Top PDF The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

The influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climate

or cold shrubs. Grass is classified as either C3 or C4 grass. The land surface in JSBACH is tiled in mosaics, so that several PFTs can cover one grid cell. Each grid cell also contains non-vegetated tiles representing the fraction of seasonally bare soil and permanently bare ground (desert). The models have been tested against obser- vations and reanalysis data proving that they capture the major structure of global and

39 Ler mais

Modeling sensitivity study of the possible impact of snow and glaciers developing over Tibetan Plateau on Holocene African-Asian summer monsoon climate

Modeling sensitivity study of the possible impact of snow and glaciers developing over Tibetan Plateau on Holocene African-Asian summer monsoon climate

ios of ICE1, ICE2, and ICE3. In scenario ICE4, even the snow and glacier cover would not increase any more after 6 kyr BP (Fig. 1a, blue line), its influence last for the rest of the Holocene vegetation evolution compared with scenario ICE0 (Fig. 1b). The sim- ulated fraction of vegetation cover in North Africa are generally coincident with proxy records of changes in vegetation cover evidenced from ocean temperature and terrige-

23 Ler mais

Hydrological recovery in two large forested watersheds of southeastern China: the importance of watershed properties in determining hydrological responses to reforestation

Hydrological recovery in two large forested watersheds of southeastern China: the importance of watershed properties in determining hydrological responses to reforestation

Although reforestation generally played a positive role in streamflow in our study area, there are large differences in the hydrological responses between the two study watersheds. As shown above, there are more significant effects on both high and low flows in the Pingjiang watershed than in the Xi- angshui watershed. Since both watersheds have experienced similar historic forest change and climate, we believe that the difference in the responses of high and low flows were mainly due to the difference in their watershed properties. A close examination of their watershed properties shows that the main differences in their properties are to do with water- shed slopes and sizes. Many studies show that watershed size can be an important factor affecting hydrological responses to land-cover changes (Buttle and Metcalfe, 2000; Blöschl et al., 2007; Zhang and Wei, 2014a; Zhou et al., 2015). A smaller-sized watershed often has less buffering capacity as it may contain fewer heterogeneous landscape components (e.g., wetlands, lakes) and complexities, and as a result, is more sensitive to land-cover changes. In our study, Xiang- shui watershed is much smaller than Pingjiang watershed, so a quicker hydrological response should be expected in Xi- angshui watershed. The limited and slower hydrological re- sponse in Xiangshui watershed after reforestation as com- pared with Pingjiang watershed suggests that a factor other than watershed size came into play. Thus, we reasonably judge that the difference in watershed slope between two watersheds is the major factor determining the variations of their hydrological responses. The Xiangshui watershed has a much larger area percentage (23.9 %) with the slope class (30–50 %) as compared to that (4.6 %) in the Pingjiang wa- tershed (Table 1). In southern China where a monsoon cli- mate is dominant, a steeper watershed often has more se- vere soil erosion if deforestation occurs, and consequently it would take a much longer time to recover through the re- forestation process once severe soil erosion occurred (Chen et al., 2002; Zheng et al., 2015).
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

Contribution of oceanic and vegetation feedbacks to Holocene climate change in monsoonal Asia

Contribution of oceanic and vegetation feedbacks to Holocene climate change in monsoonal Asia

40 ◦ N reflects the large influence of the ocean-atmosphere feedback on the northern latitude temperature difference between mid-Holocene and present-day. Mainly due to changes in sea ice, the ocean-atmosphere feedback can even change the sign of the response of the system to orbital forcing in the regions north of 40 ◦ N: mid-Holocene winter at northern latitudes is warmer than today by appr. 0.3 K despite weaker insolation during that season. The vegetation-atmosphere feedback plays a minor role in both regions. The reason for this is currently being investigated. For the Asian monsoon, we tentatively attribute the small effect of vegetation-atmosphere interaction to mid-Holocenepresent-day climate difference to the fact that our model yields only small changes between mid-Holocene and present-day vegetation coverage. Although the model captures the main vegetation trend in the Asian region, the simulated change in forest cover is much smaller than found in reconstructions (e.g. Ren, 2007). Therefore, the model presumably underestimates the vegetation-atmosphere interaction. Further studies will have to focus on a detailed comparison of simulated and reconstructed climate using numerical experiments with much higher spatial resolution to capture the effect of strong variation in orography on atmospheric dynamics.
Mostrar mais

24 Ler mais

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE ON HYDROLOGY OF WATERSHED:

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE ON HYDROLOGY OF WATERSHED:

The Lake Tana basin is densely populated with a total population of about two million (Surur, 2010). Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one of the sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is densely populated with an annual growth rate of 2.3 % according to CSA (central statistics authority). This causes various effects on resource bases like deforestation, expansion of residential area, and agricultural land. Gilgel Abbay watershed which is one of the sub watersheds of Lake Tana basin is facing these types of effects. Deforestation is a day to day activity of the people living in the watershed. The watershed is also facing high erosion by the effects of intense rainfall of the watershed which aggravates the land cover change of the watershed. This continuous change in land cover has impacted the water balance of the watershed by changing the magnitude and pattern of the components of stream flow which are surface runoff and ground water flow, which results increasing the extent of the water management problem. Therefore, a strong need is identified for the hydrological techniques and tools that can assess the effects of land cover changes on the hydrologic response of a watershed. Such techniques and tools can provide information that can be used for water resources management at a watershed.
Mostrar mais

82 Ler mais

Linking geomorphologic knowledge, RS and GIS techniques for analyzing land cover and land use change: a multitemporal study in the Cointzio watershed, Mexico

Linking geomorphologic knowledge, RS and GIS techniques for analyzing land cover and land use change: a multitemporal study in the Cointzio watershed, Mexico

It is well-established that changes in land cover and land use (LCLU) are relevant to current local and global changes that are directly linked with food security, human health, urbanization, biodiversity, trans-border migration, environmental refuges, water and soil quality, runoff and sedimentation rates, and other processes. This paper examines LCLU change processes within the Cointzio watershed (Central Mexico). The analysis covers a 28- year time period from 1975 to 2003. LCLU changes were deduced from multi-temporal remote sensing analyses (1975, 1986, 1996, 2000 and 2003). Nearly all of the LCLU changes experienced in the Cointzio watershed occurred during the 1986-1996 period. Half of the 665 km 2 of the watershed have changed during this period, in what corresponds to a ten-fold increase in the rate of change as compared to the 1975-1986 and 1996-2003 periods. These massive changes are probably related to the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, which limited the transit of undocumented Mexican workers to the United States of America. The methodology applied in this research constitutes a low-cost alternative for evaluating the impact of LCLU change in watersheds. The magnitude of land use change differed during the periods of analyses in the watershed, functional zones and geoforms. The methodological approach applied in this analysis integrates standard procedures to evaluate land cover and land use change in watersheds. Due to the practical value of the results, the data and information generated during the analysis have been made available to local authorities.
Mostrar mais

20 Ler mais

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The premise of the corporate social responsibility movement is that ‗corporations, because they are the dominant institution of the planet, must squarely face and address the social and environmental problems that afflict humankind. However, companies have a choice with regard to the causes they support and how they convey this information. These choices may, or may not, reflect a sincere interest in the cause (in addition to image-promotional motives). Previous research suggests that consumers assess sincerity in the context of consumer–salesperson interaction (DeCarlo, 2005). Campbell and Kirmani (2000) found that when ulterior motives were accessible, consumers inferred an underlying persuasion attempt and the target salesperson were perceived as less sincere. As noted earlier, in the context of CSR, the type of cause that the company supports may increase the salience of firm-serving benefits (Forehand & Grier, 2003). Causes that are related with the company‘s business should increase the salience of firm-serving benefits. Today, corporations know that CSR is inextricably linked to how customers make purchase decision of the organizations products and service (Ahearne, Bhattacharya and Gruen, 2010). In Ghana, specifically with the telecommunication industry, the business environment is typically competitive, characterized by a legal environment aimed at ethical behaviors on the part of businesses, and societal expectations that businesses should be more ethical and socially responsible. Thus, in decision making processes, companies try to avoid actions that may breach any regulation or negatively impact their reputation in order to avoid consumer dissatisfaction. In Ghana there is an organization that monitors the activities of the telecommunication companies in the country, which is the National Communication Authority (NCA). The telecommunication companies in Ghana are MTN Ghana, Tigo Ghana, Airtel, GLO, Vodafone Ghana Ltd, Airport-Accra, and Expresso Ghana. Previous studies on consumers‘ attitudes on CSR and CSR‘s impact on consumer behavior and consumption decisions are quite general (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore & Hill, 2006; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch & Gruber, ______________________
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) – a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) – a high resolution global model to estimate the emissions from open burning

assumptions made in FINNv1 also add uncertainty, such as the smoothing of the fire detections in tropical latitudes to account for the lack of daily coverage by the MODIS instruments in this region, and the assumed burned area of each fire. For the global ap- plication described here, average values for variable phenomena are applied to broad regions. The average value may not always represent the real value for some fires or

38 Ler mais

Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

about 1480 C. It guarantee total magnesium solution in liquid metal and its maximum yield. Nodularization process was made in the mould. The mould scheme and its dimensions are shown in Figure 1. A master alloy in amount of 1,00% of casting mass was inserted into the reaction chamber. This chamber was located in the gating system behind the sprue. Behind this chamber the mixing and the control chambers were located. Inside the control chamber the thermocouple PtRh10-Pt (S type) was placed. It was connected with Cristaldigraph to thermal derivative analysis (TDA) curves recording. After the solidification finish castings were knocking out and free air cooling.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

extraction. In areas where pumping was below licence limits and was increased to the maximum permissible, more rainfall became recharge as there is a large soil buffer created by declining water levels. This effect is evident in Lancelin, Jarrahdale and Jan- dakot climate zones. It is also clear from the percentage changes that future climatic effects on recharge are neither consistent in direction nor magnitude.

37 Ler mais

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

The application of optical measurements for the determination of accuracy of gear wheels casts manufactured in the RT/RP process

Before taking the measurements, an anti-reflection coating was applied on the tested gear wheel. The thickness of the coating ranged from 0,8 µm do 1,2 µm. The measurements were taken at the Institute of Metrology and Measuring Systems, at Pozna ń University of Technology.

4 Ler mais

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass of the batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
Mostrar mais

23 Ler mais

IASI measurements of tropospheric ozone over Chinese megacities: Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong

IASI measurements of tropospheric ozone over Chinese megacities: Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong

Acknowledgements. We thank the Institut f ¨ur Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), Karl- sruhe, Germany, for a licence to use the KOPRA radiative transfer model, and especially M. H ¨opfner for his help to set up the code. We thank the ETHER database (CNRS, INSU, CNES) in France for providing access to IASI Level 1 data. This study was supported by the French Space Agency CNES (project “IASI-TOSCA”).

38 Ler mais

Holocene vegetation and biomass changes on the Tibetan Plateau – a model-pollen data comparison

Holocene vegetation and biomass changes on the Tibetan Plateau – a model-pollen data comparison

forests. Simulated forest fraction is reduced by nearly one-third at present-day. Simulated total biomass on the Tibetan Plateau has decreased by ca. 6.64 GtC since the mid-Holocene. In some cases, however, model and reconstructions attribute this vegetation change to different climatic factors, which partly results from the fact that both methods have deficits. On the one hand, reconstructions might be affected by

39 Ler mais

A concise review on multifaceted impacts of climate change on plant phenology

A concise review on multifaceted impacts of climate change on plant phenology

Climate change also affects trophic interaction at various levels in an intricate complex manner. In many cases higher temperatures have been shown to speed up plant development and lead to earlier switching to the next ontogenetic stage (Menzel and Fabian, 1999; Badeck et al., 2004). Menzel and Dose (2005) show that timing of cherry blossom in Japan was highly variable among years, but no clear trends were discerned from1400 to 1900. A statistically significant change point is first seen in the early 1900s,withsteady advancements since 1952.Based on its well-known variation with the annual course of weather elements, plant phenology might be expected to be one of the most responsive and easily observable traits in nature that change in response to climate (Badeck et al., 2004).suggest that this ontogeny–phenology landscape provides a flexible method to document changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species, examine the causes of these phenological shifts, and estimate their consequences for interacting species (Yang and Rudolf, 2010). But the plethora of records also stems from the strong sociological significance of the change of the seasons, particularly in high-latitude countries affected (Parmesan, 2006).
Mostrar mais

10 Ler mais

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

CONTINUOUS CREATION IN THE PROBABILISTIC WORLD OF THE THEOLOGY OF CHANCE

I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism of the created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage of the non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because of the chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
Mostrar mais

16 Ler mais

Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

This is consistent with previous studies (Sepulchre et al., 2009; Krinner et al., 2012) and is well explained by the fol- lowing: since the lake is generally colder than the surround- ing environment, low-level air becomes cooler and denser (Fig. 7) and stabilizes the atmosphere, preventing deep con- vection and associated rainfall. This mechanism is observed in both Pliocene simulations and in the mid-Holocene one, suggesting it is a robust feature appearing in different back- ground climates. In the meantime, convective activity in- creases around MLC, especially to the east. Southwesterly winds are enhanced above the surface of the lake due to the reduced roughness length over the flat surface (Figs. 6 and 8), generating convective activity at the northeast of MLC, in the three simulations. Similarly, the effect of pre-industrial Lake Chad on climate is to increase convective activity downwind of the lake (Lauwaet et al., 2012). Moreover, MLC, espe- cially its northern part, is a centre of higher pressure (Fig. 7), generating clockwise winds that can be seen in Fig. 7, which are responsible for the increase of precipitation in the south- east of the lake in the three simulations (Fig. 6). Significant precipitation response outside the Chad Basin is variable in the three simulations and generally not above 0.5 mm d −1 .
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...

temas relacionados