Top PDF Influenza A and B viruses in the population of Vojvodina, Serbia

Influenza A and B viruses in the population of Vojvodina, Serbia

Influenza A and B viruses in the population of Vojvodina, Serbia

Seasonal influenza A (H1N1) subtype was not detected in this study. Reduction in seasonal in- fluenza A (H1N1) activity was the most obvious effect of the 2009 pandemic, while seasonal influ- enza A (H3N2) continued to circulate. At present, it seems that emerging pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus has replaced the previously circulat- ing seasonal A (H1N1). It is not fully understood why pandemic influenza viruses replace existing seasonal influenza A subtypes and strains. Results from some studies show that heterosubtypic immu- nity – short-lived immunity which is cross-protec- tive against different influenza A subtypes – is able to inhibit reinfection by any new strain in animal models (Grebe et al., 2008). It is possible that dur- ing pandemics, a substantial fraction of the global population is infected with the new virus and is then transiently immune to infection with the pre- viously circulating subtypes. This leaves a critically low number of susceptible individuals, leading to the extinction of seasonal influenza strains (Blyth et al., 2010).
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Viral replication rate regulates clinical outcome and CD8 T cell responses during highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

Viral replication rate regulates clinical outcome and CD8 T cell responses during highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

and hypercytokinemia are recognized hallmarks of fatal AI infections in humans [12], we still lack crucial information on the kinetics, magnitude, and nature of the adaptive immune response to these infections. In this study, we have examined the relationship of viral replication kinetics in the lungs and viral pathogenicity to the dynamics of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses to AI viruses in mice. We found that the extreme pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is directly linked to the high viral replication rate and the consequent production of peak steady- state viral titers in the lungs within 48 hours after infection. Interestingly, we found that lethal H5N1 infection in mice stimulates a robust, virus-specific CD8 T cell response in the respiratory tract, but these CD8 T cells fail to control viral replication and undergo early contraction. The prevention of CD8 T cell contraction did not alter the survival of infected mice, but inhibition of neuraminidase activity and viral replication by therapeutic intervention mitigated the premature contraction of CD8 T cells and enhanced mouse survival following a lethal H5N1 infection. These findings suggest that the ability of H5N1 viruses to overwhelm and/or undercut the sustenance of the anti- viral CD8 T cell response and cause a lethal pulmonary infection is linked to a high viral replication rate, especially early in the infection. These findings further our understanding of the Figure 5. Survival of C57BL/6, Fas KO, and BIM KO mice after inoculation with highly pathogenic HK483 virus. C57BL/6 (+/+; n = 17), Fas KO (n = 12), or BIM KO (n = 5) mice were I/N inoculated with 18 PFU of HK483 virus and mouse survival was monitored for 16 days (Panel A). Panel B, At day 8 after infection, lungs from infected mice were examined for histopathological changes. Arrows indicate apoptotic cells in lung section from +/+ mouse or lymphocytic infiltrates adjacent to the bronchioles in lung section from BIM2/2 mice.
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Phylogenetic and evolutionary history of influenza B viruses, which caused a large epidemic in 2011-2012, Taiwan.

Phylogenetic and evolutionary history of influenza B viruses, which caused a large epidemic in 2011-2012, Taiwan.

The annual recurrence of the influenza epidemic is considered to be primarily associated with immune escape due to changes to the virus. In 2011–2012, the influenza B epidemic in Taiwan was unusually large, and influenza B was predominant for a long time. To investigate the genetic dynamics of influenza B viruses during the 2011–2012 epidemic, we analyzed the sequences of 4,386 influenza B viruses collected in Taiwan from 2004 to 2012. The data provided detailed insight into the flux patterns of multiple genotypes. We found that a re-emergent TW08-I virus, which was the major genotype and had co-circulated with the two others, TW08-II and TW08-III, from 2007 to 2009 in Taiwan, successively overtook TW08-II in March and then underwent a lineage switch in July 2011. This lineage switch was followed by the large epidemic in Taiwan. The whole-genome compositions and phylogenetic relationships of the representative viruses of various genotypes were compared to determine the viral evolutionary histories. We demonstrated that the large influenza B epidemic of 2011–2012 was caused by Yamagata lineage TW08-I viruses that were derived from TW04-II viruses in 2004– 2005 through genetic drifts without detectable reassortments. The TW08-I viruses isolated in both 2011–2012 and 2007– 2009 were antigenically similar, indicating that an influenza B virus have persisted for 5 years in antigenic stasis before causing a large epidemic. The results suggest that in addition to the emergence of new variants with mutations or reassortments, other factors, including the interference of multi-types or lineages of influenza viruses and the accumulation of susceptible hosts, can also affect the scale and time of an influenza B epidemic.
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Surveillance and vaccine effectiveness of an influenza epidemic predominated by vaccine-mismatched influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses in Taiwan, 2011-12 season.

Surveillance and vaccine effectiveness of an influenza epidemic predominated by vaccine-mismatched influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses in Taiwan, 2011-12 season.

The 2009210 and 2010211 seasons in Taiwan was predom- inated by vaccine-matched influenza A viruses, leading the public to confide in the effectiveness and benefits of influenza vaccination [10]. Predominance of B/Yamagata-lineage viruses was not evident until July 2011 when production of the 2011212 trivalent vaccine was already in progress. This epidemic underscores the limitation of annual trivalent vaccines in containing only one influenza B strain that might not match the predominant B lineage in the upcoming season. In Taiwan, vaccine mismatches of influenza B had occurred in five of 10 influenza seasons during July 20022June 2012 [6211]. Such mismatches are common and could likely lead to reduced willingness of the public towards vaccination against seasonal influenza. A quadrivalent influenza vaccine that contains viruses from both circulating B lineages is a proposed solution and could reduce influenza-related morbidities and mortalities if vaccine production capacity is not adversely affected [32–34]. However, a quadrivalent vaccine is likely associated with increased cost, resulting in additional financial burden to the government-funded free influenza vaccination program in Taiwan. Inclusion of an additional strain might prolong the vaccine production process. Earlier selection of candidate strains would facilitate timely production but might increase the likelihood of vaccine mismatches. These issues should be considered before adaptation of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine into the vaccination program.
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MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUS OUTBREAK ON A CRUISE SHIP IN BRAZIL 2012

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUS OUTBREAK ON A CRUISE SHIP IN BRAZIL 2012

Moreover, to decrease the exposure risk to influenza viruses, people should be advised that pre-existing major medical conditions (diabetes, chronic lung diseases, immunodeficiency) can increase the likelihood of illness. Travelers with a high risk of complications and all crew members should consider getting an influenza vaccination before travel. The CDC recommends a yearly influenza vaccine as the first and most important step in protecting against influenza viruses. People taking a summer cruise who were vaccinated during the previous season are still protected and do not need to get vaccinated again until the following influenza season.
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Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Bačka (Vojvodina, Serbia)

Contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Bačka (Vojvodina, Serbia)

P a v l e t i ć (1975) states that the flat northern parts of ex-Yugoslavia (Vojvodina, now in Serbia; and Slavon- ija, Baranja, and Medjumurje in Croatia) have been very poorly investigated in the bryological sense. Vojvodina consists of three regions: Srem, Banat, and Bačka. There have been some recent contributions for the region of Srem (C v e t i ć and S a b o v l j e v i ć, 2005) and Ba- nat (S a b o v l j e v i ć, 2002; 2003), but Bačka remains a region with very sparse data on bryophytes and only seven recorded moss taxa. These are: Aloina ambigua (B. & S.) Limpr. (G a l l é, 1974); Aloina rigida (Hedw.) Limpr. (G a l l é, 1974); Bryum argenteum Hedw. (G a l l é , 1974); Enthostodon hungaricus (Boros) Loe- ske (B o r o s, 1970; G u e l m i n o, 1970, 1972); Hilp- ertia velenovskyi (Schiffn.) Zander (M a r t i n č i č, 1968; G u e l m i n o , 1972); Pteygoneurum ovatum (Hedw.) Dicks (G a l l é , 1974); and Syntrichia caninervis Mitt (without precise locality, T ó t h, 1986). Among them are two mosses of international conservation significance [Hilpertia velenovskyi (V = vulnerable) and Enthostodon hungaricus (R = rare, ECCB 1995)]. No hepatic species have to date been known to grow in Bačka.
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Generation and Characterization of Live Attenuated Influenza A(H7N9) Candidate Vaccine Virus Based on Russian Donor of Attenuation.

Generation and Characterization of Live Attenuated Influenza A(H7N9) Candidate Vaccine Virus Based on Russian Donor of Attenuation.

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are based on cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive vaccine virus strains that replicate in the nasopharynx but poorly in the lower respiratory tract. LAIVs are 6:2 reassortant viruses containing the HA and NA gene segments from wild type influenza viruses to induce protective immune responses and the six internal gene segments from a Master Donor Viruses (MDV) to provide temperature sensitive, cold-adapted and attenuated phenotypes. Two types of LAIVs are available commercially. The first, licensed as FluMist (MedImmune, Inc.), is based on A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza A and B/Ann Arbor/1/ 66 influenza B; it is currently produced using seed viruses made by reverse genetics [4]. LAIVs based on the Russian MDV strains, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) and B/USSR/60/69, are made using seed viruses produced by conventional reassortment in eggs and have been used safely for more than 50 years in Russia [5–9]. Through cooperation with the WHO, production and use of seasonal LAIV vaccine based on Russian donors of attenuation was expanded inter- nationally to India, Thailand and China [10–12]. The increased international demand of Rus- sian LAIV reassortant viruses prompted the WHO to establish an additional facility at the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Influenza Division to prepare and incorpo- rate quality assessment of LAIV reassortants for international use.
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The ratio of domestic and wild animals at Neolithic sites in Vojvodina (Serbia)

The ratio of domestic and wild animals at Neolithic sites in Vojvodina (Serbia)

Concerning the settlements of Starčevo culture, when compared to Div- ostin [Bököny 1988], Anzabegovo [Bököny 1976] and Sitagroi [Bököny 1986], the sites in Vojvodina have lower proportional contribution of domestic animals and higher contribution of wild ones. The high percentage of domestic animals at these three sites points to a developed animal husbandry. However, after com- paring the sites of Lepenski Vir [Bőkőnyi 1969] and Padina [Clason 1980], which also belong to Starčevo culture, and given the isolation of these two sites and the fact that the population lived mainly from hunting and fishing, there is a far greater proportional contribution of domestic animals, and much smaller contribution of the wild species recorded in Vojvodina. Furthermore, it can be stated that at the sites of Starčevo, Prosine, Kudoš and Golokut, when compared to Divostin, Anzabegovo and Sitagroi, there is a greater proportional contribu- tion of oxen as the dominant species in the total vertebrate fauna. At the sites of Anzabegovo and Sitagroj, the most numerous domestic species are sheep and goats, which did not have their wild ancestors in these areas, so we can assume that they originate from the South or South-East [Lazić 1988].
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The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry  of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia)

The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia)

With a large number of thermo-mineral springs in Vojvodina, the spa tourism industry could become one of the leading income sources for the region, economically benefiting both the public and private sector through tourism. A large part of thermo-mineral resources in Vojvodina is still not used to its full potential from the aspect of the tourism industry. Spa tourism is somewhat developed in Apatin and Kanjiza but it is still far from spas with similar resources located in Hungary and other neighbouring countries. The thermo-mineral waters of Vojvodina offer much possibilities for further development of existing spas and for the development of new spas. The average age limit of the population of Serbia and also other European countries is getting higher and higher. This means that the market demand for spas has been increasing and it will probably continue to increase throughout the future. This is good news for spa tourism which could become one of the leading tourism types in Vojvodina. Such destinations like Palic could restore its forgotten fame and once again attract a large number of tourists from entire Europe. However, this is not easy to do. Much has to be done in the future. With more investments in the spa infrastructure, with better marketing activities and training of highly qualified staff, this type of tourism could largely benefit the economy of the Vojvodina Province and also the economy of the whole country. The natural resources needed for this type of tourism already exist. It is up to the people that manage them to use them in the right way.
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About anthropogeographic researches of settlements in South Eastern Serbia

About anthropogeographic researches of settlements in South Eastern Serbia

the former boundaries, now including five administrative regions of the Republic of Serbia: Nišava (excluding the municipality of Ražanj), Toplica, Pirot, Jablanica and P činj region, in which 1,046,730 inhabitants (in 2002), or 14% of total population of central Serbia and Vojvodina (in 1991 – 1,090,730 inhabitants or 14,4%), in 1,439 settlements, or 23,4% of total number of settlements in Serbia, of which 27 are the urban settlements (according to the legal criteria), realize their biological and economical existences.
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PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

Influenza is a contagious disease caused by negative eight-stranded RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. There are three major types: A, B and C. Influenza A viruses are further classified into subtypes - 16 HA and 9 NA - according to the nature of the viral envelope glycoprotein: hemagglutinin (H) or neuraminidase (N). Influenza A viruses stand out because they are able to infect both humans and animals, which characterizes influenza as a zoonotic disease. Also, their H and N antigens undergo considerable variations, unlike the same proteins in types B and C, which display minor alterations. Outbreaks of influenza type A occur in outbreaks in late fall and all over the winter season. Pandemics caused by influenza type A viruses frequently strike human populations 1,12,19 .
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INCIDENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN PRETERM INFANTS SUBMITTED TO MECHANICAL VENTILATION

INCIDENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN PRETERM INFANTS SUBMITTED TO MECHANICAL VENTILATION

The specific examinations were performed by the Laboratory of Respiratory Viruses, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo. The tracheal aspirates were collected at the time of hospital admission, and every seven days during the mechanical ventilation period, by vacuum suction through a plastic catheter with a specimen trap and submitted to rapid evaluation (by antigen detection) for verification of the presence of respiratory viruses (RSV; parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3; influenza A and B viruses; and adenovirus). This evaluation was performed through indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with monoclonal antibodies from the Respiratory Viruses Panel I Viral Screening & Identification Kit (Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA) (sensitivity: 70- 90% and specificity: greater than 95%), and isolation and identification of viruses (sensitivity: 60-90% and specificity: 100%), which were performed in four kinds of cell culture, namely: Hep-2 (human epithelial carcinoma); NCI-H292 (human lung carcinoma); MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney); and VERO (African green monkey kidney) cell cultures. In this manner, it was intended to reduce false-negative results to the minimum. The presence of respiratory viruses was confirmed by IFA in cultures with possible cytopathic effect. Viral infection was diagnosed whenever the two diagnostic methods, IFA or viral culture, gave a positive result.
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Phosphorus, which can be introduced to metal bath in free form, as a master alloy or a salt, belong to well-known modifiers of hypereutectic silumins. It has been confirmed [2] that in such case the aluminum phosphide, AlP, becomes the nucleus of the crystallization. In the studies [11-12] is presented a new view on interaction of phosphorus in process of modification of hypereutectic silumins, which is an effect of local overcooling in micro-areas caused by evaporation and expansion of bubbles of phosphorus vapours. Indispensable quantity of phosphorus in the alloy was determined as interval of 0,01 ÷ 0,05 % [1-3].
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Rev. Bras. Reumatol.  vol.55 número2

Rev. Bras. Reumatol. vol.55 número2

Maculopapular rashes developed under both knees but his fever decreased within the next 2 days. B19 antibody IgM tested positive, and thus B19 was considered to be the cause of the rashes. On the third day of the disease, arthralgia devel- oped in both ankles, and also in both hands. On the sixth day, the rashes remitted, replaced by pain in both calves so severe that it prevented him from walking.

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The role of volunteer tourism: the case of international work camps in Vojvodina, Serbia

The role of volunteer tourism: the case of international work camps in Vojvodina, Serbia

VCV activities are prepared and run in partnership with the community, integrating local authorities, youth, other NGOs, local public companies and interested individuals. In this way there is a clear focus on community needs. Collaboration and partnerships also result in a stronger incentive for locals to value their resources, to preserve them and support tourism activities. NGOs look to practise a form of tourism with the intention of affecting new and positive attitudes, values and actions in the tourist and the host community (Wearing et al., 2005), and often engage in tourism with the aim of achieving socially appropriate tourism, which is defined as having community support and involving the host community in decision making (Hall, 1991). Since VCV is a NGO and not a tour operator promoting volunteer tourism, its initiatives offer a true experience, putting an emphasis on altruism, learning and networking or meeting like-minded people, which are characteristics appreciated by volunteer tourists moti-vated by humanitarian values (Coghlan, 2006).
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Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

Clinical samples and molecular diagnosis - Clini- cal specimens (combined nose and throat swabs or lung tissue fragments of deceased subjects) were collected from outpatients and hospitalised patients in Recife and its metropolitan area from April 2009-April 2010. These samples were collected in the scope of the Bra- zilian Influenza Surveillance Network within seven days of onset of influenza-like illness. In hospitalised cases where OST was used, the sample collection was performed before drug administration. After collection, both swabs and tissue fragments were placed in standard virus transport medium at the Pernambuco State Central Laboratory. The samples were then sent frozen to the Evandro Chagas Institute, in PA, for influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 detection by a real-time RT-PCR protocol de- veloped by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) (WHO 2009b). The samples confirmed positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were sent to the Respi- ratory Viruses Reference Laboratory at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, for further molecular char- acterisation. This study was approved by the Ethics in Research Committee of the Federal University of Per- nambuco (protocol CEP/CCS/UFPE 219/10).
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The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

The Influence Of CSR Awareness On Consumer Purchase Decision Of A Telecommunication Network In Ghana A Case Of La Nkwantanag Madina Municipality

on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated the effect of associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned in the research are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development of the region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact of firms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware of the CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
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Levamisole Enhances Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Reduces Shedding of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Japanese Quails (<i>Coturnix coturnix japonica</i>)

Levamisole Enhances Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Reduces Shedding of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Japanese Quails (<i>Coturnix coturnix japonica</i>)

Levamisole activates macrophages and enhances production of the key cytokine IFN-γ which leads to stimulation of maturation of cells which are involved in CMI (Symoens and Rosenthal, 1977; Szeto et al., 2000). Pike et al. (1977) suggested that levamisole may be useful in enhancing depressed cellular immune function in patients with acute influenza. More over; Consistent with our results, in a study performed by Kwon et al. (2008), treating H9N2 infected chickens with cyclosporin A, as a suppressor of CMI such as CD8+ T-cells and expression of IFN-γ mRNA, was correlated with high viral load in the oropharynx and cloaca of these birds which suggests that T-cell-
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Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

The diagram in Figure 1 shows the basic requirements for a material-related module in a CAPCAST system. The system user (manufacturer or his employees) introduces to the system the customer's technical requirements concerning the material, and also gives the current price/cost of materials and processing. Entering current prices is necessary to keep the calculations up- dated all the time against the ongoing market price fluctuations. However, this operation does not have to be performed each time when the type of material is determined; it is enough to provide current prices in the system keeping pace with the rate of changes in the market and introducing these changes with the same fre- quency with which the fluctuations occur in the market (e.g. once a week, once a month, etc.). The user will have at his disposal an intuitive and easy to use interface, which should correspond in its
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