Top PDF INFLUENCE OF THE SHELL MATERIAL IN THE MICROCAPSULES FORMATION BY SPRAY DRYING

INFLUENCE OF THE SHELL MATERIAL IN THE MICROCAPSULES FORMATION BY SPRAY DRYING

INFLUENCE OF THE SHELL MATERIAL IN THE MICROCAPSULES FORMATION BY SPRAY DRYING

Abstract: Microencapsulation is a process of entrapment, packaging or immobilizing an active (core) material, which can be in the state of solid, liquid or gas, within a more stable, protective secondary (wall) material that can be released at controlled rates under specific conditions. There are several microencapsulation techniques such as: spray drying, spray cooling/chilling, freeze drying, extrusion, fluidized bed coating, coacervation, liposome entrapment, coextrusion, interfacial polymerization, radical polymerization, molecular inclusion in cyclodextrins, etc.
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Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

The response surfaces are presented in Figure 3a,c. As can be seen, the increase in drying temperature led generally to an increase in the EE in the entire concentration range studied for both wall materials. In the case of arabic gum, EE increased for drying temperature values up to 200 ◦ C. However, with inulin, EE increased when the temperature increased from 110 to 155 ◦ C, but for a further increase up to 200 ◦ C, a decrease of EE was observed. This fact may be due to the effect of air inlet temperature on particle formation that depends on the wall material. High temperatures lead to a fast evaporation of water from the surface of the particle, which results in rapid formation of the surface crust. The formation of this crust protects the bioactive compound during the drying process. Though, for some materials, in the present work, inulin inlet temperatures above a specific value may cause fissures, pores, and broken particles to a larger extent, resulting in the loss of the bioactive compounds and, consequently, reducing EE [31,32].
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Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l.) microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

The stability of betanin depends directly on its pH, which ranges from 3 to 7, with the optimum pH being between 4 and 5. Its spectrum ranges from pink to red. It is unstable in the presence of light and oxygen, and is degraded when subjected to high temperatures (Huang & Von Elbe, 1987). According to Serris & Biliaderis (2001), the possibility of the betanin regeneration at 30, 40 and 50 °C is minimal. This is an important factor, once the regeneration of betanin can interfere the kinetics degradation. Natural dyes generally have higher costs and exhibit a lower stability under storage and processing conditions when compared with artificial dyes (Cardoso-Ugarte et al., 2014). One way to improve the stability of natural dyes is the encapsulation process, which creates a barrier between the core material and the
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Spray drying quickly removes water by vaporization from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions enabling high retention of volatiles (Badee et al., 2012 ) and protecting the microencapsulated compounds against reaction with the environment (Madene et al., 2006; Gharsallaoui et al., 2007 ). Microcapsules consist of a core surrounded by a single or a multilayered wall. Microcapsules with essential oil can be added into the shrimp feed as an ingredient or directly onto the pellet. For this purpose, the materials selected to produce the microcapsules need to be food grade and the powder easily adsorbed by the shrimp. Therefore, casein protein was selected as the emulsifying and maltodextrin as the wall material (Ramakrishnan et al., 2013). This mixture has proved to be very effective for the microencapsulation of oil/fats and volatiles (Sheu and Rosenberg, 1998; Ramakrishnan et al., 2013 ). The objectives of this research were i) to characterize the main components of thyme essential oil ii) to evaluate their antibacterial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus. iii) to use spray drying to microcapsule these components and iv) to study their antimicrobial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus.
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Microencapsulation of  beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Microencapsulation of beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Among them, 𝛽-carotene is regarded the most potent precursor of vitamin A. However, it is susceptible to oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light, and heat, which can result in loss of colour, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the microencapsulation process of 𝛽-carotene by spray drying, using arabic gum as wall material, to protect it against adverse environmental conditions. This was carried out using the response surface methodology coupled to a central composite rotatable design, evaluating simultaneously the effect of drying air inlet temperature (110-200 ∘ C) and the wall material concentration (5-35%) on the drying yield, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and antioxidant activity. In addition, morphology and particles size distribution were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown that the particles were microcapsules with a smooth surface when produced at the higher drying temperatures tested, most of them having a diameter lower than 10 𝜇m. The conditions that enabled obtaining simultaneously arabic gum microparticles with higher 𝛽-carotene content, higher encapsulation efficiency, and higher drying yield were a wall material concentration of 11.9% and a drying inlet temperature of 173 ∘ C. The systematic approach used for the study of 𝛽-carotene microencapsulation process by spray drying using arabic gum may be easily applied for other core and wall materials.
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BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- β -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of β -CD, were observed after freeze- drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with β -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Spray drying quickly removes water by vaporization from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions enabling high retention of volatiles (Badee et al., 2012 ) and protecting the microencapsulated compounds against reaction with the environment (Madene et al., 2006; Gharsallaoui et al., 2007 ). Microcapsules consist of a core surrounded by a single or a multilayered wall. Microcapsules with essential oil can be added into the shrimp feed as an ingredient or directly onto the pellet. For this purpose, the materials selected to produce the microcapsules need to be food grade and the powder easily adsorbed by the shrimp. Therefore, casein protein was selected as the emulsifying and maltodextrin as the wall material (Ramakrishnan et al., 2013). This mixture has proved to be very effective for the microencapsulation of oil/fats and volatiles (Sheu and Rosenberg, 1998; Ramakrishnan et al., 2013 ). The objectives of this research were i) to characterize the main components of thyme essential oil ii) to evaluate their antibacterial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus. iii) to use spray drying to microcapsule these components and iv) to study their antimicrobial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus.
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Eutectic solidification as explained by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes

Eutectic solidification as explained by the thermodynamics of irreversible processes

The simplified scheme of irregular structure incorporates, additionally the intermediate lamella of faceted phase that is also taken into account in the definition of average inter-lamellar spacing, O . The intermediate morphology existing between two distinguished distances is treated as being under oscillation between stationary state and marginal stability. The state of marginal stability is defined by a vanishing excess entropy production. Therefore, It is suggested that the structural oscillation takes place between an attractor and point of bifurcation in the system.
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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one of the first institutions to install the wireless access points that accessed internet through the main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on to procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, the Heads of departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed to bring their own devices which could be configured to be able to access institutional WIFI (The Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was the beginning of mobile computing at the Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation of applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth to improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points to improve strength of connectivity, upgrading of servers to handle the demand and volumes and expansion of campus area network to cover the whole Polytechnic, procurement of more mobile devices. And the institution now boasts of such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.
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An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

An Advancement To The Security Level Through Galois Field In The Existing Password Based Technique Of Hiding Classified Information In Images

Such mediums are the best cover media to hide messages. Digital images are the most widespread cover files used for SG, due to their high embedding efficiency and the insensitivity of the human visual system (HVS) [3]. It is not necessary that the cover and message have a homogeneous structure. For example, it is possible to embed a recording of an audio stream message inside a digital image [4]. The simplest steganographic techniques embed the bits of the message directly into the least significant bit (LSB) plane of the cover image in a deterministic sequence [5, 6]. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity [7-10]. Our technique is focused on providing high security and high speed operation while maintaining imperceptibility. We are using here Galois Encoder to provide high operational speed while maintaining the security intensively. The 2BC (two bit code) technique is the basic steganography technique we are using with the Galois Operation. Galois field arithmetic has received considerable attention in recent years due to their application in public-key cryptography schemes and error correcting codes.[12] We are here using the 2BC(two bit code) and Galois Field algorithm to achieve the goal of the maximum reception of the original message signal while maintaining the losses and enhancing the speed of operation. Different steganographic techniques focus on a variety of requirements such as robustness, tamper resistance, imperceptibility, security and capacity. Our embedding technique is focused on providing security while maintaining imperceptibility. Our method can work in any transform domain, but we are illustrating the ideas in the spatial domain for convenience. The rest of the paper is divided among the following sections: section 2 explains the existing passcode based technique which involves the matching process and the embedding techniques, section 3 describes the Galois operation, section 4 and 5 explains the data transmission and retrieval process using the Galois Encoder and decoder, section 6 contains simulation result and section 7 summarizes the Conclusion.
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Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

Influence Of Industry Environment Adaptation To The Improved Performance Of Islamic Financial Institutions

companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performance of the company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performance of Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) of the 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries of the 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis of the influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performance of the domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability of the domestic Islamic
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Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

Assessment Of Some Acceleration Schemes In The Solution Of Systems Of Linear Equations.

The results of the numerical experiments are presented in Tables 1 to 12. From Table 1 all the methods (the stationary methods, the accelerated schemes and the Krylov subspace acceleration methods) converged for the system considered. The Accelerated gradient scheme (AGS) converged faster than all the other methods (after just one or two iterations). The minimum and maximum optimal relaxation parameters for the stationary and acceleration schemes were 1.01 and 1.25 respectively. The number of iterations for both the acceleration schemes and Krylov subspace acceleration methods reduced drastically with the exception of that of Richardson with the stationary iterative methods. The speed indicates fast converges of the method even though it is relative, depending on the type of computer used. Each method has small relative residual which show that the approximation to the solution is stable and accurate.
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The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

Abstract: The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective, which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan, in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
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Inhalable spray-dried chondroitin sulphate microparticles: effect of different solvents on particle properties and drug activity

Inhalable spray-dried chondroitin sulphate microparticles: effect of different solvents on particle properties and drug activity

chondroitin sulfate microparticles by spray-drying, testing the effect of using different solvents.. 201[r]

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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

Evaluation of susceptibility of the ZRE1 alloy to hot cracking in conditions of forced strain

This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears of the structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused by the process of crystallisation that is in the area of co-existence of the solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment of the resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis of the transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range of the high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application of the welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
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Meta-stable Solidification Created by the Detonation Method of Coating Formation

Meta-stable Solidification Created by the Detonation Method of Coating Formation

Particles of the Fe-Al type (less than 50 m in diameter) were sprayed onto the 045 steel substrate by means of the detonation method. The TEM, SAED and EDX analyses revealed that the Fe-Al particles have been partially melted in the experiment of coating formation. Particle undergone melting even within about 80% of its volume. Therefore, solidification of the melted part of particles was expected. Solidification differed significantly due to a large range of chemical composition of applied particles (from 15 at.% Al up to 63 at.% Al). A single particle containing 63 at.% Al was subjected to the detailed analysis, only. The TEM / SAED techniques revealed in the solidified part of particle three sub-layers: an amorphous phase, A , periodically situated FeAl + Fe 2 Al 5 phases, and a non-equilibrium phase, N .
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Power demand of a mixing system in a roller mixer is shown in Fig 1. During the mixing cycle the power demand increases with an increase in the surface area of grains covered with clay-water slurry, accompanied by an increase in the sand mix resistance. The mixing cycle involves: I- idle run, II- charging of mix components; III- homogenisation; IV- water dosing; V- mixing of wet mix, VI- emptying the mixer.

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Spray-Drying of Passion Fruit Juice Using Lactose- Maltodextrin Blends as the Support Material

Spray-Drying of Passion Fruit Juice Using Lactose- Maltodextrin Blends as the Support Material

(Vera et al., 2003). Mexico has participated only occasionally in the international market selling 3 ton of concentrated juice to the United States (Schwentesius and Gómez-Cruz, 1998). Passion fruit cannot be stored for more than eight days at 25 °C, because decay will take place after that span (Flores-Novelo, 2000). A frequent solution to this problem is the processing and freezing of the fruit pulp and juice (either natural or concentrated) which can be later on used for flavouring various drinks or for blending with other kinds of the juices. In the literature, different methods of the concentration such as the membrane processes (Cardoso-Pereira et al., 2002), osmotic evaporation (Vaillant et al., 2001), and flash vacuum-expansion (Brat et al., 2001) have been proposed for processing the passion fruit juice. The main problem during the spray-drying of the sugar-rich foods like the fruit juices is their thermoplastic and hygroscopic behavior (Truong et al., 2005; Goula and Adamopoulos, 2005). All the fruits contain the sugars of low glass transition temperature (T g ) (saccharose, glucose and
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