A large part of the economic literature is unanimous in believing technological progress and openness to foreign trade are key variables to trigger the processes of stable and persistent economic growth. An in-depth analysis of these factors, thus, becomes necessary both to meet thechallenges of the international market, and to strengthen the European integration process. This paper aims to provide an empirical analysis of the interaction between foreign trade and technological progress by performing a multidimensional scaling. This technique is used to produce a graphical representation of the 27 EU member states, in accordance to the degree of similarity or dissimilarity between them.
This volume offers an interdisciplinary perspective on citizenship in a time of crisis. Crisis has been a word recurrently used to describe political and social processes in Portugal, Europeand elsewhere, but one that deserves further analysis. Even though it is common for all generations to believe that they are living through critical junctures, at the risk of losing sight of what actually constitutes a crisis situation and how exactly this differs from a period of non- crisis (i. e. decay, recovery, instability, etc.), it does seem safe to apply “crisis” to the 2008 financial situation. With its origins inthe usa’s financial system, it quickly spread to other parts of theworld, hitting the Eurozone in particular where, especially in smaller peripheral economies, it often led to dramatic economic problems. The duration and severity of the negative economic consequences of the crisis has had a profound impact on the political and social realm. Political consequences include the strengthening of the radical right, as well as populist leaders, the relative decline of centrist parties, in particular the electoral decline of social-democrat/socialist parties, together with an increase inthe radical left, especially in Southern Europe. Not only have there been repercussions at the national level, but the eu has been called into question due to difficulties in reaching a consensus on how best to respond to a crisis that has often led to great tensions between governments of debtor nations and creditor nations. Moreover, Brexit means that for the first time a member state will leave the eu, potentially signalling the beginning of the end of the decades-old process of European integration. The crisis, of course, is not only a European phenomenon. As mentioned above, it quickly spread around theworld. Despite the apparent protection that relatively insulated banking systems of countries such as Brazil provided inthe immediate aftermath of the crisis, Latin American countries eventually proved unable to escape the political and economic ripple effects. Some have seen signs of a political backlash against economic globalisation and its dramatic social implications in this, calling the existing global order into question. The election of Donald J. Trump as President of the United States, in November 2016, only reinforced this association of a global crisis inthe financial and economic realms with the questioning of democratic institutions andthe meaning and exercise of citizenship itself.
The most sufficiently analysed and described bloom of picocyanobacteria occurred inthe northern part of the Mediterranean Sea [13,15,49]. In a few research papers, authors described local ecosystem disturbances caused by the mass appearance of picoplankton. Sorokin and Zakuskina  showed that the Adriatic coast has been experiencing a super-dense and long-term bloom of picocyanobacteria. The density of the picocyanobacterial bloom varied from 8 to 35 × 10 6 cells mL −1 and picocyanobacterial fraction of the total phytoplankton biomass was 98% from spring till early summer and 92% in autumn. The eutrophication phenomenon inthe coastal ecosystem of Comacchio (Mediterranean Sea) for the first time resulted inthe bloom of picocyanobacteria in 1985. During this period, an extremely dense biomass of picoplanktonic cyanobacteria and its negative effects on the environment was a new, unprecedented phenomenon inEurope. Persistent blooming of picocyanobacteria resulted in typical hypereutrophication effects such as: drastic increase in turbidity resulting in death of the benthic flora due to light deficiency; accumulation of organic matter and total phosphorus inthe water column andinthe sediment; anaerobic conditions inthe bottom layer as well as sulphide accumulation inthe sediment. Previously, the bottom of the lagoon was covered with numerous species of macrophytes from the genera Valonia, Lamprothamnium, Chaetomorpha and Ruppia. During blooms, benthic vegetation almost completely disappeared and was replaced by microbial mats. The negative impact on the ecosystem has been also enhanced by the toxic effects on animals, which are important links inthe pelagic trophic chain. The bloom was accompanied by drastic changes inthe benthic communities andthe share of filtering fauna inthe whole ecosystem metabolism was less than 2%. Moreover, the bloom inthe Comacchio lagoons was formed mainly by picocyanobacteria loosely suspended inthe mucus, which made the
Higher education has been subject to substantial changes inthe past two decades (Blasi, 2002; Weert & Vucht Tijssen, 1999), e.g., massiication, glo- balisation, scientiic and technological development, internationalisation, in- creased mobility, and stronger demands for quality and supranational decision making (e.g., Bladh, 2007; Wende, Beerkens, & Teichler, 1999). Furthermore, a speciic market has been created for HE (Boer, Enders, & Jongbloed, 2009). In times of neoliberalism, markets have become a technology that is used for controlling the public sector and increasing its efectiveness (Olssen & Peters, 2005). he emergence of the knowledge economy (KE), in which knowledge, research andinnovation play the central role, challengesthe traditional role of the university (Felt, 2005; Välimaa & Hofman, 2007). he KE, advanced as a social process integrating ideational, material, institutional and relational mo- ments (Robertson, 2008), is gradually coming to represent the central strategy and discourse in modern Europe (Fairclough & Wodak, 2008).
Inthe last report produced by WTO 12 , a summary is drawn, pointing four major trends identified inthe international trade arena inthe preceding 10 years (2005-2015), which are briefly expounded next. The first is the upsurge of the group of developing countries starting to gain relevance from 2000 onwards, improving each year since then. Through integration and economic liberalization these countries could obtain technology and capital in order to foster their industrial development. Once raw material’s suppliers of low added value commodities, these countries have been enabled to join the world’s “game” as normal players and also, take their slice on its profits, showing increasing standards of living, although there is a long path to be pursued as the development within this countries is still uneven.
government from Napoleon to Deng Xiaoping in neoclassical economics. There were numerous speculations that China may go wrong expected by western political forecasters. For example, China would reverse the reform after 1989 tragic event; Taiwan separatist movement may trigger a war in Taiwan straits in 1996; China could take over Hong Kong and destroy the capitalist economy after 1997; China would launch a nationalist movement and closed its door after NATO bombing the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in 1999; China’s financial sector would collapse after entry of WTO with harsh conditions; recent pressure on trade policy and exchange rate policies; in addition to numerous claims to China’s sovereign and territories. At every challenge came to China, leaders and people together, not just got angry and emotional, like any populist leaders in newly democratic countries, but take thechallenges as learning opportunity. Chinese leaders took lessons from Hong Kong and Taiwan businessmen to constantly improve their needs in China investment; they invited foreign investment bankers as strategic partners to improve China’s banking sector; they hired experts from Russia to Israel to improve their technology, they learn governing model from the Singapore government. China quietly solved its border conflicts one neighbor country after another, including Russia and Burma.
A theory of the innovative firm needs to be based on a few fundamental facts pointed out by evolutionary scholars. 2 First, the technological knowledge of the firm is often tacit and embodied inthe minds andinthe routines of the individuals within each organization, e.g. it is not always codified and easily codifiable. 3 Secondly, knowledge is not static, but dynamic, cumulative, evolving over time. It changes as a result of individuals’ creativity, but more commonly new knowledge and innovations are products of intra- and interorganizational interactions. In other words, innovation is a collective endeavor. Third, economic agents operate in an ever-changingand highly uncertain environment, and they have limited information and limited capability to process and interpret such information. In other words, far from being perfect rational maximizers, individuals and firms tend to perform their working and business activities based on a ‘bounded’ kind of rationality (Simon, 1959 and 1965), which is a limited capability to use information and to make their economic and technological choices. Such characterization of knowledge and technology implies that the heterogeneity in technological capabilities and competencies is important for understanding the process by which new technologies are introduced. Heterogeneity (between firms, technologies, national and historical contexts), therefore, is not an obstacle to the study of innovation, but a fundamental precondition for it.
Between these two contexts, the doctoral education has diverse – and sometimes contradictory – functions resulting in a fundamental change of its role inthe university andthechanging role of the university in society. The doctoral education has been redefined to form not only a community of scholars, but also human resources in a globalized economy (Nerad & Heggelund, 2008). PhDs continue to play a key role inthe investigation and are the most qualified human resources for the creation, implementation and dissemination of knowledge (Auriol, 2007). But universities have been doing an effort to get better links and employment opportunities for their doctorates, taking into account that vacancies in academia haven’t grown in proportion to the number of doctorates (De Grande et al., 2014). As we saw earlier, the underlying idea is that intersectoral mobility andthe placement of doctoral students in industrial laboratories strengthen the industry-university cooperation, creating employment opportunities for students (and also increasing the prestige of departments) as Blumenthal, Causino, Campbell & Louis (1996) describes. The currently approach inEurope is that the employment can be defined in terms of characteristics of the PhD. There has been a change in training doctorates aimed precisely at the capacity to apply a diverse set of knowledge and skills transferable to different contexts (De Grande et al., 2014). The goal is to improve the range of skills that doctoral students develop and acquire as a way to also improve their employment prospects both in academia andinthe broader labour market (EUA, 2007).
Furthermore, the need for efficacy emerged, as expected, as a central identity motive. Some participants perceived that the effectiveness of collective action is strongly limited by the fact that many of the societal challenges that we are now facing (e.g. climate change, global economic crisis, etc.) are global problems calling for global solutions. As a result, changes in consumption andin ways of living are considered to be the most effective way to force corporations and drive political leaders towards social change. Participants feel that through their lifestyles they can actually have control, at least over their lives. In front of such global challenges, which can be seen as uncontrollable and out of person’s control, the hope of exerting change inthe long term emerges in lifestyle politics as justification for
4 level. Nevertheless, investments on innovationand productivity is missing inthe 2020 strategy. It strikes our attention the huge importance research and development expenditures and comparably the much lesser role if innovation. Competitiveness it’s geometrically proportional to innovation but not the same as R&D. The role of universities inthe globalized world changed mainly from the 80ts on, by evolving perspectives of R&D andthe new concept of knowledge society new words for a new andchanging societal paradigm that forced HEI to adapt and leave their “ivory tower” disconnected from society and accept the knowledge driven economy. European higher education reveals a system where multiple levels are in action and interaction, mapping the nature of governance of European integration in its complicated and complex but much more when we link it with national governments and industry. “supra national developments in combination with the trans-national forces, and trends towards delegation and institutional autonomy, a changing balance between market and hierarchy in higher education, andthe strengthening of the regional authority level (Gornitzka et al. 2005). Slowly and steadily the relationship between economy, production, R&D and HEI changed and created an hybrid organization business-entrepeneurial HEI. Economically it functions but risks to change students in customers and put economical advantage before the main function of HEI, education and knowledge not only for the sake of economy but also for the sake of pure knowledge.
The cause of this lack of internal cooperation was by several managers explained by conflicts coming from internal competition, prestige or jealousy. Inthe phases when managers decided to open up Petrobras’ internal processes, they did not only have to define challengesand goals for the partnerships but they also had to define new roles and responsibilities of participants. The creation of interdisciplinary groups with people from inside and outside the company entailed the challenge to assign every participant to a specific task which sometimes meant that he wouldn’t have the expected responsibilities he would usually have in his original department or firm. Struggles that evolved from this power shifting often resulted into individualistic behavior although collectivity was needed to achieve a goal together in a team. Another problem arose from paternalistic or even condescending behavior of one team over the other in interdisciplinary projects. Consequently, members of these teams often felt a lack of respect and appreciation by facing this kind of interaction.
This mechanic has one problem – it is difficult to do automated correction correctly. In direct questions it is only possible by accepting as correct various equivalent answers. But even then we cannot program the game with having every synonym that the answer has. This problem is visible in Trivial Pursuit where a written answer is equivalent (but not the same) that the players answer. In those cases usually team asking the questions recognizes and allows the answer. When using hints we can force an exact answer, but it is frustrating for many players.
instance, soft leaves rich in nutrients tend to decompose faster than tough, nutrient poor leaves and leaves protected against decomposers and invertebrate consumers (e.g., Gulis et al., 2006). If leaf litter is so important for the stream biota, how will global threats affect the decomposition processes in Brazilian streams? As stated above, one of the major factors leading to global changes is forest degradation and/or conversion, which includes planting tree monocultures. Worldwide, one of the most frequently planted trees, for instance, is eucalyptus. Graça et al. (2002) summarized biological changes in Iberian streams followed by the conversion of deciduous forests in eucalyptus monocultures. Oils and polyphenols extracted from eucalyptus leaves were shown to inhibit fungal growth and impair feeding by shredders under laboratory conditions (Canhoto and Graça, 1999). Inthe field, streams running though eucalyptus plantations showed a decreased fungal diversity (Bärlocher and Graça, 2002) and a decreased abundance of invertebrates (Abelho and Graça, 1996). These studies inthe Iberian Peninsula tell us that forest changes are likely to affect the aquatic biota. In Brazil, the effects of eucalyptus plantations has been studied at small scale (e.g., Gonçalves et al., 2012), and future works should discuss the ecological effects of Brazilian forests conversion (not only eucalyptus but also soybeans, sugarcane, and others) on stream organisms and processes at a broader scale.
Mark Sedgwick: European Neo-Sufi Movements inthe Interwar Period, in Islam inEuropeinthe Interwar Period: Networks, Status, Challenges, Nathalie Clayer and Eric Germain, Eds. Forthcoming London: Hurst. 5 - Andrew Rawlinson: A History of Western Sufism, Discus, vol. 1, N° 1, 1993, pp. 45 - 83.
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers of the oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance of the oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias of the oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, andthe head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
Gosling S. N., Warren R., Arnell N. W., Good P., Caesar J., Bernie D., Lowe J. A., Van Der Linden P., O'Hanley J. R., Smith S. M. (2011), A review of recent developments in climate change science. Part II: The global- scale impacts of climate change, Progress in Physical Geography 35(4): 443-464. Gourbesville P., Laborde J.P. (2005), Uncertainties
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with theinnovationand are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try theinnovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role inthe diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
relationship between the public and private sector . Despite the important role played by the human resources, even inthe fulfillment and implementation of the reforms mentioned also inthe matters of system performance, efficiency and equity, this chapter didn`t form and doesn`t form a proprietary element although it is not totally ignored Buchan, . For instance, an entire spectrum of problems can correlate to the problematic of human resources having in view the supposedly improvement of the system through reforms: motivation of personnel, lack of stimulation, inequitable distribution of personnel, lack of supervision, difficulties to recruit qualified personnel, migration of the qualified personnel, etc. Beyond the obvious fact that these issues affect the health andthe health conditions of the population in general, of major importance is to admit that these problems cannot be sepa- rated by the current changes that are taking place inthe health system. )n fact, passing from a decentralized system has a notable impact inthe matters of personnel. This fact is visible from two angles: First, the decentralization of resources, of authorities and of responsibilities highlighted these personnel issues. The dissipation of authority towards the autonomous units andthe diminish of central control have placed on the agenda of the state authorities from lower level the problem of human resources so that problems and contradictions within the sector can no longer be totally credited to inefficiencies and bureaucracy at central level although the central state is guilty of leaving and de-standardizing the sector without forecasting the effects andthe ways to absorb the eliminated parts inthe system . Second of all, decentralization has had a mixed impact on the management of human resources. )f decentralization can be associated with a more adaptable and more flexible management of human resources, it can also generate on the other hand, problems especially where decentra- lized authority does not have the capacity or doesn`t have the complete authority to take over these new responsibilities Wang ș.a., .
The history of Egypt and ancient Greece, the cam- paigns of the Pharaohs, the Hittites (originally from Anatolia), the Babylonians and then of Alexander the Great, the formation of the Roman and then Byzantine Empire, finally the Islamic conquest andthe crusades are part of common knowledge. These events brought about a major mixing of populations (and of cultures) and favoured the spread of certain parasitic diseases. Nor should one forget that for some two thousand years slaves made up a large part of the population in Athens, Rome and later in Cordu, Bagdad and so on. According to Lombard (1971), the slaves of the Muslim Mediterranean world came from Europe, Turkestan and Black Africa. Cara- vans of black slaves crossed central and eastern parts of the Sahara. These slaves certainly brought with them cer- tain parasites which found in their “adoptive” land favourable climatic conditions so that they established themselves durably inthe area.