Corporations need to address their social obligations more consciously. It is important to understand what kinds of responsibilities construct CSR before involving in any CSR act ivities. One widely acknowledged theory of CSR‘s components is Carroll‘s four-part theory. Carroll (1991) developed his four-part theory of CSR, arguing that CSR is constituted by four kinds of social responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. The economic responsibilities are the primary part of the four responsibilities. It is the fundamental layer of Carroll‘s CSR pyramid. All corporations are responsible for providing goods and services that are needed by the society. Consequently, profits from selling goods and services go to shareholders and other investors to keep a company survive and grow. Economic responsibilities of a company are the base for providing legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. Legal responsibilities are the second layer of the CSR pyramid and are coexisting with economic responsibilities as fundamental precepts of the free enterprise system. Firms are expected to operate under the legal system and regulations while creating profits for shareholders. Firms are fulfilling the "social contract" between firms and the society by being legally responsible. Legally responsible also reflects the "codified ethics" of business operation, as well as the pursuit of economic responsibilities set by lawmakers (Carroll, 1991). Ethical responsibilities involve activities and practices that are expected by the society and done by firms voluntarily regarding fair, justice and the respect for or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. Ethical responsibilities are voluntary choices of firms, since they are not codified into any law or regulation. These responsibilities reflect social norms, expectations and concerns of consumers, employees, shareholders and the community. Ethical responsibilities go further than legal responsibilities because they involve newly emerging values and norms that the public expects a firm to comply with and are at a higher standard of business practices than that current legal system required. However, ethical responsibilities are not easy to deal with for firms because new expectations from the public keep emerging and this makes the legitimacy of ethical responsibilities continually under debate (Carroll, 1991). Philanthropic responsibilities involve firms‘ activities that are
Cultureis broadly incorporated in the society and economy as an embodiment of ideas, customs, and social behavior of a particular people, group, nation, or region. It is associated to the collective programming of mind which enables people and society to distinguish the members of one group or category of people from those of another (Hofstede et al., 2010). It is also linked to knowledge and learning (Davenport & Prusak, 1998; Skerlavaj et al., 2013), it is also associated to values, to norms and artifacts (Stock et al., 2013). Hence, culture can be seen as a set of beliefs that drives the human action to innovativeness and, over the centuries, have driven individuals and groups to the most complex networking systems. According to Kleinschmidt, De Bretain, and Salomo (2007), corporate culture offers to companies and countries the opportunity to embrace the spirit of innovativeness and become innovative oriented. Stock et al. (2013) found that cultural artifacts fully mediate the effects of innovation-orientated value and norms on innovativeness. Thus, values and norms need to transform into specific artifacts before they can influence innovation outcomes (e.g. intellectual capital, embodied by patents, by new products, new processes, etc.). Furthermore, those authors also revealed that a company’s innovation-oriented cultureis less crucial in markets in which customer preferences change dramatically, however prevailing in technologically turbulent environments. The importance ofculture rises in dynamic markets but decreases in markets with technological turbulence.
Hartals were available and pervasive in most countries in South Asia during post-colonial period. The phenomenon is also known as bandhs in some areas. Hartals are considered as a perpetual part of political culture in South Asia. Strikes, hartals, and student unrest spread out in India over the first three successive decades. During the period of 1952 to 1963, under Nehru regime, work days lost to strikes and hartals amounted to 5.26 million a year. During the rule of Shastri and Indhira Gandhi, strikes and bandhs were increased dramatically. Thus, about 18.16 million days were considered as workdays lost per year during this period. This figure dipped a little to 17.35 million days per year during two years of emergency rule under Indira Gandhi, but total amount of lost workdays increased into double, to 33.06 million days each year on average during the eight years period of Desai and Indira Gandhi. In recent years, comparable data are not available, but bandhs are still an important characteristic of Indian political life which is found from various reports. In West Bengal, Left Front called hartal frequently. In 2002, three bandhs were called in the province within the first six months of this year (Bandh Blues, 2002). Bandhs are “spreading like wildlife”, pointed out in a report in 2002. In recent times, the state-sponsored bandh is being increased which is considered as an inauspicious development. If the trend does not prevent for political well-being, we must have to fall in serious trouble (Nadkarni, 2002). The police of India did not free from calling bandhs. Myron Weiner, an authoritative source in Indian politics, described the best situation of bandh in India: “Indians have the perfect art of protest, and as one journalist wrote, there are many similar vocabularies of protest for Indians as Eskimos have for snow. These similar words can be Satyagraha, or civil disobedience; gherao, or forcibly locking an official in his office, dharna, or general strike, morcha, or march, and there can be fasts, black flag demonstrations, work stoppages across the state...” (Weiner, 1987:53, Cited in Islam, 2005). According to Kathmandu post (2000), about 50 bandhs were observed in Nepal over the period of 1990 and 2000 (Kathandu Post, 2000)
Understanding of microstructure evolution during solidification isof general importance due to requirements inputted in front of mechanical, technological and corrosion properties of material . It depends of many factors such as chemical composition, melt treatment, i.e. grain refinement, eutectic modification, cooling rate and heat treatment [2,3]. Aluminium alloys represent an important material due to their wide range of application in aerospace, automotive and household industries. Alloys from the Al-Si-Cu group have an important role in automotive industry for various motor pistons, cylinder heads, heat exchangers, wheels, transmission housing and suspension components due to their high strength at room and elevated temperatures . Guaranteed chemical composition does not always provide absolute security in casting soundness due to a number of element interactions and technological production parameters applied [4,5].
Regarding communication, it should respect some conditions to be effective. Therefore, communication should be transparent, the participants should avoid stereotypes, listen attentively, and be aware of possible cultural differences (Kic-Drgas, 2015). Moreover, the way to good communication also depends on the choice of the channels used to transmit information, as well as the respective modes. This choice depends on a range of factors, cultural and non- cultural. Thereby, countries with different national cultures most likely will prefer different channels to communicate, for instance, depending on cultural context (high or low) or its perception of time and space (Mead, 1990 & Deresky, 2011). Besides, corporate cultureis, as well, an important factor for the choice of the right channels to communicate, differing according to the leadership style of the organization, staffing policies, type of communication (formal or informal), among other factors (Deresky, 2011). On the other hand, even within the same culture, channels and modes should be chosen carefully, depending on a range of non- cultural factors, such as the number of receivers and transmitters, the complexity of the message or its urgency, among others. In this sense, as some authors referred, communication is a multidimensional process which depends on each specific situation (Bryant, Marmo and Ramirez, 2011).
From the range of services (outreach), geographically Islamic banking has reached the Indonesian community in more than 103 districts / cities and 33 provinces in Indonesia. The developmentof such services has increased the capacity of community participation into banking service users, as indicated by an increase in the number of customer accounts funding until September 2010 has reached 5.76 million accounts (Bank Indonesia, Directorate of Islamic Banking, 2010, Islamic Banking Outlook, Third Quarter 2010 ). Institutional terms, up to October 2011, the number of banks that conduct business activities increase with the rise of sharia new players either in the form of Islamic Banks (BUS), Sharia Business Unit (UUS) and the People's Bank Financing Sharia (SRB). BUS that at the end of 2009 amounted to 6 units increased to 11 units, of which 2 BUS represents the conversion Commercial Bank and 2 BUS spin off business unit results sharia (UUS). While Sharia Business Unit (UUS) dropped to 23 units of an amount of 25 units. Thus bringing the total number of BUS and UUS per October 2011 to 34 banks. In terms of financial indicators jammed, Islamic banking numbers tend to be lower compared to conventional non-performing loans in banks, this is reflected in the Non- Performance Ratio Financing (NPF) is lower than the year-on- year compared with conventional banks. The decline in this troubled financing reflected in the ratio of Non Performing Financing (NPF) which decreased to 4.10% for, from the previous average of over 5%. This situation shows that Islamic banks more cautious in extending financing. On the other hand, a decrease in this ratio shows the risk management capabilities of Islamic Banking in Indonesia is getting better. Special to the People's Bank
In the study entitled “Developmentof the German version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture: Dimensionality and psychometric proper- ties” developed by (Pfeiffer & Manser 2010), was found that the global fit was not satisfactory. Three criteria indicated an adequate fit with the RMSEA=0.047, while GFI was 0.878, NFI was 0.859 and TLI was 0.901. These values showed that the fit is not sufficiently accurate to confirm the proposed factor structure. In the exploratory factor analysis, eight underlying factors explained 59.8% of the items variation. Overall, the scales showed satis- factory to good internal consistency. The Cronbach’s α ranged between 0.64 in the dimension “Communication openness” and 0.83 in the dimen- sion “Hospital management support for patient safety”. This research was done with a sample of 3005 returned surveys, from which 2989 were valid, applied to the employees of a large University Hos- pital. This survey was developed to German speak- ing countries and the name was changed to PaSKI. About the participants on this research, 36.8% were registered nurses, 15% were managers and adminis- trators, 13.7% were physicians, 11.5% were medical and technical staff, 6.5% were nurse-assistants and the remaining were others. Response rate was 47%. In the study entitled “The psychometric properties of the 'Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture' in Dutch hospitals” developed by Smits et al. (2008), was found that the internal consistency measured by the Cronbach’s α ranged between 0.49 in the di- mension “Staffing” and 0.84 in the dimension “Fre- quency of event reporting”. Other dimensions that scored unacceptable reliability coefficients were “Organizational learning – continuous improve- ment” (α=0.57) and “Teamwork across hospital units” (α=0.59). The highest inter-dimension corre-
Progressive materials with high-speed development in wide range of commercial applications are aluminum alloys Al – Si. Future of their further use is connected with their unique characteristic, resp. advantageous relation between mechanical properties and density. Largest use of these alloys is in the transport industry – automobile and aerial industry. Also often used in engineering industry and special role in army industry. Desirable mechanical properties may be considered one of the main reason for wide spectrum efficiency of aluminum alloys, therefore is very important to understand the factors, which have major impact on this properties. Main goal of this work was to execute group of experiments, to prove impact of filtration elements on morphology of eutectical silicon. Shape, deployment and scale of eutectical silicon are one of the factors, that have
Cultural distance is a key factor of marketing adaptation strategy (Evans & Bridson 2005). According to the analysis result between cultural and marketing strategy-7PS, there is a positive correlation between marketing mix and Culture. As we can see that the most significant value between 7PS is distribution, and the correlation coefficient is 0.536, and then is people element, which is 0.457. This result proves that the culture element is most relevant to channels and people. When multinational corporations face a high cultural distance in the host country market, marketing standardization strategy will be difficult to implement, and MNCs will be more inclined to adopt the marketing adaptation strategy to meet the needs of different host countries (Li & Wu, 2015). Culture has important practical significance for guiding enterprises to correctly understand and correctly apply channel power, and how to ease channel conflicts in business activities through different cultural relationships, strengthen channel cooperation, and improve channel efficiency. Different cultures also have a certain impact on human resource management. According to Ang and Massingham (2007), national culture has an effect in range of MNCs in aspects of standardization and adaptation decision.
Abstract: Mathematical model for the impact of pressure drop on the human body has been investigated in the present studies. The studies has been aimed at personnel (army and mountaineer) who would be prone for higher altitude effect on the body and to suggest them appropriate measures (as a precautionary or advisory purpose) who either will be getting inducted onto higher altitudes venturing onto higher peaks. The model accounts for heights of altitudes ranging from 4000-6000 meters and accounting for all the possible cardiovascular diseases
Classroom management is not an end in itself but indicative of teachers’ authority, inner strength, interpersonal relations and leadership role. A learning environment that seeks student cooperation and minimizes disciplinary problems would be achieved by teachers who have expertise in content and instructional strategies, who make wise decisions about time and space, who demonstrate an attitude of valuing and caring their students. Preventive classroom management can be effected by planning rules and procedures beforehand as well as developing accountability in students for their academic work and classroom behavior. Effective managers have intervention skills for dealing quickly with disruptive in direct and fair ways. The developmentof personality traits and cultivation of skills required for effective management is be achieved through theory, practice and effective monitoring.
Abstract: The developmentof fisheries sector is intended to improve the role of creating a strong linkage with other sectors by increasing the value added, absorbing labor forces and increasing people’s income so that this can make the economy grow well. The value added is a value that increases due to a commodity that has been processed, transported or stored in a production. Lamongan and Pelabuhanratu regencies are one of fisheries centers on the north and the south coast of Java Island. The aim of this research was to know the value added and the business margin of fisheries from the processing and marketing aspects. The research was carried out in two locations; Northern coast (Lamongan regencies) and Shouther coasts (Pelabuhanratu regencies), Indoneisa. The data used were primary data; the people involved in the business including fishing, marketing and processing product. The results showed that the process of fisheries product yielded the value added and margin that were created from the incorporation of business benefit, added input contribution/ other input and direct reward for the labor forces. The value added and the business margin of product processing can reach 2 to 3 fold from the main input value. The value added and the business margin of fisheries product processing were very big. This was the source of economy growth there. The effort to develop the business of fisheries product processing in the small scale need to be supported with various programs especially in the market access and funding.
Iermakov S.S., Apanasenko G.L., Bond- arenko T.V., Prasol S.D. Physical cul- ture is a basic instrument ofcultureof health. The role of establishments of physical culture and health protection is considered in education and formation ofcultureof health of personality and society. It is pointed at the necessity of biological, psychological and world-view knowledge in becoming ofcultureof health. Valued guideline of social and physical adaptation of personality and society is marked to the social, economic and spiritual changes in the environment of dwelling. It is showed that the rational use of personality and spare time of society free (muscular) en- ergy is needed for their making healthy. Ключевые слова:
side), depending on the location of a sculpture in the overall composition of certain structures, on the skills of masters belonging to different art schools. In rare cases, the low relief (the sculpture in Surkh Kotal) , traditional for ancient Iran and less characteristic for the art of Kushan, was used. Thus, the "Bactrian sculpture was characterized by monumentality and st rict frontal position‖ [22, 90p]. But round, often three- quarter, always wall sculpture, had been rather an exception in the buildings of Greco-Bactrian period and Buddhist structures. According to references, the statue of Anahit  was located in the temple of Bactria before the arrival of the Greeks, and with the arrival of the Greek, the Hellenistic traditions began to play a significant role in the artistic cultureof Central Asia . In the Hellenistic period the sculpture was done in full volume and size, often exceeding the human scale (in Square Hall of Nisa, in the temple of Ai-Khanum in Surkh Kotal). For example, the sculpture of Ai-Khanum was two and a half times larger than the life size, this required from the masters an "excellent knowledge of modeling techniques and strengthening the clay mass" [25, 71p]. By the scale the sculptors emphasized the position of painted person in the hierarchy. Hellenistic traditions of erecting the statues of kings "were transformed over time into the objects of worship and were placed in sanctuaries‖ [26, 15p]. In Bactria there existed and were for a long time exercised the temples of Hellenic Gods (Temple of Dioscurus in Dilberdjin), "visited by both local descendants of Greek colonists and the Hellenized part of local population" [27, 82p]. In all probability, Greek deities were placed there (for example, in the area of
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
Agri-environment data of ten major countries in the world, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, UK, and USA were collected from FAOSTAT (http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home). Agricultural area (1961-2014), including arable land (1000ha), permanent crops (1000ha), and permanent meadows and pastures (1000ha), cereals production (1961-2014), including area harvested (ha), production (tonnes), and yield (hg/ha), agricultural CO 2 and equivalents emissions (gigagrams; 1990-2014), fertilizers
The Descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCs) were used for the controlled descriptor query for SciELO and LILACS databases, namely: Cultura Organizacional (Organizational Culture); Administração Hospitalar (Hospital Administration); Gestão em Saúde (Health Management); Organizational models; Organization and Administration; Management. Uncontrolled descriptors (keywords) were also used, in order to broaden the search for the desired topic, since it used vocabulary not registered as descriptors in health sciences, which were: Gestão Compartilhada (Shared Management); Gestão Participativa (Participative management); Gestão Democrática (Democratic management); Gestão Colegiada (Collegiate Management); Gestão Descentralizada (Decentralized management).
The essence of social economy is the inclusive function of the labor market through which the different forms of social economy that exist in the member states can play a role in the overcoming the crisis, especially in the creating of jobs, including in social services field Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on the post‐ 2010 Lisbon Strategy 9, p. .
We also run another counterfactual with a family planning demand policy in which we reduce the utility cost of abortion. This is a much harder policy to implement in real life: Besides emotional side effects after an abortion, which may be able to be mitigated through counseling or other therapeutic help, there can also be adverse physical conse- quences associated with it. Therefore, although we think it worthwhile to execute and report on the counterfactual experiment in which the utility cost of abortion is reduced to zero, we know that it would be difficult to implement in practice. However, the utility cost of abortions can also be related to the fact that abortions are largely illegal in Kenya, as well as to taboos and social stigmas, which can prevent pregnant women from seeking abortion facilities. Given that this estimated cost in our model is much higher than the cost associated with the use of modern contraceptives, it is straightforward to observe that the potential effects on reproductive behavior and the economy are stronger for a reduction in the utility cost of abortion than a reduction in the utility cost of contraceptives. The percentage of pregnancies aborted when the utility cost of abortion is set at zero doubles relative to the baseline. Given the relative price of contraceptives, we can observe that no woman would choose to use modern contraceptives to control family size. They would rely only on abortion to prevent unwanted births. The average unwanted fertility de- creases by 0.4 of a child, and moreover, it decreases for all education categories. Realized fertility decreases by 0.19 of a child, which suggests that households adjust wanted fertil- ity upward. Output per capita increases by 5 percent relative to the benchmark economy and inequality is roughly unchanged. The decomposition shows that the wanted fertility margin and the investment education margin are the key channels in driving the over- all results. 43 For obvious reasons, it is difficult to price the cost of such demand policies, which explains why we do not report the costs associated with them, as well as why we will mainly focus on supply–side reforms.