Top PDF Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

Introduction: World Routes in the Arctic

The Arctic is associated in popular perception with a vast frozen snow covered empty place. Everybody who has been in the Arctic, whether in the Eurasian or North American part, knows that this stereotype is correct. Indeed, the Arctic is a place with lots of space that determines the lifestyle of the people in this area. All human activities – whether livelihood or mastering of the terri- tory – are and always have been connected with substantial movement. Hunt- ing, fishing, trading, the establishment of settlements and keeping them alive, all this needs the movement of goods and human resources. Economists have calculated that due to the need for transportation of goods and people over huge distances, in combination with the climate, to maintain human activities in the Arctic is more expensive than in other regions of the world (Hill & Gaddy 2003).
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An Analysis of the Tourist Competitiveness in Switzerland, the United States and Romania

An Analysis of the Tourist Competitiveness in Switzerland, the United States and Romania

Concerning the means of transport, the preferences for the inbound tourists mentioned above are as follows World Tourism Organization, : most tourists arriving in Romania choose the terrestrial routes most of them choosing the car transport , the second travel mode preferred is by air, while the river and maritime transport have a quite little significance in reaching this holiday destination; in the United States of America, tourists travel especially by plane, the terrestrial transport being the second choice, whereas the last place is occupied, like in the case of Romania, by the river and maritime transport.
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Russian Arctic or the Arctic zone

Russian Arctic or the Arctic zone

2) First, mandatory and necessary step to create telecommunications and information infra- structure in the North and adjoining territories to new technologies without solving this problem all the others could not be resolved, including Orange and defense projects. Pro- gram in this direction are available. Should update them and run them as a priority. The se- cond step — General cleaning ports and surrounding areas without these tasks does not make sense to discuss all other. Interest in the problems of the Arctic, Antarctica, and Northern Territories is constantly growing for quite objective reasons here focused all the problems of survival and sustainable development, finding scientific justification the condi- tions of preservation of life on planet Earth with.spectrum issues an unusually wide and deep for format and content. It is difficult to isolate the main topic among a host of issues, from the conservation and development of the cultures of indigenous Northern peoples to philosophical and cosmological phenomena of the Arctic's role in the fate of humanity, from the technological conditions of the physical arrangement of the everyday problems of man in Arctic conditions to solve the most complicated, painful issues of military confrontation, which no one is excluded from the agenda of the countries of the world community (the Tomskiy V.S.).
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On the presence of the Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) in an Iberian estuary: highlights on the introduction vectors and invasion routes

On the presence of the Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771) in an Iberian estuary: highlights on the introduction vectors and invasion routes

the first time in this estuary, which motivated an assessment of its distribution during late Spring and Summer 2016. The main goals of this paper were to: i) report the presence of Cordylophora caspia and its distribution in the Guadiana Estuary, ii) record the substrates colonized, salinity, and water temperatures at locations where the species was detected, iii) evaluate possible introduction vectors and invasion routes; and iv) discuss the potential impacts and management options. Cordylophora caspia occupied a 25-km stretch of the estuary with salinities between 0.2 and 13.8 and occupied a variety of human-made substrates. Shipping was the most likely introduction vector of C. caspia, which might have originated from populations in the Atlantic Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea. Currently, the potential ecological impacts are likely low since the population size is small due to an apparent shortage of suitable habitat. Economic effects are minimal at present because there are no major industries along the basin extracting water from the estuary. An integrated ecohydrological approach—i.e. freshets released from dams to control the populations of Cnidaria—was proposed to minimize or mitigate the potential negative effects of this species in the Guadiana Estuary.
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Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the New World - A Review

Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax: its biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and introduction in the New World - A Review

In Africa, bloodstream forms of Duttonella trypano- somes exhibit a certain degree of dimorphism. These include club-shaped forms with rounded bodies that are swollen posteriorly and taper abruptly toward the ante- rior end, and slender forms whose posterior end is also rounded, though not broader than the rest of the body, but tapers gradually toward the anterior end (Hoare 1972). Slender, stumpy, and intermediate forms of African try- panosomes have been observed in the circulation of in- oculated animals. During the course of infection, which is marked by peaks of parasitemia and sharp decreases in the number of parasites, the distribution of forms fol- lows a distinctive pattern. During the ascending phase of parasitemia, slender forms predominate, whereas in the descending phase, stumpier ones are more frequent (Ash- croft 1957, Vickerman 1962). The undulating membrane exhibits a medium level of development (more than in T. congolense and less than in T. brucei), and a free flagel- lum is always present. One of the most distinctive traits of these trypanosomes is their large kinetoplast 1.1 µm in diameter (Hoare 1938). In the subgenus Duttonella, the kinetoplast is rounded, ranging in shape from circular to elliptic, and is usually terminally positioned. In some forms, however, it can be subterminal or marginal. The large kine- toplast of T. vivax is, in itself, a valuable diagnostic trait, as it facilitates identification in blood smears (Hoare 1972).
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Introduction: Life in the Web

Introduction: Life in the Web

)n a related paper, )oana Cărtărescu looks favorably on the potential of online communities to foster feelings of belonging, enrich identities and in general exploit creatively the temporal and spatial advantages of virtuality. Aside from blogs and artistic forums (discussed in other papers), she also introduces online role-playing games such as text-based MUDs and the more elaborate MMORPGs. These evolve into vast and complex communities with their own rules, norms, economies and social organization - all of which are based on collaboration among players who deftly navigate the world patterns provided by gaming companies (see also Bainbridge 2010; Pearce 2009; Rheingold 1994 . What counts as identity in these contexts is certainly not the obsolete notion of the unitary self. On the contrary, role-playing and the identification with one s game character give players the possibility to try out lives like clothes and decide which would suit him/her best, without taking any real chances (Cărtărescu, p. 64). A player interviewed by Sherry Turkle (1995: 13, cited by Cărtărescu, p. 65) describes this process as a mind-split ) can see myself as being two or three or more which translates RL real life into just one more window. As in Cornigeanu s paper, replication - the One made Many – is a means to anticipate authenticity by a continuous shift of perspectives. After all, as G. H. Mead (1932: 49 put it so memorably, sociality is the capacity of being several things at once. Similar issues of relatedness and synchronicity arise in Simona Ciotlăuş excellent review of Coming of Age in Second Life by Tom Boellstorff (2008). The avatars of Second Life users are zones of relationality (meaning at least that one person can have several avatars or one avatar be controlled by several people) which manipulate the time lag created by too much information or practices such as afk (away from keyboard) so as to distinguish between presence and immersion or between different degrees of virtual presence. 18
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X rbepid 18 s1 00063

X rbepid 18 s1 00063

ABSTRACT: Introduction: It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical relections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil’s prevention strategy going forward. Methods: A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included. Results: A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main indings were as follows: 1) Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2) There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), drug users (DU), and transvestites and transexuals (TT), while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3) Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more efective. Discussion: new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and eforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.
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Study of emission of radioactive gaseous effluents in the production of 18F-FDG

Study of emission of radioactive gaseous effluents in the production of 18F-FDG

The waste generation occurs in the solid, liquid, and gaseous form in the production of radiopharmaceuticals such as 18F-FDG or 11C-PIB. Thus, the management of such wastes [5] is imperative. The CNEN regulates the radioactive waste management process [6], and the gaseous effluent cloud scattering can be estimated by models recommended by the IAEA [7]. It is essential for the cyclotron facilities to have the expertise to monitor and manage the radioactive waste systems to guarantee the safety to the population and the critical group, around the facility [8][9][10]. Every cyclotron facility in the world that develop their radioisotope production routes or radiopharmaceutical synthesis should estimate the maximum radioactive gaseous concentration to check whether the planning of the safety elements corroborate to the recommendations and established limits from a competent organization [11][12]. Even if the radioactive concentration information of gaseous form is provided by the manufacturer or technology vendor and the production route/synthesis is already established, the radioactive concentration information must be checked anyway, and it needs to be appropriate to the blueprint of the facility.
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Oil Tanker Transportation In The Russian Arctic

Oil Tanker Transportation In The Russian Arctic

According to the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping navigation across Russian Arctic territory should be carried out on ice class ships (at least Arc4 ice class on Russian classification). There are several recognized classification societies around the world; among them the best known are: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Bureau Veritas (BV), Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd (DNV GL), Lloyd's Register (LR), Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS). Matching between several classifications is given in [8]. Correspondence of critical ice thickness to the Russian ice __________________________
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Introduction: interregional relations in the world order

Introduction: interregional relations in the world order

La localización geográfica es también importante en las relaciones trans- nacionales. El artículo de Ryskeldi Satke y Franco Galdini presenta la situa- ción estratégica de Kazajstán por su ubicación euroasiática en la producción y transporte de energía, en un nuevo contexto con la hoja ruta para el desarrollo económico en el horizonte de 2030. Gracias a su vinculación con Rusia y Chi- na, y a una inversión de 1,4 billones de dólares en infraestructuras, Kazajstán participa en el nuevo Cinturón Económico de la Ruta de la Seda de China, y busca un equilibrio entre su tradicional dependencia económica de Rusia (in- mersa en una confrontación contra Occidente por Ucrania) y sus intereses con China (uno de sus más importantes socios económicos). Por su parte, los inte- reses de China son los de mantener la estabilidad en la provincia de Xinjiang mediante su desarrollo económico y asegurar así los suministros estratégicos de energía en esta zona.
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Rev. Bras. Reumatol.  vol.50 número4 en v50n4a06

Rev. Bras. Reumatol. vol.50 número4 en v50n4a06

Introduction/Objective: Evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the association between QOL domains, measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life Group (WHOQOL-100) assessment instrument, and disease activity. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 95 patients with SLE, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, aged 20-49 years, attended at the University Center of Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS. We used the following ins- truments: demographic and clinical data collection form and WHOQOL-100 instrument. Evaluation of disease activity was performed by SLEDAI. On statistical analysis, we applied Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation. Results : Group-case: 79 female with mild to moderate SLE activity (SLEDAI = 1-10) and severe activity (SLEDAI ≥ 11). Control group: 16 female with inactive SLE (SLEDAI = 0). All domains of WHOQOL-100 proved to be affected, with signiicant difference (P < 0.005) between the case and control groups in which there was a better perception of QOL in the domain Spirituality and worst perception of QOL in the domain Environment. When confronting QOL domains with education, we detected a signiicant difference (P < 0.05) in the Physical, Psychological, Level of independence, and Environment domains. The comparison between QOL and disease activity was signiicant (P < 0.005) in three domains: Physical, Psychological, and Environment. Conclusion: SLE with intense activity determines a worse QOL condition than inactive SLE. The assessment of QOL enables the knowledge of disease and treatment impact in a contextualized way, which can render more appropriate and more comprehensive interventions.
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Modelling the arrival of invasive organisms via the international marine shipping network: a Khapra beetle study.

Modelling the arrival of invasive organisms via the international marine shipping network: a Khapra beetle study.

Species can sometimes spread significant distances beyond their natural dispersal ability by anthropogenic means. International shipping routes and the transport of shipping containers, in particular are a commonly recognised pathway for the introduction of invasive species. Species can gain access to a shipping container and remain inside, hidden and undetected for long periods. Currently, government biosecurity agencies charged with intercepting and removing these invasive species when they arrive to a county’s border only assess the most immediate point of loading in evaluating a shipping container’s risk profile. However, an invasive species could have infested a container previous to this point and travelled undetected before arriving at the border. To assess arrival risk for an invasive species requires analysing the international shipping network in order to identify the most likely source countries and the domestic ports of entry where the species is likely to arrive. We analysed an international shipping network and generated pathway simulations using a first-order Markov chain model to identify possible source ports and countries for the arrival of Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) to Australia. We found Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and Busan (Republic of Korea) to be the most likely sources for Khapra beetle arrival, while the port of Melbourne was the most likely point of entry to Australia. Sensitivity analysis revealed significant stability in the rankings of foreign and Australian ports. This methodology provides a reliable modelling tool to identify and rank possible sources for an invasive species that could arrive at some time in the future. Such model outputs can be used by biosecurity agencies concerned with inspecting incoming shipping containers and wishing to optimise their inspection protocols.
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Characteristics of the built environment on GPS-determined bicycle routes used by adolescents

Characteristics of the built environment on GPS-determined bicycle routes used by adolescents

Once collected, all data were checked for possi- ble satellite reception errors. Logs completed by the participants were reviewed for adequate wear days. Accelerometer and GPS files were merged into the Personal Activity and Location Measurement Sys- tem (PALMS) platform, aggregating points with the same date and time stamps. All routes with a mode of transport assigned as bicycle (leisure or transport) were included (n = 386), from a final sample of 38 par- ticipants, who were described in the initial descriptive analysis. Validated cut points for transport were cate- gorized based on speed: “motor vehicle” (> = 35km/h), “bicycle” (< 35km/h and > 10km/h) and “walking” ( = < 10km/h) 20 . Accelerometers provided data on physi-
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The multi-compartment vehicle routing problem in the collection of recyclable municipal solid waste

The multi-compartment vehicle routing problem in the collection of recyclable municipal solid waste

Concerning the Clustering and Routing Phases: ecopontos were clustered based on their similarity between filling levels and these values could not be accurate, as mentioned before. Variations in the amount deposited may change the number of ecopontos visited per route (making one vehicle return to the depot with less MSW than predicted, or sooner than expected if its capacity limit is reached sooner – 6 out 11 routes of the MCVRP solution have filling rates close to 100% and any increase in the predicted amount to collect may change these clusters. Moreover, clusters were organized in weeks and no consideration was done regarding a minimum number of ecopontos per cluster, what end up creating clusters with a reduced number of collection points (2 out of 11 clusters have less than 10 ecopontos in the MCVRP). As for the distances between all nodes in the system, the Euclidean distance was used, corrected with a circuit factor calculated specifically for the area where Valorsul operates; however, the values of these distances are only approximate, and not the real ones. Regarding the calculation of the duration of the route, it was not considered street navigation and conditions (if the traffic is heavy, if there are many stop signs and/or traffic lights) and the acceleration. The number of vehicles available per day was also not considered, and therefore did not restrict the results obtained. As for the region chosen to implement the proposed model, it is a remote location that represents only 17% of the collection points with at least one container for the deposit of PC and one for PM of Valorsul system, which prevents the application to have scale.
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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ICNS Proceedings

ICNS Proceedings

This is not to assume that existing civic, commercial and cultural infrastructures will allow all inhabitants to interact equally with the built city at all times. As Henri Lefebvre observes, beyond allocated infrastructural provisions, urban populations need alternate spaces and times of simultaneity, encounter and exchange, not predicated solely on profit (1996, p. 147). The particularities of night, provide additional challenges to defining alternate space-times, being both physically connected to diurnal frameworks and in need of more responsive programmes. At night, zones of activity shift (Gwiazdzinski, 2005, p. 80). Buildings thought to be important by day, such as centres of power or consumerism, grow silent, their doors closed on empty streets. At the same time, other spaces open, noise and activity move to new zones or overlay diurnal activity centres with alternate uses. Disconnections arise between how the night city is lived and how it came to be conceived. It is why, the need for alterity within the night city must be manifested not only in expanded programmes – diversification of cultural venues, increased access to services and transportation, places of agency, inclusion and reflection – but also in the physical implication of the built landscape. Planners and architects can seek agency within the realities of the present, albeit non-potentialized nocturnal setting. Through ‘on the ground’ experimentation they can propose structures, either permanent or ephemeral, which will in turn create condition for social life (as praxis) to take shape (Lefebvre, 1996, p. 15I). What is interesting, suggests Lefebvre, is to identify the connective times, rhythms and places deemed to be ‘“successful”’ or ‘favourable to happiness’ (1996, p. 151), learn from those examples and continue the momentum towards the genesis of a new project.
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Toronto: «The World in a City»

Toronto: «The World in a City»

Another characteristic of immigrant groups in Toronto is the importance they attach to homeownership and home improvements. In this regard, the Portuguese, along with the Italians and immigrants from Hong Kong, show one of the highest levels of homeownership of all ethnic groups, with more than two-thirds owning their own dwelling (Murdie and Teixeira, 2000).

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Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

Investigating The Use Of Mobile Computing In Zimbabwe Polytechnics Case Of A Polytechnic In Zimbabwe

outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one of the first institutions to install the wireless access points that accessed internet through the main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on to procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, the Heads of departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed to bring their own devices which could be configured to be able to access institutional WIFI (The Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was the beginning of mobile computing at the Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation of applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth to improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points to improve strength of connectivity, upgrading of servers to handle the demand and volumes and expansion of campus area network to cover the whole Polytechnic, procurement of more mobile devices. And the institution now boasts of such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.
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BlacKBerry cultIvatIon In the World

BlacKBerry cultIvatIon In the World

Primocane fruiting, one of the most innova- tive developments in blackberry breeding, has sev- eral advantages including: 1) potential of two crops on the same plant in the same year (floricane followed by primocane) 2) later-season (autumn or fall) fruit- ing, 3) the possibility of scheduling fruit production based with primocane management, 4) reduction in pruning costs by mowing of canes (primocane crop only), 5) avoidance of winter injury, and 6) produc- tion of fruit in an extended geographic area (such as low- or non-chill environments). The value of primo- cane fruiting depends primarily on the growing en- vironment and fruit marketing opportunities. a very important period in which availability of blackberry fruit is limited in the U.S. is September to november, the period when most of the summer production in the U.S. is complete, but before substantial Mexican imports begin. This is also a time of higher fruit prices and potential grower profitability (Carvalho et al., 2010). Primocane-fruiting is beginning to play a role in filling this market window. Winter injury is a major concern in the mid-western to northern U.S., and prevents reliable fruiting of blackberries. Since canes of primocane types do not need to overwinter, the opportunity exists to grow blackberries in areas where they are usually winter killed. in areas with inadequate chilling for floricane-fruiting blackber- ries, primocane production has potential as the need for chilling is eliminated. This might be particularly valuable in Mexico where chemical manipulations of plants are required on floricane-fruiting cultivars.
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Ammonia in the summertime Arctic marine boundary layer: sources, sinks, and  implications

Ammonia in the summertime Arctic marine boundary layer: sources, sinks, and implications

Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful for the hard work and dedication of the CCGS Amundsen crew. The authors also thank E. Mungall, A. Lee, V. Irish, H. Stark and J. J. B. Wentzell for help during mobilization, demobilization and calibration of the AIM-IC, as well as T. Papakyriakou and T. Burgers for providing meteorological data. The GEOS5-FP data used in this study/project have been provided by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The hi- volume sampler used for the Alert measurements was maintained and calibrated by D. Veber, as well as numerous other technicians and operators over the years. Acknowledgement is also extended to the crew at CFS Alert for maintaining the base year round. The fieldwork and model analysis was supported by NSERC’s Climate Change and Atmospheric Research program, ArcticNet and NSERC. The QFED2 code and emissions data were provided by K. Travis and P. Kim. The NASA FIRMS data set was provided by LANCE FIRMS operated by NASA/GSFC/ESDIS with funding provided by NASA/HQ. G. R. Wentworth acknowledges funding from the NSERC program Integrating Atmospheric Chemistry from Earth to Space (IACPES). Lastly, the authors wish to thank B. Christensen for providing logistical support throughout the project.
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