The main types of ecosystems identified inthe studied area are: forests, pastures, hayfields, cultivated land, water bodies (rivers and lakes) and urbanized areas (they include infrastructural land, production spaces for industry and residential areas). Inthe first phase of the study we established a wide range of services associated with these ecosystems, but after consultations with stakeholders (focus group discussions and surveys), the research area was narrowed to several services (see Table I), which are directly used by the local people  and are seen as the most important for the main livelihood categories: flood control; erosion control; fresh water supply; food production; raw material provisioning; ecotourism and educational and scientific values of ecosystems. Thechanges occurred in these ecosystemservices have an impact on human communities after a relatively short period of time. Thus, given the time horizon chosen for the study of changesinecosystemservices, we consider their selection as adequate.
Theecosystem service concept alludes to a positive relationship between ecosystem quality and human well-being  . However, this relationship is complex and often indirect with the result that the well-being of people in particular places and times can be more or less coupled to ecosystem quality. For example, although it is clear at the aggregate global scale and inthe long run, that humanity depends on the biosphere for survival (Dasgupta 2001), aggregate indicators of human well-being at the global scale appear to show that well-being has improved over recent years despite the ongoing degradation of ecosystems, a phenomenon referred to as the “environmentalist’s paradox'” (Raudsepp-Hearne et al. 2010). At smaller scales, people may experience improvements in well-being inthe face of ecosystem degradation, when this enhances the opportunities for human development (e.g., Wunder 2001). Conversely, conservation may enhance ecosystems with little benefit, or even harm to the well-being of local people, for example by exclusion from reserves (Dowie 2011, Kamat 2014) or where “ecosystem disservices” such as crop raiding by wild animals impact local farmers (Woodroffe et al. 2005). Such examples of a negative relationship between ecosystem health and human well- being may represent temporal or spatial effects, either that degradation will impact the well-being of people inthe future, or in other places, or that benefits from ecological enhancement take time to materialize or are enjoyed by distant beneficiaries. However, what these examples demonstrate is that in particular places and times, and for particular people, the relationship between ecosystem quality and human well-being is variable and complex. We can refer to thehuman-well-being impacts of ecological change using the concept of “elasticity,” which captures the responsiveness of one variable to changesin another (York et al. 2003). For example, in economics, the price elasticity of demand captures how much demand will change in response to a change in price. Here we apply the concept of elasticity to ecosystemservices and explore the elasticity of human well-being to ecosystem change (henceforth “ES elasticity”), i.e., how human well-being changesin response to increases or declines inecosystem quality. We propose that studying ES elasticity challenges us to engage with the complexities and context dependency of theecosystem-well-being relationship, and can facilitate a better understanding of the role of ecosystemservicesinhuman well-being.
A number of previous research studies have addressed the enormous role played by biodiversity and ecosystems inhuman well-being and have placed particular emphasis on the consequences of the reduction or loss of these services. A handful of studies have implemented practical methodologies to quantify the variability of limiting factors leading to reductions in these ecological services. The aim of this article is to document the limited number of studies that have analyzed coastal ecosystemservices and acknowledge the impacts of physical changesin habitat provision. In one example, it is clear that the maintenance of salt marshes depends on sedimentary supply and consequent morphological variability in spite of the fact that there is usually no recurrent integration of habitat time-space dynamics (sediment availability) during the quantification and monetization of marsh services (i.e., monetary valuation of salt marsh services). This means that one key challenge facing the analysis of salt marsh (or other ecosystem) servicesin a global climate context is to predict future value, based on past trends, while at the same time guaranteeing conservation. Research in this field has been very broad and so the use of long-term evolutionary datasets is proposed here to explain future habitat provision. An empirical approximation is also presented here that accounts for service provision and enables time-space analysis. Although improvements will be required, the equation presented here represents a key first step to enable managers to cope with the constraints of resource limitations and is also applicable to other habitats.
indirectly from the functions of theecosystem. People benefit from ecosystemservices which are, among others, nutrition, access to air and water, health, safety, leisure (Maes et al., 2016). The benefits from ecosystemservices potentially influence several elements of human well- being, such as basic human necessities, economic necessities, environmental necessities and subjective happiness (Summers et al., 2012). Human well-being is incorporated into the concept and the definition of ecosystemservices, as there are no services if human beings do not benefit from either the functions or the processes that generate them (Kandziora et al., 2013). Therefore, assuming human well-being strongly depends on services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, changesinthe operation of any system may have direct and indirect effects on it. Impact and human management strongly affect ecosystems, including their processes and functions (Gissi et al., 2016). Nowadays, the demands for ecosystemservices created by human activity surpass what is available, which is the capacity of the ecosystems to mitigate pollutants and provide necessary natural goods, affecting the operation of ecosystemservices (Steffen et al., 2015). Changesinhuman needs result in modifications of human demands. This reflects on theservices provided by ecosystems, resulting in adverse consequences, as it is fundamental to ensure the provision of ecosystemservicesin quantity and quality and maintained at adequate levels. The challenge is to manage the trade-offs between immediate human needs and the maintenance of the capacity of theecosystem to provide goods and services.
The MA examines both indirect and direct drivers (both human-caused and natural) of change in ecosystems, how those changes affect ecosystemservices, how those changes, in turn, inﬂ uence human well-being and poverty reduction, and opportunities for interventions that can ensure ecosystem conservation and enhance human well- being. The assessment must take into consideration the multiple time and spatial scales over which these interactions take place. (Schematic is used by permission from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  and published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.)
The main objective in this study was to analyze how tree-crop interactions for water and radiation interact with the supply of three Regulating EcosystemServices: soil erosion, nitrate leaching and carbon sequestration. The study covered four different agroforestry systems in Europe representing diverse biogeographical environments. The Yield-SAFE model described in Palma et al. (2016) was used to predict RES outputs from the four systems. To this end, the model was completed by specific methodologies for the estimation of the three RES. For each system, six different land use alternatives of increasing tree densities were considered: a crop rotation or only pasture (zero tree density); four agroforestry (intermediate tree densities) and forestry (high tree density).
specifically address the problem of slope processes in (uşi Depression and Bârlad Basin. Among the geomorphological studies with larger extension, which also include the study area, may be mentioned those of (ârjoabă , and (ârjoabă & Ţoghirc . One of the most important studies is the monograph of Vaslui County of Gugiuman et al. . Other studies that focused on larger areas, but also make references to (uşi Depression, are those of Ţaraschiv and Obreja , in a series of papers that deal with the problem of valleys and terraces, and that of Rădoane et al. regarding sediment budgets and gully erosion inthe Bârlad basin.
Knowledge management and data mining are still inthe development phase and they represent interest- ing areas for researchers. Although there is an inte- grative framework for knowledge management inthe context of marketing, there are critical research chal- lenges that should be devoted considerable attention. More information about data mining for marketing can be seen in (Berry & Linoﬀ , 2004). Some of them are connected to data mining techniques and knowl- edge discovery process, while others are related to knowledge management. Data research through data mining techniques is an interactive process of learning similar to other processes of acquiring knowledge, like scientii c research. Selection of data mining al- gorithms, hypothesis forming, model evaluation and remodeling are the key components of the research process. Since the cycle of attempts and failures for progressive adopting are made of the most valuable knowledge through data mining, the aspect of learn- ing through experiments can be suitable for that. One of the research challenges is to make sure that this process is multi-structured, and therefore to increase the productivity of data mining trials. Furthermore, it is needed to manage the knowledge inthe sense that it outlines organizational borders and further distributes towards the other partners.
The Internet was only just becoming a mainstream. The direction of the Internet growth that concern us today include access, privacy, taxation and consumer protection, directions that have been instrumental in nurturing online activity and helping to make it a part of our daily lives. And inthe last few years, new services, such as iTunes, Skype and YouTube, have become part of the daily vocabulary of millions of people around the world. The network’s infrastructure has also fundamentally transformed inthe last decade. Dial-up Internet access has given way to always-on broadband technology. Users are accessing the Internet via all manner of wireless devices, from laptops to mobile phones. Along the way, communications became the fastest-growing part of household expenditure since 1993, even faster than health and education (Huttner, 2007).
with contrasting fetal, young, and adult expression profiles. Notably, many miRNAs fit a model that did not depict a consistent trend in expression along the fetal to adult timeline, but instead sharply increased or decreased at early postnatal stages. For example, the ubiquitously expressed let-7 family members are conserved from nematodes to primates, and are well-known markers of a terminally differentiated state [22,23,24]. In our study, expression levels of most let-7 family members dramatically peaked at the adult time point, as expected, but we also observed a surprising decline in expression at early postnatal stages relative to fetal. We would also like to draw attention to several miRNAs with well-characterized roles in CNS development. miR-124 and miR- 9 are brain-specific miRNAs  that are highly up-regulated at the onset of embryonic neurogenesis. Over-expression of these miRNAs in cultured cells promotes adaptation of a neuronal fate, while down-regulation has the opposite effect . Developmental expression profiling of the murine CNS revealed 12 miRNAs (miR-9, miR-17-5p, miR-124a, miR-125a, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-140, miR-181a, miR-199a, miR-205, miR-214, miR-301) with significantly higher expression at embryonic versus postnatal time points. Expression profiling was not performed inthe fully mature mouse. Inthe present study, 4 miRNAs (miR-9, miR-124, miR-125b, miR-181a) fit the model F = A.Y. The decrease in expression at early postnatal stages is consistent with observations inthe mouse; however, expression levels appear to rebound inthe adult human brain. It is intriguing to note that, with regard to several neuronal miRNAs as well as the let-7 family, the early postnatal brain appears to adopt a more immature, dedifferenti- ated state. However, we did not observe expression of the pluripotency markers miR-290, -295, -293, -294, or the -302 family  at any developmental time point. With the exception of certain neurogenic brain regions, such as the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus , neurogenesis is mostly complete by the 18 th week of gestation. Our data support a role for miRNAs in later stages of neuronal development, such as the formation and pruning of synapses , which continues throughout infancy and early childhood. At these developmental stages, we observe transient down-regulation of several well-characterized neuronal miRNAs, with concomitant spikes in expression of 31 other Sanger miRNAs (model classes 5 and 9).
Recent advances in network science have encouraged ecologists to study food-webs through network indices [14,67,68]. The estimations of species interactions often benefit the understanding of ecosystem response to perturbations [10,69], but it must be kept in mind that the impact of network structure on community may differ between different interaction types . Consequently, the ENA analysis depends strongly on model quality and structure. As explained by Abarca-Arenas and Ulanowicz  and Pinnegar et al.  the number of functional groups and model structure have an impact on the number of flows and system properties. This has to be taken into account when comparing our results to other system outputs and other Baltic Sea models. Ecopath with Ecosim  is a commonly used approach that has been broadly discussed. Plaga´nyi and Butterworth , Aydin , Coll et al.  and Walters et al.  described the pros and cons of the methodology, which has been taken into account during model building, fitting and evaluation [39,78]. Niiranen et al.  found that data uncertainties may translate to uncertainties in modelled trophic control and hence results. However in this study the model was well fitted for several trophic levels and we have confidence inthe model and data , which represent changesin biomasses and ecosystem dynamics well (see Fig. S1 in File S1).
Following Zhang (2012), if k links of a network are naturally arranged and thus generates a finited sequence, the sequence is called a chain. The chain with distinct initial node and terminal node is an open chain, or else it is a closed chain. A chain without repeated links is a simple chain. An open simple chain without repeated nodes is defined as the elementary chain, or path. Moreover, if there is at least a chain starting from initial node u to terminal node v, then the elementary chain starting from u to v exists. Given that the two endpoints of an elementary chain are the same node, the chain becomes a circuit. A circuit with length k is called the k- circuit. In present article, I will present full Matlab codes of the Paton algorithm for calculating fundamental circuit set and use it in tumor pathways.
In another study on the Ponzo and Muller Lyer illusions with schizophrenic patients and non- psychiatric “healthy” patients, Shoshina et al. (2011) found opposite results for the Ponzo illusion depending on the number of years of illness. Schizophrenic patients with less than 10 years since diagnosis showed lower sensitivity than healthy patients, whereas the opposite was true for those with more than 10 years diagnostic. These authors also found that those with more than 10 years of illness were more susceptible to the Muller Lyer illusion than those with less than 10 years since diagnosis who, in turn, were more susceptible than healthy patients. But they found gender differences. Apparently, schizophrenic male patients are less susceptible to the Ponzo illusion than females.
zooplanktivores (low trophic level), appears consistent with an overall bottom-up response to the earlier increase in abundance of forage fish (Caddy & Garibaldi 2000). Wasp-waist control: In eastern boundary current systems such as the California Current and the Humboldt Current, zooplankton biomass has been observed to have decreased over the past few decades. These long-term declines in zooplankton may also be related to major changesinthe abundance of small pelagic fishes(Verheye & Richardson 1998). Top-down control: The strongest evidence for a key role of predators in controlling subtidal reef communities inthe southern hemisphere is from two New Zealand marine reserves where there has been a decline in urchin densities and an associated change from urchin barrens to kelp over a 20-year period (Shears & Babcock 2002) because of the density and size of urchin predators (two of them are fish species). A rise in piscivore biomass brings decreased planktivore biomass, increased herbivore biomass, and decreased phytoplankton biomass (Carpenter et al. 1985). Large fish species eat the smaller ones, being between one or three orders of magnitude larger than their prey in terms of body mass (Strange et al. 1999; Woodward et al. 2005). Control of diseases: Larvivorous fishes (Gambusia holbrooki, Aphaniusdispar dispar and Aphanius sp.) are used as biological agents in malaria control (Shahi et al. 2015). Gambusia affinis can be an effective biological control agent in rice fields, feeding on mosquitoes (Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni) and thus preventing diseases such as arboviruses and malaria (Hoy et al. 1972). Control of invasions: There are fish species that control invasive fish species, either on their adult phase, having a macrocarnivorous diet - for example the Caribbean grouper is a natural biocontrol of the invasive lionfish in coral reefs (Mumby et al. 2011)- or on initial phases of development, having an omnivorous diet - for example the Japanese dace consumes smallmouth bass eggs, an exotic species in Japan which is a threat to native biodiversity (Iguchi & Yodo 2004). Control of algal blooms: Removal of grazers from shallow-water environments may prompt increases in macroalgal standing crops that could be considered to be blooms (Valiela et al. 1997). Silver and bighead carp, both filter-feeding, are highly effective in controlling noxious blooms of algae (Xie & Liu 2001).
The Byzantine fault can be tolerated by using the techniques of this paper. There should be more than three nodes inthe distributed environment. It is impossible to tolerate the problem if 3N+1 nodes is not inthe distributed environment. There are set of predefined constraints is used inthe distributed environment. The nodes wants to communicate with the member node of distributed system or the node wants to join the distributed environment. The particular node also has the predefined constraints. The membership service checks that constraint is related to the distributed system constraints. This comparison can be done by random matching technique. The membership service searches the constraints inthe distributed system using searching technique. The predefined constraints can be generated using Markov chain.
side), depending on the location of a sculpture inthe overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception inthe buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located inthe temple of Bactria before the arrival of the Greeks, and with the arrival of the Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role inthe artistic culture of Central Asia . Inthe Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding thehuman scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, inthe temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person inthe hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists and the Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, inthe area of
Arterial ageing is a process that can be quantiied, at least to some degree, by measurement of pulse wave velocity along the aorta, the largest elastic artery, as a marker of arterial stifness. In recent years the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA) has been developed by a group of mostly European researchers and some reviews have been published. Based on a lecture given at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Meeting in Vienna 2014, this review was written to describe recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular (CV) risk. This brings new perspectives related to genetics, telomere biology, and the role of gut microbiota. Even if EVA has been described in general terms there is still no unifying deinition available and no direct treatment, only recommendations for conventional CV risk factor control. However, a new intervention study (SPARTE) is ongoing in France with a randomised design to treat arterial stifness in patients with hypertension versus conventional treatment strategies. Results are expected in a few years and will be of importance in deining the role of arterial stifness, a core feature of EVA, as a target for treatment.
biomass (including branches and leaves) and roots respectively; B l , Carbon stored in litter fall; CR, Carbon stored in crop residues; SOC, Carbon pool in soil; C r , Carbon returned back through soil respiration; C l , Carbon lost through leaching into soil profiles; C N2O , CO 2 equivalent avoided emission of N 2 O.
Depth-dependent variations inthe structure of the peripapillary sclera are of interest inthe study of glaucoma, since this tissue region is thought to have some involvement inthe develop- ment of the disease. An overall circumferential arrangement of collagen inthe peripapillary sclera appears optimal for limiting canal expansion[11–13], and hence, presumably, represents a feature that would reduce strain inthe lamina—a principal site of axonal damage in glauco- ma. Moreover, the mechanical properties and extracellular matrix architecture[7, 10, 25] of the peripapillary sclera are altered in glaucomatous human eyes. We suspect that the depth-dependent changesin non-glaucoma eyes identified herein may also reflect a mechanical adaption of the connective tissue, specifically relating to the anatomical position of the lamina cribrosa with respect to the sclera. In normal human eyes the anterior lamina insertion sites into the scleral canal are located, on average, approximately 200μm from the intraocular scleral canal opening and 50μm from the posterior opening [20–22, 26] (see Fig. 7). Moreover, in older subjects, the posterior insertion frequently extends beyond the outer scleral canal bound- ary into the pia mater[21, 22, 26] (Fig. 7). This may explain our current observation that the peripapillary circumferential collagen structure is limited to the outer two-thirds of the stroma, with the highest circumferential alignment (anisotropy) being mid-stroma where the lamina is in direct contact with the sclera (Fig. 7). Significant regional variation inthe site of lamina in- sertion, as reported elsewhere, may also link with the large differences in collagen anisotro- py with location around the ONH noted inthe current study (Figs. 5 and 6). Furthermore, in light of the present results, it is interesting that a recent study by Liu et al. using ultrasound speckle-tracking[28, 29] reported that tangential (in-wall) strains inthehuman posterior sclera vary significantly through the stromal thickness, with averaged meridional and circumferential strains decreasing inthe outer layers. In order to determine how these observations may relate to depth-related changesin tissue microstructure identified herein we calculated from the Liu
ture. We found a decrease in serum T4 con- centration between the age of 4 and 8 months, in accordance with the results of da Costa et al. (4). Serum T4 entirely originates from the thyroid gland, while more than 80% of T3 is produced by deiodination of T4 in other tissues, especially the liver and kidneys. Decreased serum T4 concentration stimu- lates TSH secretion through the pituitary- thyroid feedback mechanism. However, there are only two reports of increased TSH with aging in rats (5,6). Our finding of a constant TSH level corresponds to the most recent studies (4,7-9). No feedback response seems to have occurred, and the serum TSH re- mained unchanged in old animals despite a decreased serum T4. This may have been due to the unchanged serum T3 levels (4). Furthermore, da Costa et al. (4) explained the increased serum T4 levels by low ex- pression of the gene for thyroperoxidase, the enzyme responsible for thyroglobulin iodi- nation in old males, suggesting that the gene expression of androgens might increase (10, 11). The timing and/or degree of the decline may differ between rat strains (5,10,12). There is also the possibility that the aged murine thyroid becomes less responsive to circulating TSH.