Top PDF Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

This is the origin for the great impasse in the two political traditions of modernity: the one founded on the value of property, and consequently of capital-factor (liberalism), and the one founded on the value of labour-factor (socialism). To Adam Smith, I’m certainly performing an unproductive job by writing here and now, probably as much as those who are now reading my writings. And this is true for the majority of the jobs that proliferate today and, on top of that, we wish to see increased in the future (schooling and scientific research, technological innovation, knowledge governance, quality and welfare services, politics and governance and the likes). Similarly, Smith would have felt puzzled in addressing the issue of property, as demonstrated by the current conceptual and political difficulties in establishing what intellectual property is, starting from fields such as software and the genome. Rather, knowledge more often qualifies as public good and the contrast with the patent right logic becomes plainer and plainer to see, also in the light of the now undeniable perverse effects of the patent policy of the enterprises all over the world (exploitation of monopoly rent and consolidation of cognitive monopolies). Knowledge circulation, however, does not only characterise the work-economy cycle, but permeates and deeply redefines also our extra-professional life, namely our spare time, life-long training, post-labour and non-working phases, in short, the entire quality of our life.
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Interweaving Knowledge Systems Through Sustainability Governance

Interweaving Knowledge Systems Through Sustainability Governance

This definition coincides with the literature on knowledge governance, where knowledge broker- age is generally framed as facilitating the creation, transfer, and use of knowledge across different knowledge systems. It includes the action of intermediating knowledge, facilitating collabora- tion and interaction, working both in the public as well as in the private domain. In the UN Agenda 2030 (United Nations (UN) Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Devel- opment), in its sustainable development goal (SDG) 17, partnerships towards sustainability are understood as multistakeholder initiatives on a voluntary basis where different actors, govern- mental, nongovernmental, private sector, or civil society join in order to leverage and implement global and local pathways towards sustainability. In the specific context of SDG 17, knowledge governance in general and knowledge brokerage in particular play a crucial role as links and brid- ges between the different knowledge systems nec- essary for managing the complexity of a transition towards sustainability.
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The Good Society: Lessons for Integrated Governance

The Good Society: Lessons for Integrated Governance

This may appear to come in contradiction with Smith‟s analysis of the ineffectiveness shown by the British society of his time in converting the greed of private interests in the colonies into public good. It is not contradictory, however, if we understand the responsibility for this conversion to belong to the market, and not to the government. Because government relies on deliberate and planned social action, its „intentions‟, no matter how „enlightened‟, are subject to moral failure from the part of the individuals relied upon to exercise that authority. Fortunately, the market does not work in the same way; as, in principle, no „intention‟ has more authority than others, the „intentions‟ of the players flow into a spontaneous, uncontrolled process in which only outcomes of use to others (no matter how morally questionable their source) are allowed to materialise.
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The crisis of capitalism in the 21st Century

The crisis of capitalism in the 21st Century

most essential for understanding the most difficult relations. It is the most important from the historical standpoint [...] Beyond a certain point, the development of the powers of production become a barrier for capital; hence the capital relation a barrier for the development of the productive powers of labor. When it has reached this point, capital, i.e., wage labor, enters into the same relation towards the development of the social wealth and of the forces of production as the guild system, serfdom, slavery, and is necessarily stripped off as a fetter. The last form of servitude assumed by human activity, that of wage-labor on one side, capital on the other, is thereby cast off like a skin, and this casting-off itself is the result of the mode of production corresponding to capital; the material and mental conditions of the negation of wage labor and of capital, themselves already the negation of earlier forms of unfree social production, are themselves results of its production process. The growing incompatibility between the productive development of society and its hitherto existing relations of production expresses itself in bitter contradictions, crises, spasms. The violent destruction of capital not by relations external to it, but rather as a condition of its self- preservation, is the most striking form in which advice is given it to be gone and to give room to a higher state of social production.” (MARX, 1973, s. p.)
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21ST CENTURY TOURISM: THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES

21ST CENTURY TOURISM: THREATS AND OPPORTUNITIES

Another sector in tourism related to health services is wellness. How- ever, sometimes the difference between medical and wellness tourism does not seem to be clear-cut, and therefore a definition will be provid- ed. According to the Global Spa Summit (2011), the medical tourist is an individual who is normally ill or rather seeks for some kind of treatment or surgery. On the other hand, the wellness tourist generally looks for of- fers that integrate mental and physical health and treatments to prevent illness with the objective to improve both their health and quality of life. If we have a look at relevant figures and data, wellness is a sector of major importance in tourism, since total revenues for 2015 were $3.72 trillion, in other words, 15.6% of total tourism gains (Global Wellness Institute, 2016). In addition, tourist expenditure is particularly relevant, as wellness tourists spend 61% more than the average travellers. More- over, wellness tourism even saw a significant increase of 10.6% during 2013-2015, while the global economy was in recession. Finally, it pro- vides 17.9 million jobs worldwide. So, it is no doubt one of the world’s fastest growing and more resilient markets. And wellness will remain on the rise as demanded by today’s society where there is an emerg- ing global middle-class despite the economic recession, and also, the world population is aging rapidly. We are dealing here with the so-called LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability) segment characterised by wealthy and educated consumers in search of experiences based on authenticity and nature. For this reason, a wide range of offers is available for them such as, cruises with wellness experiences; or well- ness programmes at airports, where the traveller can relax either in quiet rooms or in indoor green spaces or walking tracks, or simply enjoy or- ganic and vegetarian cuisine.
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Evolutionary biology for the 21st century.

Evolutionary biology for the 21st century.

Evolutionary Processes That Shape Genomic and Phenotypic Variation The availability of genomic data from a remarkable range of species has allowed the alignment and comparison of whole genomes. These comparative approaches have been used to characterize the relative importance of fundamental evolutionary processes that cause genomic evolution and to identify particular regions of the genome that have experienced recent positive selection, recurrent adaptive evo- lution, or extreme sequence conservation [72–75]. Yet more recently, resequencing of additional individuals or populations is also allowing genome-wide population genetic analyses within species [76–82]. Such population-level comparisons will allow even more powerful study of the relative importance of particular evolution- ary processes in molecular evolution as well as the identification of candidate genomic regions that are responsible for key evolu- tionary changes (e.g., sticklebacks [83], butterflies [84], Arabidopsis [85]). These data, combined with theoretical advances, should provide insight into long-standing questions such as the prevalence of balanc- ing selection, the relative frequency of strong versus weak directional selection, the role of hybridization, and the impor- tance of genetic drift. A key challenge will be to move beyond documenting the action of natural selection on the genome to understanding the importance of particular selective agents. For example, what pro- portion of selection on genomes results from adaptation to the abiotic environ- ment, coevolution of species, sexual selec- tion, or genetic conflict? Finally, as se- quencing costs continue to drop and analytical tools improve, these same ap-
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From the Horizontal Garden to the Vertical Garden: An Architectural and Environmental Perspective of the “Green” Element

From the Horizontal Garden to the Vertical Garden: An Architectural and Environmental Perspective of the “Green” Element

Abstract. Throughout human history, gardens comprised many purposes. With the evolution of society, there were villages, towns and cities organized according to geographical, economic, social and cultural characteristics of each epoch. Throughout the history of mankind, the "green" element has always been present. Gardens accompanied this development depending on the theories in vogue and had several purposes: they were sacred spaces, leisure spaces or spaces of healing; they were architectural elements in the characterization of outdoor spaces; they were areas of experimentation and research. After the Industrial Revolution, urban areas have expanded dramatically, occupying large amounts of rural soil replacing natural vegetation with the modernist urban structure. At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, the acquired garden concept had been challenged, stretching, instead, over a horizontal surface in the form of green roofs which characterized many of the modernist buildings. In fact, from the modernist movement on, horizontal covers, that lead to various experiments in the context of green roofs and garden which may be used and enjoyed by its inhabitants or covered and accessible only for maintenance purposes, have appeared. Through the end of the 20th century and early 21st century, the horizontal roof was then an experimental ground on which architecture could respond to a new challenge: the green facades or vertical gardens. In this way, the built environment can be the support for a new concept of green structure and urban or rural "green", i.e., a vertical garden: a green facade. This new "green skin" of the building can regulate the temperature and air quality as well as control the amount of light inside the building or be an aesthetic element of the architectural coating. New architectural elements are created through which adverse environmental conditions are mitigated, either on new construction or on architectural rehabilitation.
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Knowledge and society

Knowledge and society

For Gallie, the arguments presented regarding tertiary workers’ skills are related to the different perspectives of the implications of service sector growth (Gallie, 1991). In the most optimistic scenarios, this fact re- presents an expansion of the knowledge-based professions leading to an increased demand for skills in the work-place. According to the most pes- simistic, expansion of the service sector reflects the development of cheap, under-skilled labour confronted with routine and repetitive work. After the early 1980s, this approach of “skill dualism” in the tertiary field was substituted by a subtler dualist concept, which concerned employment status and the forms of managing labour. It is estimated that most service jobs belong to a “secondary segment” of the labour market, made up of precarious positions that depend on the economic situation for their exis- tence and continuity (Rebelo, 2003). According to Gadrey, this numerical heterogeneity is also complemented by the specificity of tertiary employ- ment systems, on the basis of two complementary hypotheses. Firstly, the “flexible” forms of labour management that became fairly dominant in the organisation of work in the late twentieth century proliferated in “services”. Secondly, the tertiarisation movement in the industrial labour market is
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The knowledge society

The knowledge society

These are not occasional performances. It is rather a true polar wander, totally an overturning of opposing poles. In the past century, the scientific axis of the planet – for over three centuries permanently fixed on Europe –firstly moved to North America and now has been quickly migrating in between Japan and Chindia: the geo-cultural area that includes China, India and an array of countries on continental Asia apparently willing to take over the protagonist’s role in the global economy and culture. According to estimates, in twenty or even ten years 90% of the researchers in the world will live on the Asian coasts of the Indian-Pacific ocean.
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Neuroimaging & subjectivity: constructing identities in the 21st century

Neuroimaging & subjectivity: constructing identities in the 21st century

Contemporary Western society tends towards inducing us to observe attentive vigilance over our own bodies, encouraging the adoption of rigorous physical conditioning practices, the incorporation of proper diets and habits, along with the submission to constant medical monitoring in order to instill the self management of health. Diagnosis technologies are fulcral to these complex negotiations, since they provide objective images that help legitimating and specifying disease concepts accordingly to the unyielding dogma of visual objectivity in Western sciences and culture, as well as to the logic of risk and the imperative of prevention. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the extent to which biomedical representations of the body affects the constitution of contemporary identities. In particular, it focuses on the profound cultural impact brought up by the shift on how formerly considered ordinary behaviors were pronounced pathological conditions since the association between neuroimaging and neurobiology in the 1980’s.
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The Evolving ‘Doctrine’ of Multilateralism in the 21st Century

The Evolving ‘Doctrine’ of Multilateralism in the 21st Century

Even before the end of the Cold War, the evolution of communication and globalisation brought about an additional change in the moral and values foundation of multilateralism (Hufner & Naumann 1990: 325). As the concept of a modern “world society” gradually emerged, competing with state-centred views, the concept of multilateralism was widened to encompass actors rather than states, and interests beyond state-based interests. The principles and ends which formed the basis of multilateral cooperation were no longer only those endorsed and advocated by states, and specifically states in power, but were redefined through the institutions themselves, aiming to address greater needs. This new phase of multilateralism was captured characteristically in the words of Javier Perez de Cuellar (1987): “By multilateralism I mean a common effort by the international community, based on the principles of the United Nations Charter, to address in a pragmatic manner the world’s many needs and problems, so that the entire human family can realise its full potential”. In this new phase the idea of a “human family”, a modern world society and the discourse of “one world” beyond national societies had began to influence the ideational premises of multilateralism as the “doctrine” behind multilateral cooperation found its codification not only in the strategies of leading states, but in the collectively agreed upon declarations of the UN. As the advocators of those collective agreements, international organisations themselves, mostly via their secretariats, moved beyond mere fora status to expand their own role in the international system. This was also consistent with the times and with the authors’ description of “attempts to bridge, or at least temper, the schism between the two great “secular ideologies”, capitalism and socialism, by identifying common interests, possibilities, and prospects of shared evolution” (Hufner & Naumann 1990:326).
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The profile of the quality professionals in the 21st century

The profile of the quality professionals in the 21st century

According to Staiculescu (2013) some people have misunderstood that main purpose of the social responsibility, namely, the protection of the environment and the collection of money to solve social problems. To make it clear, experts from the more than 75 countries came together and released ISO 26000: Guidance on Social Responsibility in 2010. ISO 26000 standard is designed to help to both the public and private sectors. Namely, aims to transfer important principles for society's welfare and helps to the organizations to understand a wide array of social responsibility topics. ISO 26000 is not like ISO 9000, there is no specific requirements which organizations must implement, and it is not oriented to certification. ISO 26000 defines the Social Responsibility as; “responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the environment, through transparent and ethical behavior”. Social responsibility is not a concept that can be implemented immediately. Conversely is a concept that should include into all levels of execution, planning and stakeholder interaction and is a journey that needs to be lived (ASQ, n.d., 2009; Staiculescu, 2013).
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Water governance in the twentieth-first century

Water governance in the twentieth-first century

As Stiglitz’s statement suggests, the free-market notion of governance, that is, “the particular view of the role of governments and markets” held by this tradition, is not widely accepted. It certainly differs in substantial ways with the understanding of governance held by rival intellectual and political traditions. For instance, contrary to the identification of “civil society” with the market held by free-market liberals, the pluralist and communitarian traditions tend to understand “civil society” as the realm of voluntary action, reciprocity, and solidarity, a buffer space between the market and the state. This understanding of civil society as a separate sphere of action vis a vis the state and the market has played a crucial role in the worldwide social and political struggles against dictatorships and authoritarian regimes since the 1960s, and gained momentum since the 1980s with the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of military dictatorships in Latin America and elsewhere. From another angle, this notion of civil society reflects the expanding role of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), social movements, and other actors that have become increasingly influential in public policy, and certainly in water policy. On the one hand, this understanding of civil society contributes to a more complex concept of governance that captures the multi-actor, multi-dimensional, multi-sector character of public policy decisions and actions. On the other hand, however, as already discussed, much of the water policy literature tends to adopt an idealized notion of civil society as the realm of reciprocity, voluntary action and solidarity, and this notion informs an idealized understanding of governance as a balanced partnership between the state, the market and “civil society”. This idealized notion, in turn, provides the rhetorical framework for the adoption of an instrumental understanding of governance, as a neutral and objective tool or strategy for policy implementation, which is devoid of any political content. Thus, in an apparent paradox, governance, which is essen- tially a political process, becomes depoliticised in the water policy literature. We come back to this in a moment, but let us briefly discuss first another aspect of the complex nuances characterizing the understanding of governance: the diverse notions and practices of gover- nance in different political cultures.
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Parasite Systematics in the 21st Century: Opportunities and Obstacles

Parasite Systematics in the 21st Century: Opportunities and Obstacles

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (see Glowka et al. 1994) designated species as the fundamental units of biodiversity, and ecosystems management and sustainable development as the organizing principles for managing global biodiversity. Biologists and managers quickly realized that the current inventory of the world’s species was far too limited to implement the mandate properly and that a critical shortage of trained taxonomists contributed directly to the problem (e.g., Gallagher 1989). The United Nations En- vironment Program (UNEP) in biodiversity called DIVERSITAS coined the term “the taxonomic impediment” to refer to this critical lack of global taxonomic expertise that prevents initiation and completion of biodiversity research programs (see SA2000 1994, Hoagland 1996, Blackmore 1996, PCAST 1998). In North America, this concern led to Systematics Agenda 2000 (SA2000), an intensive professional inventory of the value of taxonomic expertise to this planet, and a set of recommenda- tions for revitalizing systematic biology and justi- fying the allocation of resources necessary to carry out such a revitalization (SA2000 1994, Brooks et al. 1995, Claridge 1995, Cracraft 1995, Davis 1995, Eshbaugh 1995, Jones 1995, Lauder et al. 1995, McNeely 1995, Miller & Rossman 1995, Prance 1995, Savage 1995, Simpson & Cracraft 1995, Wheeler 1995, Balick 1996, Blackmore 1996, Monson 1996, Oliver 1996, Richardson 1996, Rossman & Miller 1996, Vane-Wright 1996, Vecchione & Collette 1996). The 1998 and 2000 Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity endorsed a Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) to improve taxo- nomic knowledge and capacity to further country needs and activities for the conservation, sustain- able use, and equitable sharing of benefits and knowledge of biodiversity (GTI 1999, Cresswell 2000). The GTI has three structural components: (1) systematic inventory, (2) predictive classifica- tions, and (3) systematic knowledge bases.
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Parasitic Diseases: Opportunities and Challenges in the 21st Century

Parasitic Diseases: Opportunities and Challenges in the 21st Century

Immunoparasitology has provided important insights into fundamental cellular and humoral immune mechanisms that contribute to all of im- munology. A wide variety of immune evasion mechanisms are used by various parasites. Per- haps the best known has already been mentioned, the antigenic variation expressed by African try- panosomes (Borst et al. 1998, Donelson et al. 1998). However, there are many other clever strat- egies used by parasites. Tissue-dwelling cestodes display a co-existence trick that involves the con- trol of host complement activation. The hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium in its cysticercosis metacestode form are very effective at actively avoiding complement activation via, among other mechanisms, seques- tration of factor H and elaboration of paramyosin, which inhibits C1q (White et al. 1997, Ferreira et al. 2000). Adult schistosomes reduce their surface antigenicity, in part by acquiring antigenic com- ponents from their hosts (Pearce & Sher 1987), and T. cruzi appears to confuse effective host immune responses through the use of multiple variant T cell epitopes (Millar et al. 1999). It is clear that vari- ous intracellular protozoans distinctly alter the ca- pabilities of host macrophages (Reiner 1994, LaFlamme et al. 1997, Kane & Mosser 2000) and dendritic cells (Urban et al. 1999, Van Overtvelt et al. 1999), altering their effectiveness as antigen- processing cells. This frontal assault on the fun- damental immune presentation mechanisms of the host can considerably alter how immune responses are mounted. Once more fully understood, this knowledge might be useful in directing altered immune capabilities.
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ENEM: propulsion to the Brazilian educational market in the 21st century

ENEM: propulsion to the Brazilian educational market in the 21st century

The National Syndicate of High Education Institutions Teachers (ANDES-SN), that has been a very severe critical of the country’s high education policies, critics high school reform. Maués, third vice-presi- dent of the entity and one of the coordinators of the Educational Policy Work Group (GTPE) of National Syndicate critics BNCC’s proposal sent by MEC to CNE. For the teacher, the curricular changes will contribute to diminish the teaching quality, make precarious the teaching work and the study conditions of the public schools students. She also criti- cizes CNE. According to her, with the new composition modified by president Temer, that prioritized the participation of business sectors, with interests in the precarization and in privatization of public edu- cation, we should “[…] quickly evaluate BNCC and that eliminates the debate with society. They will organize only regional public hearing, without giving voice to all the attendants” (Andes, 2018).
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The Assets of Knowledge Society in Oman: People and ICT

The Assets of Knowledge Society in Oman: People and ICT

Statistics are very important indicators of development over time. They also help in planning for future development and give us an indication of the trends in the market and society. The ITA has carried out a survey on the “Access to and Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) by Households and Individualsin 2013. The results of this survey help in understanding the growth in the ICT sector, which is a very important aspect of KS. The results show that more than 90% of households have at least one mobile or smart phone, 80% of households have at least one computer (desktop, laptop or tablet). The survey shows that high cost is the main reason for not owning a computer as indicated by people who have no computer. Looking at individual indicators, the results show that highest use of computer is by students (92%), which illustrates the positive result of the ICT development within education sector. Regards to the internet use by individuals, there is three in four individuals who have access to the internet in daily basis (ITA, 2014b). Those results are very crucial in indicating that people are relying more on technology in their daily lives and reflect the increase in the awareness of the importance of ICT.
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Economic inequality in Portugal : A picture in the beginnings of the 21st century

Economic inequality in Portugal : A picture in the beginnings of the 21st century

The data is taken from the European Community Household Panel dataset (ECHP, henceforth). This dataset presents two appealing features. The first one is comparability. The ECHP is a standardized survey that was carried out in the European Union on a yearly basis from 1994 to 2001. It is based on a common questionnaire and the harmonisation of concepts across countries, including definitions of relevant variables and the validation, imputation and weighting of the data. These characteristics allow for straightforward comparisons between the surveyed countries, reducing the number of conceptual and measurement problems that typically arise when conducting cross-country comparisons with household income data 2 . Even though the aim of this paper is not to conduct an international analysis, the calculations reported here could be easily extended to any other country included in the ECHP. As a second advantage, the ECHP allows for the possibility of continuously monitoring the same group of families and individuals over the years. This feature allows us to examine the dynamics of economic mobility in Portugal.
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Challenges for prevention and promotion in the 21st century

Challenges for prevention and promotion in the 21st century

When it came to Prevention, we immediately used to see a list of several problems to be avoided (e.g., prevention of substance use, gambling addiction, eating disorders, bullying, violence, self-harm behaviour -including suicide-, sexual risk behaviour, teenage pregnancy, psychosocial risks, and drop outs by absenteeism); on the other hand, when it comes to Promotion, one used to think immediately of a list of the resources intended to "increase": promotion of self-esteem or self-concept, communication skills, socio-emotional skills and resilience; but indeed prevention and promotion are two sides of the same coin, and the strengthening of personal and social resources also prevents the risks associated with problematic situations. As prevention and promotion are two sides of the same coin, they cannot be reduced to sets of behaviours or situations to prevent or to promote [8], because persons are to be seen globally as competent and participative individuals, and not only as their risks and deficits but indeed strategies have to focus on their global perception of well-being, life worth and quality of life.
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Nutrigenomics: The science of the 21st century

Nutrigenomics: The science of the 21st century

Metoda ćelijske kulture pruža mogućnost izučavanja uticaja nutrijenta na razvoj razli čitih sojeva ćelija u kulturi. Najzna čajniji test koji se sprovodi u ćelijskoj kulturi je test mikronukleus u kome se ćelije tretiraju agensom, a zatim se specifi čnim bojenjem vizuelizuju elementi ćelije, a naročito jedro, u cilju otkrivanja mikronukleusa koji predstavljaju re- zidue ošte ćenja hromozoma 5, 8 . Napredne metode kao što su polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR), fluorescent in situ hibri- disation (FISH), spectrol karyotyping (SKY), western, nort- hern i southern blot analiza omogu ćavaju uvid u mutacije gena i promene u ekspresiji gena. Naravno, ove metode će, pored uloge u eksperimentima koju danas imaju, u budu ćno- sti biti osnovne metode za dijagnostiku i pra ćenje učinka od- govaraju ćeg režima ishrane. Metabolomika i metode kao što su high performance liquid chomatography (HPLC) i spek- trofotometrija otkrivaju metabolite koji su prisutni u ćeliji ili u telesnim te čnostima sa ciljem određivanja saturacije orga- nizma pojedinim nutrijentima.
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