This article considers institutional aspects ofthe organized agriculturalmarketformationprocess. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes ofthe "organization" phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutionalenvironment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized marketformation. Author researches theoretical approaches to theinstitutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author's points of view for many questions ofthe organized marketformationprocess are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness ofthe institutes and governmental regulation oftheagriculturalmarket. Readers can find strategically new approach to theagriculturalmarketformation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence ofthe socioeconomic formationofagriculturalmarket is considered. Main factors of agriculture marketformation are outlined. Agriculturalmarket structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness ofthe agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons oftheagriculturalmarketformation are determined.
It is theoretically consistent with Institutional Theory to affirm that organizations adapt their structures and policies to institutional norms (Dimaggio & Powell, 1983) in order to survive in themarket. However, research on the effects oftheinstitutionalenvironment can be complex due to the significant difficulty to isolate variables and distinguish those effects from the impact theinstitutionalenvironment has on other internal-context variables (Adams, 2002). In this perspective, we should consider that this institutionalization process also affects Corporate Governance (CG) mechanisms (Charkham, 1994; Doidge, Karolyi, & Stulz, 2007; Klapper & Love, 2004; Porta, Lopez-De-Silanes, & Shleifer, 1999). These mechanisms are not limited to the Board of Directors (BD), comprehending also other features ofthe ownership structure of companies.
Successful development ofthe Ukrainian economy, its agro-industrial segment requires a large- scale and efficient investment provision and favourable investment climate. In this regard, the actual task ofthe scientific community is the study ofthe influence of institutions on the development of investment policy, theformationof investment processes in the country. The purpose of this article is the study ofinstitutional basis for further development ofthe investment processes in theagricultural sector of Ukrainian economy under conditions of integration into Europe. In the study process author used general scientific methods, in particular statistical method, method of extrapolation, analogy, institutional analysis, abstract-logical method, methods of descriptive simulation. Results ofthe study are as follows. The influence of formal institutions (legal regulations for the ‘rules of plaв’) аas assessed on the investment efficiency. The ponderability ofthe formal institutions was identified in the investment success ofthe big agricultural business of Ukraine. The main causes ofthe low investment attractiveness of small and medium-sized business in the agrarian sector ofthe Ukrainian economy were defined. The ways were substantiated for development ofthe non-formal institutions. It was accentuated that asset capitalization ofthe small and medium-sized companies would be important for development ofthe investment processes in Ukraine.
In order to ensure an adequate environment for a functioning market economy, in Romania there has been a processof modeling the banking system, which aimed on the one hand, the creation of a modern banking system, specific to a market economy, and on the other hand, the harmonization ofthe Romanian banking legislation with the European legislation. The restructuring processofthe banking system started since the end of 1990, when the newly established Romanian Commercial Bank (BCR) took over the commercial function which was held by the National Bank. The former specialized state banks (Romanian Bank for Foreign Trade, Agricultural Bank, Investment Bank) have been transformed into commercial banks which could perform all the banking operations without considered their previous sectorial specialization.
he practice scenarios, however, are complex because they are expressed in the reality of services, with all theten- sions, contradictions, and unpredictability of situations arising from interactions between the subjects involved in theprocess. Because of this, it is necessary to ensure support for students bythe teachers and teams of health professionals involved, so that learning in these locations can reach its full potential in the students’ professional development. In theenvironment studied, this support was conirmed by the students, especially with respect to supervision, revealing that the teachers were present and stimulated the students to participate in work dynamics in the ield, andin turn ensured the conditions for the de- velopment ofthe actions proposed, bringing the students feelings of conidence. hese indings reveal the attention ofthe School in ensuring the support that students need in practical scenarios.
We use data from isolated markets in Brazil during 1995-2010 to estimate the decision rules for public and private banks. We analyze two different structural models. The first is stationary and has finite state space. The second model is non stationary. The non stationary model allows some state variables to grow continuously over time and admits equilibrium choice probabilities that are time dependent. Our models account for time and market unobservables. We recover the primitives ofthe game that are consistent with the estimated decision rules. The model is solved for the entry probabilities. Themarket equilibrium is evaluated under a counterfactual scenario where public banks are privatized 1 and under
The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed ofthe specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements within the presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results in the decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron should be maintained within the range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content in the charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.
Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation ofthe chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).
The reason for our approach becomes apparent when considering the stated aim of a supportive normative environment: to have a normative background that can fill-in details of sub-contexts that are created later and that can benefit from this setup by being underspecified. This leads us to the subject of “default rules” in the law field . Thus, part ofthe normative environment’s norms will typically be predefined, in the sense that they are pre-existent to the applicable contexts themselves. What we need is to typify contexts in order to be able to say that a norm applies to a certain type of contexts. This way, a norm might be defined at a super-context and applicable to a range of sub-contexts (of a certain type) to be subsequently created.
Focus group interview. Focus group interview was used in order to collect qualitative data for the study. Focus group interview is an unstructured meeting between a small group and a leader and using the effect of group dynamic in the planned discussion to collecting detailed information and produce ideas (Bowling, 2002). Interview questions were evaluated by one field expert and two experts from the Curriculum and Instruction department for validity and reliability. Validity ofthe interview questions were held in the following way: First, I determined the interview questions based on the cooperative learning principles asserted by Johnson and Johnson (1999). Then, these interview questions were examined by two experts in Curriculum and Instruction Department. The final version ofthe questions was constructed by taking the expert s opinions into account. Then, student volunteers were selected. As a result, 10 students were taken to the interview. For the reliability ofthe interviewing process, I interviewed the same focus group twice at different times. In both sessions, students were interviewed equally with the same questions. The main questions asked were: "What are the advantages of CL method?"; "What skills did you acquire through CL method?", "What are disadvantages ofthe method?" The first focus group interview took 90 minutes and the other one a week later took 60 minutes. The researcher and reporter took notes in the data collection process. Moreover, all the interviews were recorded. Later, all recordings were transcribed verbatim.
dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth ofthe contraction cavity with the growth ofthe temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions ofthe atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease ofthe depth ofthe contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing ofthe content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition ofthe bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface ofthe solidifica- tion bronze ofthe layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth ofthe temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
This table reports time series averages of annualized standard deviations (SD) ofthe global, country and industry factors, and ratios ofthe SD ofthe country factor relative to the SD ofthe industry factor and global factor for different groups of stocks using a variance decomposition of stock returns. Returns are in percent per month and denominated in U.S. dollars. The sample period is from January 2000 to December 2010. For each month, stocks are sorted based on the first characteristics (size, turnover, analyst coverage, market-to- book, momentum, MSCI membership, foreign sales, and U.S. cross-listing) and then, within each group, stocks are divided into deciles based on lagged total institutional ownership (IO). The low and high IO groups consist of those firms whose total institutional ownership is in the lowest and highest deciles. The small and big groups consist of those firms whose market capitalization is in the lowest and highest terciles. The low and high groups consist of those firms whose turnover or analyst coverage is in the lowest and highest terciles. The value and growth groups consist of those firms whose market-to-book ratio is in the lowest and highest terciles. The loser and winner groups consist of those firms whose annual stock return is in the lowest and highest terciles. The MSCI group consists of those firms whose stock is included in the MSCI All-Country World index. The multinational group consists of those firms whose foreign sales are positive. The ADR group consists of those firms whose stock is listed on a U.S. exchange. P-values ofthe test whether the ratios of country-to-industry and country-to-global factors are equal to one and ofthe test ofthe difference in ratios between the lowest and highest deciles are calculated using Newey-West adjusted standard errors. *,**,*** indicate significance at the 10%, 5% and 1% levels, respectively.
Furthermore, in what concerns to the placement ofthe product, and as long as this is a B2B project, Skypro will not place its product in the conventional distribution channels but directly supply it to the partner’s storage. Since Skypro is a generally unknown brand in themarket, in order to present the product and attract potential customers, the correct promotion should be accomplishe d. In the first place, company’s on-line store should be translated to russian and used as place for promotion and display ofthe product. Furthermore, push marketing strategies should be applied in order to reach other airlines as potential clients. This could be done through direct e-mailing and also personalized marketing or any other similar approach. Moreover, Skypro should also promote its product in fairs and exhibitions which take place several times along the year. Among them, one ofthe most valuable ones is the exhibition Obuv’ Mir Kozhi – an especial event directed for the companies aiming to enter the Russian market and to connect with suitable partners. It is a major B2B trade show of shoes and leather products in Russia and it counts with a participation of countless firms which may find interest in Skypro’s production ( Obuv’ Mir Kozhi, 2016). Moreover, the fair MOSSHOES - a specialized fair of footwear and accessories which takes place four times a year in Moscow. It counts with a participation of more than 350 companies from 20 countries and also represents a valuable opportunity for promotion (Mosshoes, 2016)
Rules T-new-lock1, T-new-lock-1, and T-new-lockL each adds the type variable into the respective set of locks. Rules T-new-lock0, T-new-lock1, and T-new-lock-1 assign a lock type to the register. Rules T-tslE and T-tslS require that the value under test holds a lock, disal- lowing testing a lock already held by the thread. Rules T-unlockE and T-unlockS make sure that only held locks are unlocked. Finally, the rules T-criticalE and T-criticalS ensure that the current thread holds the exact number of locks required by the target code block. Each of these rules also adds the lock under test to the respective set of locks ofthe thread. A thread is guaranteed to hold the lock only after (conditionally) jumping to a critical region. A previous test and set lock instructions may have obtained the lock, but as far as the type system goes, the thread holds the lock after the conditional jump.
than they produce, which means over the real incomes obtained through social work. Văduva, . We are talking about New Zeeland. Most countries present important sovereign debts , an increasing deficit between incomes and expenses, practical risks of making new loans that bring them close to the insolvency area or to bankruptcy The European Commission, . Such a process is explained by the confusion between the exigencies of social economy – based on work – and the passive social protection policies, which ignore or place labor between brackets . )nstead ofthe minimum guaranteed salary, some irrational social policies have promoted the minimum guaranteed income, independent from the work resources ofthe beneficiaries, poverty is perceived as a state characterizing the majority Vîrjan , p. . Successes, but also limits recorded in the labor market today are similar to those defining the reform ofthe Romanian economy as a whole Aceleanu and Cretu , p. , marked by a public‐private partnership are organizationally weak and frail, the tensions between labor market structures and mechanisms that interfere with legislative‐institutional tensions.
So, the effectiveness evaluation of information tech- nology is determined by the quality of algorithm, reliability of written software and the type of chosen hardware. Last time because of increasing number of operations, the diffi- culty levels and time limits required for creating software, the principle of team making under certain modules is used more often. There are advantages of such approach which are determined by reducing the required time for fulfilling the project it self. However, the increased number of bags appearing as rule in the result of technology by team creat- ing of synthesized software usually demands more time for its of search out and rewriting code ofthe programme. The dynamic oftheprocessof defects elimination and influence of different factor was discovered in a number of researches [9-12]. It allow to investigate the dynamic of effectiveness evaluation for informational technologies with the synthe- sized software throughout time.
Taking advantage ofthe result that the linear stability criteria for both fire-hose and mirror instabilities may re- cover those derived from the kinetic theory, the character- istics of slow waves, fire-hose and mirror instabilities are further examined by the numerical double-polytropic MHD simulations. The experiments of nonlinear evolution of sta- ble anomalous slow waves show that anomalous slow shocks may form through the steepening processof anomalous slow waves. These anomalous slow shocks may travel faster than the intermediate wave with upstream and downstream flows being super-slow, super-Alfv´enic and sub-slow but super- Alfv´enic, respectively, and/or may possess positive density- magnetic field correlation like the fast shock. The results are consistent with those obtained from the different experiments conducted by Hau and Hung (2005) for which the anomalous slow shocks are generated by imposing a magnetic normal on an initially tangential discontinuity current layer. Obser- vational evidences for slow shocks moving ahead ofthe ro- tational discontinuity at the magnetopause and in the solar wind have been found by Walthour et al. (1994) and Whang et al. (1998). Our calculations provide a possible explana- tion for the observed abnormal behaviors of MHD discon- tinuities. The result that slow shocks may possess positive density-magnetic field correlation also has important impli- cations to space plasma observations; in particular, in the presence of temperature anisotropy the density and magnetic field correlation may not be used as a single criterion for dis- tinguishing slow shocks from fast shocks in the observational data.
Machine and tools elements made ofthe steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness ofthe high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.
Optimisation ofthe turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations ofthe sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques ofthe system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.
Political The recent events involving Russia and Ukraine had a strong effect on foreign business. The sanctions upon the country turned it towards the domestic market due to the prevention of trade with an ensemble of partner countries. As an effect on the airline industry, the number of domestic flights increased due to the refusal ofthe Russian flights by international partners. It also boosted ever further the protectionism ofthemarket and the burden ofthe taxes and legal procedures towards foreign importers. Hence, the competition tightened and the domestic businesses was taken as priority. Moreover, the scale ofthe country gives space to arbitrary decision making performed by regional authorities and brings extra barriers to business establishment and negotiation.