Top PDF Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

Annular denuders and impingers were chosen as collection systems to concentrate nitrogenous bases from gas-phase sources due to their low cost, wide-scale adop- tion, and ease of use. For applications with air sampling flow rate restrictions, but with high analyte concentrations (e.g. undiluted vehicle exhaust), the impingers are more appropriate. Note that typically ten times more material is collected in an annular de-

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Technical Note: New trends in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor – Method to harmonize and match long-term records from the FTIR network to radiosonde characteristics

Technical Note: New trends in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor – Method to harmonize and match long-term records from the FTIR network to radiosonde characteristics

For this purpose two sonde receivers were used operating on two different frequen- cies in parallel (Vaisala Digicora III, Marwin 21, SPS220G sounding processor). Vaisala RS80-30G radio sondes were used (A-Humicap sensor). Several studies have been carried out to assess water vapor measurement accuracy of the RS80-A sonde and de- velop corrections for different classes of errors (Wang et al., 2002; Miloshevich et al.,

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The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS – Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric  origin in the UTLS

The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS – Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

The environmental conditions of aircraft measurements are rather extreme for the measurement system regarding tem- perature, pressure, vibrations and water vapor changes which can hardly be simulated in the laboratory or climate cham- ber. The change in environmental conditions particularly af- fects the inlet line and ion spectrum. Therefore it is important to know how ground calibrations transfer to in-flight condi- tions. We address this issue by calibrating during flight for the specific substances. However, in-flight calibrations are al- ways a trade-off between higher accuracy and the loss of pre- cious airborne measurement time. The methods for in-flight calibration thus have to be fast, they need to be integrated in the airborne instrument setup and they need to produce trace gas concentrations typical for the investigated atmospheric conditions in a stable manner. We use different techniques for the in-flight calibration of the trace gases, adapted to the particular nature of the specific molecule. Next to the gen- eral use of in-flight calibrations we comment in Sect. 4.3 and 4.4 on some techniques used exclusively in the laboratory for calibration of HONO and alternative methods to calibrate HNO 3 and HCl.
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Optimal estimation of tropospheric H<sub>2</sub>O and &delta;D with IASI/METOP

Optimal estimation of tropospheric H<sub>2</sub>O and &delta;D with IASI/METOP

The large potential of water isotopologues has been documented since several decades (e.g., Craig, 1961; Joussaume et al., 1984; Worden et al., 2007; Yoshimura et al., 2008). However, even today research in this field is still limited by the lack of consistent, long-term, high-quality, and area-wide observational data. The reason is that water isotopologue ratio measurements are very difficult. Compared to the over-

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The impact of vibrational Raman scattering of air on DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases

The impact of vibrational Raman scattering of air on DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases

Mackie, C., Massie, S., Mikhailenko, S., Müller, H., Naumenko, O., Nikitin, A., Orphal, J., Perevalov, V., Perrin, A., Polovtseva, E., Richard, C., Smith, M., Starikova, E., Sung, K., Tashkun, S., Tennyson, J., Toon, G., Tyuterev, V., and Wagner, G.: The HITRAN2012 molec- ular spectroscopic database, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 130, 4–50, 2013. 3435, 3459 Schönhardt, A., Richter, A., Wittrock, F., Kirk, H., Oetjen, H., Roscoe, H. K., and Burrows, J. P.:

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Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS

Using a high finesse optical resonator to provide a long light path for differential optical absorption spectroscopy: CE-DOAS

“differential” absorption structures due to trace gas molecules from intensity changes which are smoothly varying with wavelength, like changes in mirror reflectivity or Mie scattering from aerosol, the latter effects can be eliminated. The recorded spectra usually encompass several absorption bands of the trace species of interest, thus de- tection becomes very specific and reliable. In fact, even overlapping absorption struc-

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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The samples were remelted on the surface with the electric arc with the use of the FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage of the electric arc I = 100 A, speed of the electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) of the tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made with the Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time of the load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted on the optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services and of the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
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The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed of the specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements within the presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results in the decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron should be maintained within the range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content in the charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors of the studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.

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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.

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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes of the sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease of the temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature of the sample to about 996°C. Decrease of the temperature of the sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence of the following diffusion processes:
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EFFECT OF OPERATING WAVELENGTHS AND DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS ON PERFORMANCE OF POINT-TO-POINT FREE SPACE OPTICAL LINK

EFFECT OF OPERATING WAVELENGTHS AND DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS ON PERFORMANCE OF POINT-TO-POINT FREE SPACE OPTICAL LINK

Recent studies have shown that to achieve an acceptable performance for a practical FSO link, it requires to overcome some major challenges. The challenges are: determination of modulation techniques, suitable light sources, source power, transmitter-receiver alignment and transmitting wavelengths. Moreover, the types of detectors, various sources of noise and error correction techniques are also the factors that should be considered in the installation of practical FSO link [2]. However, the quality of FSO link is strongly dependent on the performance of FSO channel (free space) [6]. There are several challenges facing the channel performance, from which the effect of weather variations on channel is one of them. Moreover, visibility is one of the most important weather factors affecting the channel performance. With the change in weather conditions, visibility changes, which consequently changes the atmospheric attenuation experienced by the FSO channel [5]. The change in operating wavelength is another factor which also affects the atmospheric attenuation of the channel [2]. The change in attenuation changes the link performance [5, 6]. Hence, it is important to consider the effect of visibility for different weather conditions as well as operating wavelength on FSO communication channel before installing any FSO link.
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(São Paulo, online)  vol.3 número4

(São Paulo, online) vol.3 número4

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important problem of public health with increasing prevalence in the population. The diagnosis is made based on body mass index (BMI) levels; the objective of this study was to determine whether the measurement of the neck circumference may be an option to diferentiate non-obese from obese individuals. METHOD: Neck circumference was measured using a graduated tape over the thyroid cartilage, in 50 non-obese individuals (66% women) and 97 obese individuals (65% women), diagnosed by BMI.

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Semi-solid processing method for cast iron

Semi-solid processing method for cast iron

The schematic image of a SCP unit, which has been built by the authors basing on the published information [7–10], is presented in Fig. 1. The unit, further called a SCP crystallizer, was equipped with the following elements: plate slope control mechanism, water cooler, pouring system with continuous temperature measurement of liquid metal and temperature measurement at the end of the plate. In the first version, the plate slope control mechanism made it possible to control the slope angle in the range of 0–15° (the range larger by about 5–8° than that stated in the literature). The copper plate, first with dimensions of 600 x 197 x 38 mm, is a fundamental element of the crystallizer. The U-groove for metal overflowing is milled along the top surface of the plate. The surface of the metal flow was covered by spraying with ZYT BN Lubricoat ZC coating (hexagonal BN in the form of water suspension).
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Quím. Nova  vol.36 número6

Quím. Nova vol.36 número6

quantitative recovery of different metal ions [Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Au(III)] was analyzed in the pH range of 2.0–8.0, and the quan- titative recovery values were obtained for only Cu(II) ions in the presence of other metal ions at pH 4.5. Hence, we have proposed a simple and rapid SPE procedure for the selective separation and preconcentration of Cu(II) ions by using Amberlite XAD-8 as column packing material and AMOTACTA as a complexing reagent prior to their FAAS determinations. The influence of various analytical parameters such as the effect of pH, eluent type, concentration and volume, quantity of ligand, and matrix ions was investigated to optimize the proposed procedure. After validation of the method by analyzing certified reference materials and spike tests, it was applied to determine the presence of Cu(II) ions in several solid and liquid environmental samples.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" [45]. The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
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World Café method integrated with QFD for obtaining the Voice of the Customer

World Café method integrated with QFD for obtaining the Voice of the Customer

For Lagrosen (2017) the World Café has proved to be useful as a qualitative research method to explore the views of many people in order to create value that is truly meaningful. Teza et al. (2013) used the World Café method in two classes of young apprentices, aiming the generation of ideas for an event according to the theme proposed by the educational institution. Kempnich & Costanzo (2014) used it in planning new approaches in leadership development within a graduate nursing curriculum. Chang & Chen (2015) compared the World Café with conventional strategy workshops with respect to enhancing strategic planning capability in face-to-face business plan training in Taiwan. Broom et al. (2013) used the World Café during the design process for a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit project. Barbosa & Hoffmann (2013) used the method to evaluate the forms of support more attractive for the admission into an incubation process and for the consolidation of companies in a technology incubator. Yankeelov et al. (2018) examined the implementation and outcomes associated with community engagement method of World Café, which was instrumental in the development of a “culture of health” to reduce inequalities related to diabetes in the elderly in rural counties in Kentucky.
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Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of Refractive Index Estimation Method with Ground Based Atmospheric Polarized Radiance Measurement Data

Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of Refractive Index Estimation Method with Ground Based Atmospheric Polarized Radiance Measurement Data

The method based on the optical constants determined from the radiative transfer models of the atmosphere is also proposed [7]. Laboratory based refractive indices estimation methods with spectral extinction measurements are proposed [8],[9]. All these existing methods are based on radiance from the sun and the atmosphere. Ground based measuring instruments for solar direct, diffuse and aureole measurements are, in general, heavy and large. The method proposed here is based on the polarized radiance from the sun and the atmosphere that is measured with light and small measuring instrument. The method uses the fact that polarized radiance
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Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government in the function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government in the context of the ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration of the completion of work, the licensing of the city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because of the support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results of the review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
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