or cold shrubs. Grass is classified as either C3 or C4 grass. Theland surface in JSBACH is tiled in mosaics, so that several PFTs can cover one grid cell. Each grid cell also contains non-vegetated tiles representing the fraction of seasonally bare soil and permanently bare ground (desert). The models have been tested against obser- vations and reanalysis data proving that they capture the major structure of global and
ios of ICE1, ICE2, and ICE3. In scenario ICE4, even the snow and glacier cover would not increase any more after 6 kyr BP (Fig. 1a, blue line), its influence last for the rest oftheHolocene vegetation evolution compared with scenario ICE0 (Fig. 1b). The sim- ulated fraction of vegetation coverin North Africa are generally coincident with proxy records of changes in vegetation cover evidenced from ocean temperature and terrige-
Although reforestation generally played a positive role in streamflow in our study area, there are large differences inthe hydrological responses between the two study watersheds. As shown above, there are more significant effects on both high and low flows inthe Pingjiang watershed than inthe Xi- angshui watershed. Since both watersheds have experienced similar historic forest changeandclimate, we believe that the difference inthe responses of high and low flows were mainly due to the difference in their watershed properties. A close examination of their watershed properties shows that the main differences in their properties are to do with water- shed slopes and sizes. Many studies show that watershed size can be an important factor affecting hydrological responses to land-cover changes (Buttle and Metcalfe, 2000; Blöschl et al., 2007; Zhang and Wei, 2014a; Zhou et al., 2015). A smaller-sized watershed often has less buffering capacity as it may contain fewer heterogeneous landscape components (e.g., wetlands, lakes) and complexities, and as a result, is more sensitive to land-cover changes. In our study, Xiang- shui watershed is much smaller than Pingjiang watershed, so a quicker hydrological response should be expected in Xi- angshui watershed. The limited and slower hydrological re- sponse in Xiangshui watershed after reforestation as com- pared with Pingjiang watershed suggests that a factor other than watershed size came into play. Thus, we reasonably judge that the difference in watershed slope between two watersheds is the major factor determining the variations of their hydrological responses. The Xiangshui watershed has a much larger area percentage (23.9 %) with the slope class (30–50 %) as compared to that (4.6 %) inthe Pingjiang wa- tershed (Table 1). In southern China where a monsoon cli- mate is dominant, a steeper watershed often has more se- vere soil erosion if deforestation occurs, and consequently it would take a much longer time to recover through the re- forestation process once severe soil erosion occurred (Chen et al., 2002; Zheng et al., 2015).
40 ◦ N reflects the large influenceofthe ocean-atmosphere feedback onthe northern latitude temperature difference between mid-Holoceneandpresent-day. Mainly due to changes in sea ice, the ocean-atmosphere feedback can even changethe sign ofthe response ofthe system to orbital forcing inthe regions north of 40 ◦ N: mid-Holocene winter at northern latitudes is warmer than today by appr. 0.3 K despite weaker insolation during that season. The vegetation-atmosphere feedback plays a minor role in both regions. The reason for this is currently being investigated. For theAsianmonsoon, we tentatively attribute the small effect of vegetation-atmosphere interaction to mid-Holocene – present-dayclimate difference to the fact that our model yields only small changes between mid-Holoceneandpresent-day vegetation coverage. Although the model captures the main vegetation trend intheAsianregion, the simulated changein forest cover is much smaller than found in reconstructions (e.g. Ren, 2007). Therefore, the model presumably underestimates the vegetation-atmosphere interaction. Further studies will have to focus on a detailed comparison of simulated and reconstructed climate using numerical experiments with much higher spatial resolution to capture the effect of strong variation in orography on atmospheric dynamics.
Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border regionofthe Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance ofthe foremost islands and border regionin Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district andthe surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border regionof law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline ofthe Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing andthe border regionofthe Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
The Lake Tana basin is densely populated with a total population of about two million (Surur, 2010). Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one ofthe sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is densely populated with an annual growth rate of 2.3 % according to CSA (central statistics authority). This causes various effects on resource bases like deforestation, expansion of residential area, and agricultural land. Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one ofthe sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is facing these types of effects. Deforestation is a day to day activity ofthe people living inthe watershed. The watershed is also facing high erosion by the effects of intense rainfall ofthe watershed which aggravates thelandcoverchangeofthe watershed. This continuous changeinlandcover has impacted the water balance ofthe watershed by changing the magnitude and pattern ofthe components of stream flow which are surface runoff and ground water flow, which results increasing the extent ofthe water management problem. Therefore, a strong need is identified for the hydrological techniques and tools that can assess the effects oflandcover changes onthe hydrologic response of a watershed. Such techniques and tools can provide information that can be used for water resources management at a watershed.
It is well-established that changes inlandcoverandland use (LCLU) are relevant to current local and global changes that are directly linked with food security, human health, urbanization, biodiversity, trans-border migration, environmental refuges, water and soil quality, runoff and sedimentation rates, and other processes. This paper examines LCLU change processes within the Cointzio watershed (Central Mexico). The analysis covers a 28- year time period from 1975 to 2003. LCLU changes were deduced from multi-temporal remote sensing analyses (1975, 1986, 1996, 2000 and 2003). Nearly all ofthe LCLU changes experienced inthe Cointzio watershed occurred during the 1986-1996 period. Half ofthe 665 km 2 ofthe watershed have changed during this period, in what corresponds to a ten-fold increase inthe rate ofchange as compared to the 1975-1986 and 1996-2003 periods. These massive changes are probably related to the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, which limited the transit of undocumented Mexican workers to the United States of America. The methodology applied in this research constitutes a low-cost alternative for evaluating the impact of LCLU changein watersheds. The magnitude ofland use change differed during the periods of analyses inthe watershed, functional zones and geoforms. The methodological approach applied in this analysis integrates standard procedures to evaluate landcoverandland use changein watersheds. Due to the practical value ofthe results, the data and information generated during the analysis have been made available to local authorities.
The premise ofthe corporate social responsibility movement is that ‗corporations, because they are the dominant institution ofthe planet, must squarely face and address the social and environmental problems that afflict humankind. However, companies have a choice with regard to the causes they support and how they convey this information. These choices may, or may not, reflect a sincere interest inthe cause (in addition to image-promotional motives). Previous research suggests that consumers assess sincerity inthe context of consumer–salesperson interaction (DeCarlo, 2005). Campbell and Kirmani (2000) found that when ulterior motives were accessible, consumers inferred an underlying persuasion attempt andthe target salesperson were perceived as less sincere. As noted earlier, inthe context of CSR, the type of cause that the company supports may increase the salience of firm-serving benefits (Forehand & Grier, 2003). Causes that are related with the company‘s business should increase the salience of firm-serving benefits. Today, corporations know that CSR is inextricably linked to how customers make purchase decision ofthe organizations products and service (Ahearne, Bhattacharya and Gruen, 2010). In Ghana, specifically with the telecommunication industry, the business environment is typically competitive, characterized by a legal environment aimed at ethical behaviors onthe part of businesses, and societal expectations that businesses should be more ethical and socially responsible. Thus, in decision making processes, companies try to avoid actions that may breach any regulation or negatively impact their reputation in order to avoid consumer dissatisfaction. In Ghana there is an organization that monitors the activities ofthe telecommunication companies inthe country, which is the National Communication Authority (NCA). The telecommunication companies in Ghana are MTN Ghana, Tigo Ghana, Airtel, GLO, Vodafone Ghana Ltd, Airport-Accra, and Expresso Ghana. Previous studies on consumers‘ attitudes on CSR and CSR‘s impact on consumer behavior and consumption decisions are quite general (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore & Hill, 2006; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch & Gruber, ______________________
assumptions made in FINNv1 also add uncertainty, such as the smoothing ofthe fire detections in tropical latitudes to account for the lack of daily coverage by the MODIS instruments in this region, andthe assumed burned area of each fire. For the global ap- plication described here, average values for variable phenomena are applied to broad regions. The average value may not always represent the real value for some fires or
The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE LandCover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting ofthe wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions ofthe Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.
about 1480 C. It guarantee total magnesium solution in liquid metal and its maximum yield. Nodularization process was made inthe mould. The mould scheme and its dimensions are shown in Figure 1. A master alloy in amount of 1,00% of casting mass was inserted into the reaction chamber. This chamber was located inthe gating system behind the sprue. Behind this chamber the mixing andthe control chambers were located. Inside the control chamber the thermocouple PtRh10-Pt (S type) was placed. It was connected with Cristaldigraph to thermal derivative analysis (TDA) curves recording. After the solidification finish castings were knocking out and free air cooling.
extraction. In areas where pumping was below licence limits and was increased to the maximum permissible, more rainfall became recharge as there is a large soil buffer created by declining water levels. This effect is evident in Lancelin, Jarrahdale and Jan- dakot climate zones. It is also clear from the percentage changes that future climatic effects on recharge are neither consistent in direction nor magnitude.
Before taking the measurements, an anti-reflection coating was applied onthe tested gear wheel. The thickness ofthe coating ranged from 0,8 µm do 1,2 µm. The measurements were taken at the Institute of Metrology and Measuring Systems, at Pozna ń University of Technology.
Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 onthe given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass ofthe batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.
To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages andonthe characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations ofthe share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect ofthe data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One ofthe main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches inthe estimation ofthe segregation effects of interest onthe gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that inthe literature. 2
Acknowledgements. We thank the Institut f ¨ur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), Karl- sruhe, Germany, for a licence to use the KOPRA radiative transfer model, and especially M. H ¨opfner for his help to set up the code. We thank the ETHER database (CNRS, INSU, CNES) in France for providing access to IASI Level 1 data. This study was supported by the French Space Agency CNES (project “IASI-TOSCA”).
forests. Simulated forest fraction is reduced by nearly one-third at present-day. Simulated total biomass onthe Tibetan Plateau has decreased by ca. 6.64 GtC since themid-Holocene. In some cases, however, model and reconstructions attribute this vegetation change to different climatic factors, which partly results from the fact that both methods have deficits. Onthe one hand, reconstructions might be affected by
Climatechange also affects trophic interaction at various levels in an intricate complex manner. In many cases higher temperatures have been shown to speed up plant development and lead to earlier switching to the next ontogenetic stage (Menzel and Fabian, 1999; Badeck et al., 2004). Menzel and Dose (2005) show that timing of cherry blossom in Japan was highly variable among years, but no clear trends were discerned from1400 to 1900. A statistically significant change point is first seen inthe early 1900s,withsteady advancements since 1952.Based on its well-known variation with the annual course of weather elements, plant phenology might be expected to be one ofthe most responsive and easily observable traits in nature that changein response to climate (Badeck et al., 2004).suggest that this ontogeny–phenology landscape provides a flexible method to document changes inthe relative phenologies of interacting species, examine the causes of these phenological shifts, and estimate their consequences for interacting species (Yang and Rudolf, 2010). But the plethora of records also stems from the strong sociological significance ofthechangeofthe seasons, particularly in high-latitude countries affected (Parmesan, 2006).
I think we can answer this question inthe positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action inthe processes occurring inthe world. The emergence of life inthe universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
This is consistent with previous studies (Sepulchre et al., 2009; Krinner et al., 2012) and is well explained by the fol- lowing: since the lake is generally colder than the surround- ing environment, low-level air becomes cooler and denser (Fig. 7) and stabilizes the atmosphere, preventing deep con- vection and associated rainfall. This mechanism is observed in both Pliocene simulations andinthemid-Holocene one, suggesting it is a robust feature appearing in different back- ground climates. Inthe meantime, convective activity in- creases around MLC, especially to the east. Southwesterly winds are enhanced above the surface ofthe lake due to the reduced roughness length over the flat surface (Figs. 6 and 8), generating convective activity at the northeast of MLC, inthe three simulations. Similarly, the effect of pre-industrial Lake Chad onclimate is to increase convective activity downwind ofthe lake (Lauwaet et al., 2012). Moreover, MLC, espe- cially its northern part, is a centre of higher pressure (Fig. 7), generating clockwise winds that can be seen in Fig. 7, which are responsible for the increase of precipitation inthe south- east ofthe lake inthe three simulations (Fig. 6). Significant precipitation response outside the Chad Basin is variable inthe three simulations and generally not above 0.5 mm d −1 .