an increased thrombotic risk, even under of antiplatelet therapy. Although the geno- typic distribution between the groups did not differ, an asso- ciation between the number of rare alleles and high triglyce- rides was observed in early CAD.
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High baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol levels are associated with MDR1 haplotypes in Brazilian

High baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol levels are associated with MDR1 haplotypes in Brazilian

Figure 1. Concentrations of se- rum total cholesterol (A) and low- density lipoprotein (LDL) choles- terol (B) according to MDR1 hap- lotype in Brazilian hypercholes- terolemic individuals of European descent before (baseline) and af- ter atorvastatin treatment (10 mg/ day). T/T carriers: GT/CT, GT/TT, TT/CT, TT/TT, TA/CT haplo- types; non-TT carriers: GG/CC, GG/CT, GG/TT, GT/CC, GA/CC haplotypes. Horizontal lines in box plots represent the mean concentration of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. Repeated measures ANOVA/Tukey test.

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J. Pediatr. (Rio J.)  vol.85 número4 en v85n4a02

J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) vol.85 número4 en v85n4a02

We also need information about prevalence, trends in, and correlates of physically active and sedentary behaviors. These studies and surveys should include accurate, objective measurements of these behaviors, such as accelerometers combined with diaries, during both weekdays and weekends and during different seasons. It is also important to identify the inactive risk groups in order to target the physical activity interventions eficiently. Several factors affect young people’s physical activity, such as friends, parents, siblings, health, physical itness, physical activity skills,
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O padrão inflamatório e anemia em hemodiálise

O padrão inflamatório e anemia em hemodiálise

increase hematocrit and hemoglobin in FID (4). It is necessary to emphasize that FID may occur without anemia or EPO resistance. Functional iron deficiency is induced by EPO that avidly uses serum iron, before reducing iron stores. On the other hand, if IIB is present, identifying and treat inflammation or infection is mandatory. Surgical procedures, even minor, as creation of an AV fistula, can provoke inflammatory reaction on dialysis. Use of bio-incompatible membranes must be avoided (18,19), as well as contamination of dialysis fluid (20-24). It is important to remember that inflammatory reaction on dialysis can present without clinic evidence. The administration of EPO, in patients with IIB must be increased to higher levels than in patients with no inflammation. In cases of resistance to the hormone action, administered dose should be increased to above 300 mg/Kg/week subcutaneously (4). While differential diagnosis between IIB or FID is entertained, use of IV iron 50-100 mg/ week in 10 doses can be proposed, since serum ferritin is not above 500 mg/dL (47). If, after IV iron administration, the response is not adequate, it is most likely that IIB is present. Response to IV reposition in FID is better. Use of IV vitamin C has been proposed and sometimes augments Htc-Hgb in individuals with adequate iron stores (48,49). Dialyzers internally covered by vitamin E have been used and seem to decrease oxidative stress and, perhaps, the incidence of atherosclerosis (50-52). It is not mentioned whether or not ACD pattern occurs in these patients. Blood transfusion requirements are increased in IIB compared to FID (13) and must be ordered according previously published protocol (4).
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Rev. bras. ter. intensiva  vol.25 número1

Rev. bras. ter. intensiva vol.25 número1

NSE and S100 beta in previously healthy subjects with a transient systemic inlammatory response induced by the administration of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum concentrations of cortisol, inlammatory cytokines, NSE, and S100 beta, as well as electroencephalographic abnormalities, were the parameters used to evaluate the results. However, no evidence was found indicating that acute inlammation causes increased serum concentrations of speciic cerebral proteins. However, such indings cannot be considered deinitive. he timing of the experiment may be a limiting factor in the study because, after 8 hours of monitoring, the inlammatory cytokines, which had increased signiicantly, returned to their basal levels; therefore, the inlammatory response, which is a key element in the development of encephalopathy, was not perpetuated. However, it is possible that the quantity of LPS administered was one factor responsible for these indings. Viral load is a major determinant of the inlammatory response during infection; thus, the amount of LPS administered might not have been suicient to produce an inlammatory response that could cause brain damage and consequently increase the serum concentrations of these biomarkers.
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Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease

Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease

Apolipoprotein E (apoE - ε2, ε3, ε4 alleles) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the ε4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking). Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the ε3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87) and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099), followed by the ε4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158). The ε3/3 (76 and 78%) and ε3/4 (16 and 23%) were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), independently of the ε4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232). The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05), but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in ε4 carriers. In conclusion, the ε4 allele is not associ- ated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. How- ever, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the ε4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account.
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Garlic attenuates cardiac oxidative stress via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in fructose-fed diabetic rat.

Garlic attenuates cardiac oxidative stress via activation of PI3K/AKT/Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in fructose-fed diabetic rat.

Methods and Results: SD rats were fed high fructose (65%) diet alone or along with raw garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg/ day) or nutrient-matched (65% corn starch) control diet for 8 weeks. Fructose-fed diabetic rats showed cardiac hypertrophy, increased NFkB activity and increased oxidative stress. Administration of garlic significantly decreased (p,0.05) cardiac hypertrophy, NFkB activity and oxidative stress. Although we did not observe any changes in myocardial catalase, GSH and GPx in diabetic heart, garlic administration showed significant (p,0.05) increase in all three antioxidant/enzymes levels. Increased endogenous antioxidant enzymes and gene expression in garlic treated diabetic heart are associated with higher protein expression of Nrf2. Increased myocardial H 2 S levels, activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and decreased Keap levels in
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